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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Twelve

Continued From Part Eleven

Lakshana Granthas – continued

 7. Bharatarnava

shiva dancing333

There is a School of thought, which holds the view that the two texts relating to the practice of Dancing – Abhinaya Darpana and Bharatarnava – were both composed by Nandikesvara. It also asserts that the Abhinaya Darpana is, in fact, an abridged edition or a summary of the Bharatarnava; literally, the Ocean of Bharata’s Art.

But, that proposition is hotly debated; because, it is riddled with too many problems.

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The Author.. ?

To start with, it is not clear who this Nandikesvara, said to be the author of Bharatarnava, really was. The identity of this Nandikeshvara; his period; and, the other works associated with him are much debated. There have been, in the past, many scholars, who went by the name of Nandikeshvara; and, some of them were well versed in the theoretical principles of Dance, Music and other branches of knowledge.

For instance;

:- Tandu mentioned in the Natyashastra, after whom the Tandava Nrtta was named , is also identified with Nandikesvara;

:- Matanga in his Brhaddeshi (dated around the eighth century) mentions a Nandikesvara along with ancient authorities like : Kasyapa, Kohala, Dattiia Durgasakti and Narada and others ;

:-Rajasekhara (8th-9thcentury), in his Kavya Mimamsa,  credits  Nandikesvara  as being a pioneer in the subject of poetics ‘ Sahitya Shastra’; and , as ‘the first writer on Rasa’.

:- Abbinavagupta (11th century) reproduces  lengthy passages attributed to a certain Nandikesvara, as quoted by Kirtidharacharya; and, remarks that he himself had not seen  the work of Nandikesvara;

:- Sagītaśiromai , a standard work on Music,  was a compilation made by a group of scholars during the year 1428 , at the instance of Sultan Malika Sahi (a Muslim convert , who ruled the region to the west of Allahabad) refers to the views of Nandikesvara  at several places ( e.g. verses 150-151;268-271);

: – Bharatarnava , a text on Dancing, is attributed to Nandikesvara;

: – And, we have the Abhimaya Darpana, also ascribed to Nandikesvara.

All these scholars, each named as Nandikesvara, may not refer to one and the same person.

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The identity of Nandikesvara who is said to have authored the Abhinaya Darpana is not, therefore, clearly established; and, his time is also uncertain, ranging anywhere between second century BCE to the Sixteenth century CE. And, there is no means to establish which Nandikesvara authored the Abhinaya Darpana and the Bharatarnava.

The two works could have been written by the same author; or, were written by different authors carrying the same name. To say the least, it is confusing.

But, Prof. Manmohan Ghosh, the scholar who has translated the Natyashastra of Bharata and the Abhinaya Darpana ascribed to Nandikesvara , mentions that he did study closely the manuscript of the so-called Bharatarnava that was preserved the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute at Pune. According to him, the work he examined was NOT the work of Nandikesvara.

 In any case, the scholarly opinion deems it prudent to assume that the Abhinaya Darpana and the Bharatarnava were authored by two different persons who, perhaps, lived during different periods.

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[There are two publications of Bharatarnava. Sadly, they do not seem to be available either in print or on the net.

Nandikesvara, Bharatarnava, ed. Vachaspati Gairola, Chowkhamba Amarabharati Prakashan, (Varanasi, 1978).

Nandikesvara, Bharatarnava, with translation into English and Tamil, edited by S. K. Vasudeva Sastri, Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal Series no. 74, Tanjore 1957. ]

danceshantala

Period

As regards the period of Nandikesvara, some have opined that he might even predate Bharata the author of Natyashastra. But, such speculations have, largely, been put to rest.

The noted scholar Emmie Te Nijenhuis, in her Indian Music: History and Structure, writes: the dating of Nandikesvara’s two works Bharatarnava and Abhinaya Darpana still remains undecided. A certain Nandikesvara is quoted by Matanga in connection with the Murchanas of twelve notes. But, I doubt whether the author mentioned by Matanga is the same person as our dance expert. According to Ramakrishna Kavi, the Bharatarnava was written after the eleventh century. Personally, I would date this work even later; that is to say, after the twelfth century, since it often cites the twelfth century author Haripala.

Dr. Mandakranta Bose also states:  though the manuscript – fragment bears the title Bharatarnava, there is no internal evidence supporting this identification; and, the material comes from a different school of dancing; and, does not belong to the school which is represented in the Abhinaya Darpana. She dates Bharatarnava as belonging to the Sixteenth century.

According to her, the Abhinaya Darpana and the Bharatarnava seem unquestionably by two different authors; and, from two different periods. The material in the Bharatarnava, she opines, comes from a different School of dancing; and, it does not belong to the School which is represented in the Abhinaya-Darpana.

 Dr. Bose places the Abhinaya Darpana in or close to medieval period; and, says, on the basis of its treatment of several topics, the Bharatarnava seems to be of a later date than the Abhinaya Darpana. And, the Appendix (Parisista) to the Bharatarnava, according to her, belongs to a much later date. Thus, the three works were composed during three different periods; and, by three different authors.

The Bharatarnava which appeared later, Dr. Bose says, deals with the same subject as the Abhinaya Darpana, though differ in the treatment of its details or in their emphases. And, therefore, it gives an impression as if the two texts complement each other.  And, such proximity might have given room for airing unfounded explanations speculating that the two works might have been written by the same author.

The reasons she adduces for treating Abhinaya Darpana and Bharatarnava as texts of the medieval times, as she points out, are:

: –   Here, the Dance is divided into three branches: Natya, Nrtta and Nrtya. But, such distinctions did not come about until about the twelfth century, just prior to the time of Sangita-ratnakara (13th century). Even as late as in the eleventh century, Abhinavagupta avoided using the term Natya; and, restricted himself to using the term Nrtta, presumably because such a term as Natya did not appear in the Natyashastra.

: – Also, the Abhinaya-Darpana views Tandava and Lasya as forms of masculine and feminine dancing, which again was an approach that was adopted during the medieval times.

:- The Bharatarnava follows the practice of describing individual dance pieces along with the specific recommended / prescribed dance-movements – Caris, Sthanas, Karanas and Tala – for each of them, which is typical of texts that appeared later than the Sangita-ratnakara and the Nrttaratnavali of Jaya Senapati (13th century). And, such a practice became more common in the works produced during the sixteenth century and onwards. Some of these texts, therefore, came to be treated almost as Dance-manuals.

:- Certain technical terms derived from regional (Desi) languages, used in the Bharatarnava, as well as in its Appendix, such as: Udupa, Dhuvada, Kuvada and Sulu, came to be used in the Sanskrit works on dancing only after the sixteenth century; and not earlier.

:- Further, the Bharatarnava gives more prominence to the Desi Tandava and Angaharas or basic-dance sequences of the Desi variety, rather than to the Marga types described in the Natyashastra. The practice of encouraging and developing Desi traditions in Dance came into being only during or after the medieval times, lending a new sense of direction to the regional Dances. Following that, the approach to Dance and its descriptions changed significantly during the later periods.

Damayanti_Joshi_dancer

Comparison

The Bharatarnava, as compared to Abhinaya Darpana, is larger in size, scope and in description of details.

Abhinaya Darpana is a comprehensive text (laghu grantha) with only 324 verses.  It is confined mainly the categorization of several elements of the Angika-abhinaya; and, suggesting their applications, without getting into theoretical discussions.  As compared to the Natyashastra, the Abhinaya Darpana is written in a much simpler style; and, presents its subject in an orderly fashion.

In contrast; the edition of Bharatarnava, which is available in the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute–Pune, is said to be a larger work, having 996 verses spread over 15 Chapters. And, in addition, it has an Appendix (Parisista) consisting of 251 verses.  

As regards its scope, the Bharatarnava includes descriptions of different varieties of Pure (Marga) as also the Tandava and Lasya dance forms of the Desi traditions, along with the descriptions of specific Sthanas, Caris, Karanas and Talas suitable for each of them; as also detailed instructions on the execution of various movements in each dance sequence.  It devotes an entire Chapter (Seven) for a discussion on Talas; prescribing how the Talas are to be used in various dance sequences.

Unlike the Abhinaya Darpana, which just lists the individual dance-gestures and postures, the Bharatarnava describes various Angaharas (combinations of the Karanas); seven of which are new, not described in other texts.

Here, the author takes up the components of dance-units (the Sthanas, Caris and Karanas), which make up a total composition (Angahara); and analyzes them systematically by giving their definitions, their divisions, and the Tala required. He introduces a new set of Angaharas, nine in all.

Further, the Bharatarnava describes in detail, with definitions and examples, the nine types of Srnganatya, a dance form derived from the combinations of the various types of Caris, Sthanas and Angaharas. The Srnganatya described here, is said to be a new form of dance that was not mentioned in any of the earlier texts. The author describes the specific Talas, gestures (Hasthas) and postures (Sthana) suitable for each type of Srnganatya.

dance padma

Angika

Thus, though the two texts deal with the same subject, they differ substantially in matters of detail, enumeration, descriptions and on emphasis of the various elements of the Angika-abhinaya , such as : the gestures (Hasthas),  postures (Sthana) , gaits (Gati) , movements of the feet (Pada-bedha) , feet position (Cari) and even the  eye-glances (Dristi-bedha). These differ not only in their numbers and names, but also in their descriptions and applications. All these, again, go to strengthen the argument against   the assumption of the single authorship of the two works.

Further, the numbers, the actions and their application of the various elements of the Angas, Upangas and the Prtyangas vary significantly from the descriptions given in the Natyashastra. Obviously, both Abhinaya Darpana and Bharatarnava sourced their material from other texts.

For instance:

Hasthas (Hastha-bedha)

The Abhinaya Darpana lists 28 Asamyukta-hasthas (single-hand gestures); while there are 27 in the Bharatarnava. The Natyashastra had enumerated 24 Asamyukta-hasthas.

As against 13 Samyukta-hasthas (both hands combined) in the Abhinaya Darpana; the Bharatarnava mentions 16. The Natyashastra had named 13 Samyukta-hasthas.

The Nrtta-hasthas (abstract-dance gestures) in the Abhinaya Darpana are only 13; while there are as many as 22 in the Bharatarnava, which follows, in this case, the Natyashastra. Not only are there differences in numbers, but are also in the names, definitions and applications of the movements.

Besides such Dance-gestures, the Abhinaya Darpana describes Hasthas to denote Devas (gods-Devahastha); Avatars (ten Avatars of Vishnu – Dashavatara hastha); relatives and members in a family (Bandhava-hastha); persons of different social groups (Chaturjatiya-hastha); and the nine planets (Navagraha-hastha). The Natyashastra had not mentioned these types of hand-gestures (Hasthas) ; the  Abhinaya Darpana might have adopted these from some other source.

The Bharatarnava does not mention any of such Hasthas; instead, it names an altogether a different set of Hasthas – Nanana-artha-dyotaka hastha- the hand-gestures, which convey an assortment of meanings. Such types of Hasthas were not mentioned in any of the earlier texts.

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Dristi-bedha, eye-glances

The treatment of the Drstis also varies. The Abhinaya Darpana adopts only eight Darshana-karmas (eye-glances) from among those mentioned in the Natyashastra; and, describes them as eight Drstis. Whereas, the Bharatarnava follows the Natyashastra’s enumeration of the Drstis; and, describes thirty-six Drstis that express aesthetic pleasure and emotions (Rasa and Bhava).

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Gatipracāra –walking styles

The Abhinaya Darpana mentions eight kinds Gati, the gaits or the walking styles. But, it does not indicate their applications (viniyoga). In contrast, the Bharatarnava focuses on how those gaits could be employed in different kinds of Tandavas dances, of both the Marga and the Desi class. 

The treatment of the Gatis (gatipracāra) in the Natyashastra is much more elaborate. It describes Gatis or gaits, suitable for different types of characters, such as the Kings and superior characters as also for middling characters. The walking styles for women of various classes are also described.  Natyashastra mentions that the gaits are to be executed in – slow, medium and quick – tempos (Kaalas), according to the nature of 45 different characters.

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Pada bedha and Cari

The Abhinaya Darpana does not specifically discuss movements of the feet. It utilizes the various positions of the feet, as described in the Natyashastra. The Abhinaya Darpana mentions four types of movements of the feet:  Mandala  (postures);  Utplavana  (leaps);  Bhramari  (flights or turns) and  Cari  or  Padacari  (gait)  as postures and movements related to feet. But, in this text, the descriptions of the feet movements are not accompanied by their Viniyogas.

The Bharatarnava describes twenty-two types of the movements of the feet, which are a mixture of Bharata’s Pada-bheda (feet movements of five kinds) and Cari (movements using one foot of thirty-two kinds).

Thus, the Caris of the Abhinaya Darpana and the Bharatarnava differ not only in their names but in their definitions as well

The Bharatarnava describes nine types of Srnganatya, a dance form derived from the combinations of the various types of Caris, Sthanas and Angaharas. It is said; the Nrttaratnavali and the Nrtyadhyaya are the only two other texts that talk about Srngabhinaya. But, they do not describe them. The Bharatarnava gives detailed descriptions of the nine types of Srnganatya, along the composition of each of them.

text and structure

The Text –its structure

Dr. Bose mentions that the edition of the Bharatarnava, which is at present available, has fifteen Chapters, with 996 verses. And, that is followed by an Appendix (Parisista) consisting of 251 verses.

:- The beginning of the main text of the Bharatarnava is missing and the text commences with the descriptions of single hand-gestures.

:- The Second Chapter describes double hand-gestures

:- The Third Chapter names the hand-gestures used specially in dancing (Nrtta).

:- The Fourth Chapter gives other varieties of single hand-gestures as taught by Brhaspati. It also describes glances and movements of the head and the feet, citing the views of other authorities as well.

:- The Fifth Chapter describes different postures.

:- The Sixth Chapter deals with the application of the postures and the applications of combinations of hand gestures.

:- The Seventh Chapter deals with Tala and rhythm.

:- The Eighth Chapter deals with Caris.

:-  The Ninth Chapter describes a new kind of Angahara, of seven types, which is not described in other texts.

:- The Tenth Chapter again deals with more hand-gestures that express a variety of meanings (Nana-artha-dyotaka).

:-  The Eleventh and Twelfth Chapters deal with yet another new form, Srnganatya of which nine types are mentioned. This form, again, was not described in any other text.

:- The Thirteenth Chapter describes seven types of Lasyas and seven types of Tandavas, The names of the seven Lasyas given here are the same as the Desi dance pieces described in the Sangita-ratnakara and the It also describes five types of Desi Tandavas.

:- The Fourteenth Chapter describes the use of Tala, Gati, Karana and Cari, in delineating Suddha (Marga) and Desi Tandava, a type of Tandava found only in this text. The treatment of Tala is also entirely new; instead of merely naming the Talas required in dancing, it instructs how the prescribed Talas are to be used in actual dance sequences.

:- The Fifteenth Chapter is entirely on Pushpanjali, the right manner of flower offerings, and other such matters relating to presentation. The descriptions of all the movements include their meaning and application, except for the Nrtta-hasthas, which are not meant for representational performance.

The text refers to two types of Pushpanjali, one meant for the gods (Daivika); and the other for human beings (Manusa). In the former type, traditional dancing follows the Pushpanjali; and in the latter the Mukhacali follows Pushpanjali. The worshipping of different gods and semi-divine beings are prescribed for this presentation. It goes on to describe specific Sthanas, specific flowers and specific Karanas meant for each god; the procedures of invoking gods, of offering flowers; of specific sides for offering flowers to each god.

Then the main presentation follows. Caccatputa or Dhruva Tala is prescribed. The dance starts with the recitation of the syllables: Ta Tai to Nam, which is called Alpa-riti when done in its shorter form. This is the most detailed description of a Pushpanjali found in any of the texts

dance rasas

The Appendix to the Bharatarnava is almost an independent work. It opens with prescribing the details of the preliminaries to a performance. Then it goes on to instruct  the appropriate arrangements for holding a performance; the manner in which singers should make their entrances; how the opening music should be played to Tala; and the kind of competence and training required in the musicians.

Then it offers general instructions concerning movements. That is followed by instructions on how the actual performance should begin, with citations from Kohala. The rest of this section deals with more hand-gestures, many of them new and not found either in the Abhinaya Darpana or in other texts.

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Angaharas

The Bharatarnava introduces certain concepts that were not mentioned in other texts. The more important among them were the Desi-Angaharas and Srnganatya, a dance form derived from the combinations of the various types of Caris, Sthanas and Angaharas.

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It is said; until then, the Angahars (basic dance-sequences) of the Desi variety had not been discussed by any of the authors.  The Bharatarnava seemed to the first text to do so.  It seems that the regional (Desi) dances, during the medieval times, depended less on the dance-movements prescribed by Bharata.

The Bharatarnava introduces a new set of Angaharas, of the Desi variety, nine in all: Lalita; Vikrama; Karunika; Vicitra; Vikala; Bhima; Vikrta; Ugratara and Santija. But, Nandikesvara claims these Angaharas, which are derived from the combinations of the Karanas, were formulated by him based on the principles stated by Bharata.

At another place, he explains Angahara as a dance performed in the morning.

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Each of these nine Angaharas has several sub-varieties: Lalita of five kinds; Vikrama of three; Karunika of four; and, Vicitra, Vikala, Bhima, Vikrta, Ugratara and Santija, each of two kinds.

The five varieties of Lalita use different types of postures; and three verities of Vikrama use a swaying movement termed Sulu.

Specific hand-gestures (Hasthas), glances (Dristibedha), feet-movements (Padabedha) and Mandalas (standing posture) are prescribed for each sub-variety of Angaharas.

But, each of those sub variety has its own characteristics. For instance; Vikrama (swaying or movements, Sulu); Karunika (facial expression of Karuna or compassion); the second variety of Karunika (also by swaying, Sulu); and Vicitra and others have their own set of hand-gestures, glances and feet movements (but nothing is said about facial expression).

But, it is not clear how these Angahara were executed; and, in what manner they differed from the Angaharas derived from the Natyashastra.

dance yamini

Srnganatya

The Srnganatya is said to be a sequence of Dance movements that is composed by the combination of Two Caris; One Angahara; and, Three Sthanas. The Caris are selected from among the sixteen aerial (Akasiki) and the sixteen ground (Bhuma) Caris, as described in the Natyashastra.

The Srnganatya are believed to be some type of dances that were suggested in the Natyashastra, formed by the combination of different kind of Caris. The Caris are movements using one foot; and, are used both in Dance and Drama. And, are regarded as the most important single unit of movement in the Nrtta technique, as enunciated by Bharata (Chapter 11, verses 7 to 9 ; page 197)

piṇḍīnā vidhayaścaiva catvāra samprakīrtitā 287 piṇḍī śṛṅkhalikā caiva latābandho’tha bhedyaka

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The Bharatarnava describes nine verities of Srnganatya, each comprised by the combination of Two Caris; One Angahara; and, Three Sthanas. As you can see, it does sound very complicated. And, it is not clear how these were actually executed; and, what they were intended to convey. I do not pretend that I understand all that has been said in the Text regarding the Srnganatya.

 The Angaharas named in this section do not seem to come from Bharata’s tradition.

:- In the First Srnganatya, the movements are outlined in the following order: Samapreksana-Cari is performed, followed by Lalita Angahara and Samapada –bhumi-Cari. As regards the Sthanas: the Samapreksana-Cari is followed by Ayata-Sthana; Lalita-Angahara by Avahittha-Sthana; and Samapada-bhumi-Cari by Asvakranta- Sthana (Bh. Ar. 11. 643-45).

:- The Second Srnganatya begins with Sarika-Cari, followed by Vikrama-Angahara and Casagati-Cari. As regards the Sthanas: the Sarika-Cari is followed by Motita Sthana; the Vikrama-Angahara by Vinivrtta-Sthana; and, the Casagati-Cari by Aindra-Sthana (Bh. Ar. 11. 645-47).

:- The Third Srnganatya is constituted by Agrapluta-Cari, KarunikaAngahara and Sthitavarta-Cari. The Candika-Sthana follows Agrapluta-Cari; the Vaisnava-Sthana follows Karunika-Angahara; and, the Samapada-Sthana follows Sthitavarta-bhumi-Cari (Bh. Ar. 11. 648-49).

:- The Fourth Srnganatya starts with Vidyudllila-Cari, followed by Vicitra-Angahara and Vicyava-bhumi-Cari. And, the Vaisakha-Sthana follows Vidyudllila-Cari; the Mandala-Sthana follows Vicitra-Angahara; and Alidha-Sthana follows Vicyava –bhumi-Cari (Bh. Ar.11. 650-52).

:- The Fifth Srnganatya is characterized by Khadga-bandha-Cari, Vikala-Angahara and Urdva-vrtta-bhumi-Cari. The Khadga-bandha-Cari requires Pratyalidha -Sthana, Samapada-Sthana in Vikala-Angahara, and Svastika-Sthana in Urdva-vrtta-Cari (Bh. Ar.11. 652-54).

:- The Sixth Srnganatya is constituted of Rekha-bandha-Cari, Bhima-Angahara and Addita-bhumi-Cari. The Rekha-bandha-Cari requires Vardhamana-Sthana; the Bhima-Angahara requires Nandiya-Sthana; and, the Addita-Cari requires Parsnipida-Sthana (. (Bh. Ar.11. 655-56).

:- The Seventh Srnganatya is characterized by Luthitollalita-Cari, Vikrta-Angahara and Vakra-bandha-bhumi-Cari. The Eka-parsva-Sthana is done in Luthitollalita –Cari; the Eka-januka-Sthana is done in Vikrta-Angahara; and, Parivrtta-Sthana is done in Vakra-bandha -bhumi-Cari (Bh. Ar.11. 657-59).

:- The Eighth Srnganatya is characterized by Kundala-vartaka-Cari, Ugratara-Angahara and Janita-bhumi-Cari. The Prsthottanatala-Sthanaka follows Kundala-vartaka-Cari; the Ekapada-Sthana follows Ugra-Angahara; and, Brahma-Sthana follows Janita-Cari (Bh. Ar.11. 660-62).

:- The Ninth and the Final Srnganatya requires Vicitra-Cari, Shantaja-Angahara and Utsandita-bhumi-Cari. The Vicitra-Cari is followed by Vaisnava-Sthana; Shantaja-Angahara is followed by Shaiva-Sthana; and, Utsandita-bhumi-Cari is followed by Garuda-Sthana (Bh. Ar.11. 662-64).

In the next Chapter of this text, the author describes, in detail, the specific Talas required for these Srnganatyas, as well as the specific hand-gestures used in each particular Sthana. (Bh. Ar. 12).

karanaposture

Tandava and Lasya

The Bharatarnava, in its Chapter Thirteen, describes seven verities of Tandava and seven verities Lasya. The names of some of the Lasya described here are also mentioned in other texts, such as: Sangita-ratnakara and Nrtta-ratnavali. But, the Tandavas mentioned here are not found in any other text.

The seven Tandavas of the Nrtta class mentioned in Bharatarnava are: Dakshina-bhramana; Vama-bhramana; Lila-bhramana; Bhujanga-bhramana; Vidyud-bhramana; Lata-bhramana; and Urdhva-Tandava.

These are Pure (Marga) Nrtta-dance movements, which use six different Gatis (gaits) such as: Mayura; Rajahamsa; Krsnasara; Gaja; Simha; and, Suka. These are the gaits of birds (peacock, swan and parrot) ; and, of animals (elephant, lion and blackbuck).

In these Tandavas, the Karanas and Caris are performed after the Gatis. These seven Tandava Dance movements are used in the Nrtya (Dance) and also in Natya (Drama).

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The Desi Tandava described in this text has five different varieties, namely: Nikuncita; Kuncita; Akuncita, Parsva-kuncita and Ardha-kuncita; and, they use five specific Gatis, five specific Caris and five specific Karanas.

Thereafter, the specific Gatis, Caris, Karanas and Talas applicable to the seven varieties of pure (Marga) Tandavas and five varieties of Desi Tandavas are dealt with in Chapter  Fourteen (Bh. Ar. 14.770-870).

*

The text also talks about seven types of Lasyas, which are meant to enhance the beauty of the Caris. They can be either pure (Marga) or Desi.  They are named as Suddha, Desi, Prerana; Prenkhana, Kundali (or Gundali); Dandika (or Dana-lasya) and Kalasa (Bh. Ar. 13. 732-33). The author then discusses the specific Caris, Sthanas, Karanas and Talas applicable to these Lasya-Dances; and the gods associated each of them (Bh.Ar.14.871-93).

desi tradition

Desi tradition

Towards the end of the early medieval period and in the late medieval period the approach to describing the dances changed. With the growing popularity of the regional dances, the scholars, by around the twelfth century, began to include, in their manuals on dancing, the dance-forms of the Desi tradition along with those of the older Marga tradition, initiated by Bharata. And, that trend continued through the succeeding centuries, into the nineteenth.

The treatment of the Desi type of Dances seemed to differ from the Marga types in two major ways :  first, by emphasizing on the style of presentation rather than on the content of the composition; and, secondly, by encouraging  natural, more attractive and  swift movements.

Yet, the Desi Dances described in the medieval texts were not completely different from those of the Marga class. They were, in fact, based on the framework of the tradition of Bharata. The Desi format continued to follow the Marga method of constructing a composition by forming small units consisting of individual movements and moving on to the large units of a composition. In Desi, this basic method of constructing a composition did not change. But, it brought in more varieties of limb movements that were rather acrobatic and brisk.

The Bharatarnava is, in a way, a very significant text of the medieval period. It contributes to enrich the Desi tradition by providing the details, in specific terms, of the movements needed for each dance-sequence, along with its accompanying music and rhythm. Nandikesvara introduces new sets of Angaharas with their sub-divisions; along with the Sthanas, Caris, Karanas and Tala they need. The Bharatarnava also introduced the Srnganatya with its nine verities, each composed by a set of Caris, Angaharas and Sthanas.

dance shakthi

Dr. Mandakranta Bose sums up saying:

The Bharatarnava is as important as the Abhinaya Darpana as an instruction-manual, although it is not so used now; nor do we know if it was ever so used. Nonetheless, its importance as an excellent practical guide cannot be denied. If the Abhinaya Darpana trains a dancer in the basic movements, the Bharatarnava teaches a dancer to compose a dance piece. Both pursue the same purpose of instructing practising artists and not merely of recording the Art form of their times. The Bharatarnava may be regarded as being complementary to the Abhinaya Darpana; and, put to better use.

dance odissi

In the next part, we shall move on to other texts.

Continued

In

The Next Part

References and Sources

ALL IMAGES ARE FROM INTERNET

 
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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Nine

Continued from Part Eight

Lakshana Granthas – continued

2. Tamil Traditions

lavanya

The ancient Tamil classic Silappadikaram (dated around the second century) attributed to Prince Ilango Adigal; and, Manimekalai by the Poet Chithalai Chathanar (around the fifth century) have abundant references to Dance. The Silappadikaram also refers to another text on Dance: Jayantam, which prescribed the rules for the dance. These were said to be part of the Tamil Art traditions, the Muthamizh.

There are two existing commentaries on Silappadikaram; one of which is ancient – the Arumpadavuri; and the other is from the fifteenth century by Adiyarkunallar.

The Silappadikaram mentions many technical terms related to Dance. Some of those terms are similar to the ones that figure in the Natyashastra; such as: Natya, Ranga (Arangam, Aadukalam), Pindi, Karana and Mandala (Mandila) etc. There are also many Tamil technical terms; such as: elir kai, tolir kai, arangu, izzippu and such others.

And many concepts and techniques of the Natyashastra are adopted into the Tamil texts. For instance; Nilai, meaning stance, are the six Sthanas as in the Natyashastra; and, Padam the feet variations and the sixteen Angakriyas are also the same.

In its Third Chapter Arangetrakadai, the Silappadikaram mentions how a dancer should have mastery in ‘Pindiyum Pinayalum Ezhirkaiyum Tozhirkaiyum’. Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam explains how these are related to the terms in Bharata’s Natyashastra: ‘Pindi’ denotes group dance; ‘Pinayal’ means chain-formation, i.e., the dance where dancers form links; ‘Ezhir kai’ meant Nrtta hastas; and, ‘Tozhir kai’ meant Abhinaya hasta.

The scholars regard Silappadikaram as a Lakshya- Grantha, a text for practice of dance, based on Natyashastra, a Lakshana Grantha, a text which provides theoretical principles.

Silappadikaram refers to the contemporary streams of classical and folk dances. The Dance was known as Aadal or Arangetru Kadai; but more popularly as Kuttu. The folk dances were known as Archiyar Kuravai-kuttu. And Music was: Kadaladu Kadai, Konalvari and Venir Kadai. The folk- Kuttu tradition flourished under the patronage of temples. And, even today the Teukuttu dance troupes perform mythological dance dramas during festivals.

The text also explains the classification of two distinct dance types, prevalent in that era, the Aham (Ahakuttu) and Puram (Purakuttu).

Under the Ahakuttu, twin concepts are explained; such as, Aryam and Tamil; and Lyalpu and Desi.

Further Santi Kuttu, representing classical form of dance was divided into four types, namely Chokkam; Mey kuttu; Avinaya kuttu and Natakam. Of these, the Chokkam or Suddha Nrttam (pure dance, Nrtta) was having the 108 Karanas.

The other was Vinoda Kuttu or Metu Kuttu (also called Ahamargam) for entertain­ment, depicting love themes. It was of three kinds, viz., Desi, Vadagu and Singalam.

It again had three divisions – Sama Kuttu, Vanmai Kuttu (Tandava) and Menmai Kuttu (Lasya).

Under the other category, Purakuttu, three modes of dances were mentioned as: Perunatai, Charyay, and Bhramari.

*

As regards the Dancers, apart from the Devadasis-the temple dancers – the Silappadikaram mentions other classes of female dancers. It appears during the time of the Silappadikaram a three-fold classification of female dancers existed as: ganikas, kuttis and adal siladi – corresponding to the later classification tahyilar, patiyilar and devaradiyal.

The text, in that connection, names these other classes of dancers as: kaval ganika (women guards); kalattiladum kutti (dancers in the military camp); adal kuttis (dancers who performed ahakkuttu or srngara dances like padams), and so on.

Women musicians and dancers were known in the Tamil country from the Sangam Age. The daughter of the Chola King, Karikal Chola, Adi Mandi was an acclaimed dancer. She danced with bells around her waist to the sweet sound of the golden symbols, a kind of musical instrument. The Sangam literature refers to Panar and Viraliyar, the musicians and dancers. Both formed into a troupe and travelled together to perform in front of patrons.  They played on the Yal (a kind of lute); Maddala, Kudamula (drums); and, on the Amantirikai i.e., Edakkai, all of which blended in unison beautifully.

In one of the verses in Ahananuru, the dance of the girl Virali is compared to the movement of the peacock with spread out plumes.

peacock2

Madhavi, the most beautiful accomplished dancer by profession (Parathiyar), described as Vanavamakal (divine woman), is one of the three leading ladies in the Silappadikaram.

It is said; Madhavi’s training began when she was a young girl of just five years; and, it lasted rigorously for seven years

From the early age of five, for seven years, Madhavi had been put through a course of rigorous training. Every single day her teachers would arrive in Morning and evening; and, she sang scales and practiced dance movements. More masters came. She learnt to accompany herself on the Yal. She learnt the fine points of the flute and drum. Later still, came the composers, insisting that she should bring out all possible shades of meaning from every song she sang or danced to. And, till the day of her first performance she kept practicing, rehearsing strenuously and planning out every detail.

**

Madhavi was described in the ‘Ararigetru kaathai’ Chapter of Silappadikaram, as a woman (matantai), having broad shoulders (perun tol) and curly hair (puri kuzhal) adorned with pollen (taatu avizh) of flowers. Madhavi studied dancing (aatal), paatal (singing) and the art of enhancing beauty (azhaku). She was capable of singing without even one (onru) defect (kurai) in three (muunru) modes (kuur) ; and, was an authority (pataam) in her field. She studied these skills with great effort (iyatti) for seven years (eezh aantu). After twelve (eer aaru) years (antu), she wished to show (kaattal) her performance before the king (mannar) of Pukar, who has the surrounding (chuul) sea (katal) as the boundary of his kingdom.

arangetram55

And Madhavi’s Arangetram (Talai Arangerai) took place in the presence of the Chola King Karikala Peruvalathin, in his Royal court, located in the famous city of Kaveri poom-pattinam.

The Chapter Arangetrakadai, opens with a description of Madhavi and then her troupe, consisting of a very learned Natyacharya or Nattuvan (Adal Asiriyan), a Sangitacharya or musician (Isai Asiriyan), the player on the drum (Tannumai Asiriyan), and an accompanying orchestra of a flutist and a lute-player (Kuzhalon and Yal Asiriyan). 

talaikol2

After describing the qualities of these accompaniments, the poem describes the stage on which Madhavi gave her performance.

The debut of Madhavi is said to have commenced by rendering the innovatory songs called the ‘Vara’ or ‘Tevara padal’ collectively sung by a group of songsters including the old dancers.

Madhavi, of long, black-flower-like eyes, adorned with rich ornaments, performed Cittira Karanam (perhaps similar to the Purvaranga or invocation, as mentioned in Natyashastra).

She performed as many as eleven types of Kuttus or dances (Mandalas – combination of 8-10 Caris), in all the tempos, in accordance with the dancing conventions; and thus, completing Antarakottu. And, then she demonstrated all the four parts of the auspicious Palai song, displayed in the Desi dance. She began with the Mandalam having three beats; and ended with ‘Eka talam‘ having one beat. In the same manner, she danced the Vaduhu dance. Madhavi, in her performance, effortlessly followed the prescriptions of the Dance-scriptures.

Her performance revealed that she knew (purintu) all the divisions (vakut) of Nrtta and Nrtya (naattiya nannuul); and, the authentic text on dancing (Natyashastra).

It is believed; unlike the present day practice, where the dancer enacts different characters by wearing same costume (Ekaharya), Madhavi is said to have adorned different costumes suggestive of the character portrayed by her in all the eleven dances.

The fawn eyed Madhavi, strikingly beautiful with perfect features, lit with vivacity and laughter, in her quick movements dazzled like a golden creeper (pon iyal) throbbing with vitality, adorned with flowers (puun koti).

The king (ventan) awarded her with a garland of leaves and flowers (ilai puun kotai), in accordance with (vazham ait) the established custom (iyalp-p-inil).  He also rewarded her with one thousand and eight (aayirattu en) Kazhanchu (pieces of pure Gold) as per the tradition (viti murai). She was awarded the title of  Talaik-koli, in recognition of her skill and her achievement. She was also presented with the sacred-staff Talai-kol, a traditional gift given to first-time-performers (talai-arangu-eri).

Talaikol3

[As regards Talai-kol, it was a sort of staff wielded by the dance-master to regulate the dance. It was conceived as a symbol of Indra’s son.  It was crafted out of the handle (kaampu) of a white umbrella (ven kutai) that belonged to noble person (per icai) or a king (mannar) or a great sage (periyar).

Its middle (itai nilam) was decorated with the best Navalam; covered with plates of gold (polam} ; and, adorned with  nine kinds of gems (nava Mani), studded (ozhukki) in its joints (kan itai), forming a beautiful pattern. It had an emblem of Jayanta (cayantan}, the son (ciruvan) of Indra (Intira). The finished rod was offered worship (vantanai) in the palace (koyil) of the Chola king (mannavan), who sits under a white Umbrella (ven kutai).

Talaikol

On an auspicious day (nalam taru naal),  Madhavi washed (manni) the rod (kol) with holy waters of the Cauvery (punniya nan neer) in a golden pot (por kutam) and adorned (anintu) it with a garland (malai) . It was then publicly (paracinar) placed on the head (tatakkai) of the sixty year old royal-elephant (aracu-uvaa), along with a beautiful (puun) golden (polam) vessel (otai) containing sandal (Cantaam) and other auspicious things.]

arangetram3

Shri T. S Parthasarathy, in his article Bharathanatyam in History, writes: Arangetram was called Talai Arangeral. As soon as the dancer got on to the stage two songs were sung and they were called daiva-padal or prayer. After this, all the instruments on the stage were played together; and, this was called as Antarak-kottu. The dance started after this; and, the girl first danced desi-koothu. This would start with Matta-talam and end with Eka-talam. The next item was Margam for which a Prabandham was sung in the Pancha-talam.

The Chapter on dance, Arangetrakadai, elucidates, in great detail, the proficiency of the dance teacher and his skill as a choreographer and musician, and tie principles of stage management.

This chapter also gives a detailed account of the rules and principles pertaining to the dance music i.e. vocal as well as instrumental dance musical accompaniments. The importance of the proper instrumentation i.e., tuning and playing of different instruments such as Yal, flute and drum and the manner in which the combination of these instruments should exist and be executed which ultimately facilitate in heightening the aesthetic pleasure of the dance have been mentioned in elaborate measure.

In addition to this, Silappadikaram states the qualifications of a good dance teacher, known as ‘Adal asiriyan’, vocalist and other members of the orchestral troupe.

Regarding the dance teacher, it mentions that the adal asiriyan should be proficient not only in the eleven types of dances, but also should be well versed in its music ; and, must have thorough knowledge in the allied arts such as music, literature and should be capable of playing on different musical instruments too.

ramya

References and Sources

  1. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/71949/8/08_chapter%203.pdf
  2. https://joss.tcnj.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/176/2017/04/2017Ruhl.pdf
  3. https://www.scribd.com/document/234378951/Arangetram-History
  4. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/71949/8/08_chapter%203.pdf
  5. http://www.yabaluri.org/Web%20(1978%20%-202008)/theatrearchitectureinancientindiaoct98.htm

agni purana

3.Agni Purana

Agni Purana is one of the eighteen Puranas. It usually figures eighth in the list of eighteen. It is a medieval Purana that was, perhaps, compiled in stages during the Seventh and the Eleventh centuries. It is a voluminous work having as many as about 15, 000 or more verses , spread over 382 or 385 Chapters.

In its nature and content, the Agni Purana is a sort of an encyclopedia that covers ‘anything and everything’. It deals with wide-ranging subjects, such as: geography; cultural history; politics; education system; iconography; taxation theories; organization of army; theories on proper causes for war; diplomacy; local laws; building public projects; water distribution methods; trees and plants; medicine, Vastu Shastra (architecture); gemology; language; grammar; poetry; Alamkara, Chhandas; Rasa ; Riti; Yoga; food,; rituals and numerous other topics.

Just to gain a familiarity with the coverage of the Agni Purana, please click on HERE and on HERE.  

The initial Chapters of the Agni Purana describe about various incarnations of Lord, including Rama and Krishna. Other chapters describe about religious rituals especially those related to the worship of Lord Shiva. Many chapters have description about the earth, stars and constellations as well as the duties of the kings. The Agni Purana, generally,  is full of rituals

All this leads to the fact the Agni Purana was composed at a much later period , attempting to bring together , in a summary form, the stories, the rituals, and the details of various subjects that were described in the earlier Epics and the Puranas.

Therefore, none of the material in the Agni Purana is new or original. Its aim, perhaps, was to supplement the branches of traditional knowledge contained in the earlier texts; and, to collect and to preserve the core-topics of the important subjects, which were of current interest during the period of its compilation.

Thus, the Agni Purana, by its very nature is a summary. Therefore, its chapters are generally not long, they are very brief. And even when the stories, rituals and other information are given, they are in greatly summarized form.

Following that type of presentation, the Agni Purana, in its Chapters 340 and 34i , gives some information about Dance, particularly relating to Anga-karma Abhinaya (actions, gestures and movements) , largely taken from the ancient Nrttasutra and the Natyashastra.

[Please click HERE for the text of the Agni Purana; and, refer to the portion commencing with the title Ntyādāv-aga-karma-nirūpaa; and, here for  Abhinayādi-nirūpaa ]

In Chapter 340 (Aga-karma-nirūpaa) , the Agni Purana mentions the actions of the Angas and Pratyangas; thirteen actions of head (Shirobedha); which are the same as given In the Natyashastra.

Thirty-six movements of eyes (Dṛṣṭī-lakaam) are mentioned, among which, eight are the Rasa-drstis, related to the expressions of the various emotions and sentiments.

The Purana refers to nine actions of the eyeballs (Tara) (as compared to eight by the Natyashastra); but mentions by name only the twoBhramari and Calana.

Agni Purana mentions just four types of actions of the eyebrows (Bhru) – (Patana, Bhrukutimukha, Sthayi and Sanchari). However, the last two were not included among the seven types of eyebrow movements enumerated in the Natyashastra.

Agni Purana refers to six different actions of the nose (Nasika), without enumerating them by name. The Purana refers to nine actions of respiration (Nisvasa) . But, these were not mentioned In the Natyashastra.

The Purana refers to six actions of the lower lips (Adhara);  seven actions of the chin (Cibuca); six actions of the face (Mukha); and, nine actions of the neck (Griva) ; without , however ,  naming them .

The Agni Purana also refers to there are various actions of the hands (Hasthas) – single and combined (Asamykuta and Samyukta). It mentions the twenty-four Asamyukta-hasthas in the same order, with slight variation, as mentioned in the Natyashastra. As regards the Samyukta-hasthas, they are twelve in number (not thirteen as in Natyashastra). The Pushpaputa is omitted here.

[Similarly, the other Puranas, such as , the Vishnu Purana, the Bhagavata Purana and the Harivamsha  provide some general information of the Hastas.]

The Purana also refers to five actions of the chest (Urah) ;  five actions of the sides (Parsva) ; and, to  five actions of the thighs (Uru) . But, these are neither specifically named nor discussed.

Agni Purana names the three actions of the belly (Udara) as: Duratiksama, Khanda and Purna. The first one is mentioned in the Natyashastra, merely, as Ksama.

The movements of the feet (Pada-bedha) are mentioned as being various;  but without  mentioning  their specific numbers.

*

Thus, the Nrtyadi-ranga-karma, information about the bodily actions in Dance, is very brief. And, in certain cases, it slightly differs from the Natyashastra. Obviously, the Agni Purana obtained its information about Dance from another source also; perhaps from Nrtta-sutra, which is no longer extant.

*

The Agni Purana , in its Chapter 341, describes the importance of the four types of Abhinayas ; and , remarks that the four factors viz., Sattva, Vac, Anga and Aharya  play a dominant role in bringing out the best that exists in a dramatic composition and In the heart of  the dramatic personae.

Ābhimukhyan nayann arthān vijñeyo a’bhinayo budhai / caturdhā sambhava sattva vāg agā ahara rāśraya //AP_341.001//

stambhādi sāttviko vāgārambho vācika āgika / śarīrārambha āhāryo buddhyārambhapravttaya // AP_341.002//

***

References and Sources

  1. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/164285/8/07_chapter%202.pdf
  2. https://www.kamakoti.org/kamakoti/agni/bookindex.php
  3. http://www.bharatadesam.com/spiritual/agni_purana.php
  4. http://www.aa.tufs.ac.jp/~tjun/data/gicas/ap3_tr_frame.html

 

natya

 

  1. Vishnudharmottara

The Visnudharmottara Purana  (Ca. fifth or sixth century) is a   text that is Encyclopedic in its nature.  Apart from painting, image-making, Dancing and dramaturgy, it also deals with varied subjects such as astronomy, astrology, politics, war strategies, treatment of diseases etc.

The author asserts that the Vishnudharmottara  is but a compilation; and, is an attempt to preserve the knowledge that was hidden in older sources. Sadly, all those older texts are lost to us. Vishnudharmottara is thus the earliest exhaustive treatise available to us on the theory and practice of temple construction, painting,  Dancing and image making in ancient India.

The text, which is divided into three khandas (parts), has in all 570  Adhyayas  (chapters).  It deals with dance, in its third segment – chapters Twenty to Thirty-four.

The author follows the Natyashastra in describing the abstract dance form, Nrtta; and, in defining its function as one of beautifying a dramatic presentation. There are, however, slight variations in the enumeration of the Karanas, Angaharas and Hastas.

The focus of the text is on Nrtta, defining its vital elements such as Karanas, Cari etc., required in dancing. In addition, the author briefly touches upon the Pindibandhas or group dances mentioned by Bharata; and, goes on to describe VrttiPravrtti and Siddhi; that is – the style, the means of application and the nature of competence.

swans

As regards its  structure and the contents of the Parts dealing with Dance:

:- In Chapter Twenty (the first chapter of the section), the author follows the Natyashastra in describing the abstract dance form, Nrtta; and, in defining its function as one of factors beautifying a dramatic presentation.

The Chapter Twenty deals with the appropriate places for the performance of Nrtta. It also discusses the aspects of the stage and the presentation of the preliminaries. The discussion includes the characteristics of actors; the four different types of Abhinayas, namely – Angika, VacikaSattvika and Aharya; and the names of all the complicated movements necessary for the composition of a dance sequence. In addition, the author briefly touches upon the Pindibandhas or group dances mentioned by Bharata; and goes on to describe  Vrtti,  Pravrtti and Siddhi, ; that is – the style, the means of application and the nature of competence.

:- The Twenty-first Chapter discusses Sthanas or postures while lying down (Shayana);,while the Twenty-second deals with the Sthanas to be assumed by persons of  different status , while sitting. The focus of these two chapters seems to be on dramatic presentation.

:- The twenty-third chapter is devoted to postures meant for both men and women.

:- The Twenty-fourth Chapter lists the movements of the major limbs, the Angas, along with the meaning attached to each of those movements. The major limbs, according to this text, are the head, the neck, the chest, the sides, the waist, the thighs, the shanks and the feet. In conclusion, the Chapter defines the Cari and the Karana, the two vital and complicated movements required in Dancing.

:- In the Twenty-fifth Chapter, the movements of the Upangas or minor limbs are discussed, including the glances of the eyes (Dristi bedha) that express the   Sthayi and Vyabhicari- bhavas; the movements of the pupils; the eyebrows; the nose (nostrils), chin and lips, as well as the application of these movements.

:- The Twenty-sixth chapter describes three types of hand-gestures (Hasthas), those made with one hand (Asamyukta), those made with both (Samyukta) – along with the meanings they can convey – and hand-gestures meant for dancing (Abhinaya), which convey no meaning (Nrtta-hastha).

:- The twenty-seventh chapter is devoted to the explanation of different kinds of Abhinaya and the costumes and decorations (Aharya) necessary for a performance.

:- The twenty-eighth chapter deals with Samanya-abhinaya, giving general directions for expressing different moods and responses to seeing, touching and smelling objects. Although the author designates this chapter as a discussion of Samanya-abhinaya, he includes Citra-abhinaya, that is, special presentations. In fact, this Chapter is a conflation of the contents of Chapters twenty-two and twenty-five of the Natyashastra; and, contains extensive quotations from it.

:- The Twenty-ninth chapter describes the Gatis, that is, gaits; while the Thirtieth discusses the nine Rasas; and the Thirty-first Chapter discusses  the Bhavas.

A new feature of the treatment of body movements that is added to the discussion of body movements appears in the Thirty-second Chapter, which deals with what is termed Rahasya-mudras, that is, hand-gestures meant for mystical and ritualistic purposes.

:- Continuing the discussion in the Thirty-third Chapter, the author lists more Mudras all meant for religious purposes, and calls them Mudra-hastas, and associates them with hymns to the gods and goddesses.

:- The Thirty-fourth and the final Chapter on dancing is devoted to the legend of the origin of dancing. Since the work is devoted to the worship of Vishnu, it is not surprising that its author should view Vishnu as the originator of the art of dancing.

vishnu

The Vishnudharmottara is Vasihnava text, affiliated to the Pancharatra Agama, which is associated with the Vyuha doctrine. Here, Adi-Vishnu or Para–Vasudeva represents the Pancharatra ideology of the transcendental form (Para) of Vishnu the Supreme principle abiding in the highest realm Paramapada. Vishnu the Absolute, the Brahman, out of loving- compassion, voluntary assumed bodily forms so that the devotees may gain access to his subtle form.

According to Vishnudharmottara, it was Lord Vishnu who created the sublime Art of Dancing, which represents the three levels of existence in all the three worlds (Trai-lokasya-anukaranam).

vishnu-dancing

The Nrtta created by Vishnu was composed of Angaharas and Karanas. The text considers Nrtta as the pure, absolute form of Dance; Natya as the depiction of the ways of the world (jagato-anukriya); and Nrtya as the factor that lends beauty to Natya- (VDP. 3.20.1)

The text declares that Dancing in the presence of the Lord is the true worship; it is the adoration of the divinity with one’s body, mind and soul. And, performing Dance as a spiritual discipline (Sadhana) is superior to offering flowers (pushpam, naivedyam) etc. It leads the way to liberation. Thus, the Art of Dancing, Nrtta, is regarded as Mangalya, auspicious and sacred devotional submission to Lord Vishnu.(VDP. 3.34 – 25,26,27 )

dancing in temple

The Vishnudharmottara emphasizes the inter relation, or rather the inter-dependence between the various art forms.  Sage Markandeya instructs : One who does not know the laws of painting (Chitra) can never understand the laws of image-making (Shilpa); and, it is difficult to understand the laws of painting (Chitra) without any knowledge of the technique of dancing (Nrtya); and, that, in turn, is difficult to understand without a thorough knowledge of the laws of instrumental music (vadya); But, the laws of instrumental music cannot be learnt without a deep knowledge of the art of vocal music (gana).

Whatever is prescribed for Nrtta is equally applicable to Chitra as both imitate the rhythm or Chhandas or the subtle aspect of the phenomenal world. Movements of eyes, lips and limbs, depiction of Bhava and Rasa (sentiments) and the various Mudra-s (postures), prescribed .for Dance are also followed in Chitra ; and, the same principles govern the practice of these two sets of Fine Arts, one performing and the other synthetic.

The main difference between the Dance and painting is that the former has Tala or Laya; because, it is related to Kaala (Time). And, the latter has Rupa (form) and Mana-Pramana (measures and proportions) ; because, it is related to Dik (Space) .

And between Dance and sculpture, , the human form is the instrument of expression; and, everything in the figure, the face, the hands, the posture of the limbs, the pose and turn of the body, each accessory has to be imbued with an inner meaning.  It manifests, on the  one hand, the basic idea;  and, on the other, suppresses anything which would mean an emphasis on the merely physical or sensuous.

lasya

The dance-posture gives each sculpture a rhythm which is its soul or spirit. Because of the fact that the rhythm arising out of dance-postures instils life into its form, the stone-mass seems to breathe and pulsate like a living organism. Dance (Nrtta) endows life to sculpture (Shilpa).  

Hence, the Sage Markandeya declared Nrtta and Chitra, to be art-forms par excellence  : ta eva chitre vijneya nrittam chitram param matam

Yatha nritte , tatha chitre  trailokya-anukritis smrita / drishtayas cha tatha bhava angopangani sarvasah / karas cha ye maya nritte purvokta nripasattama / ta eva chitre vijneya nrittam chitram param matam // 3.35.5-7//

hasthas333

Angikabhinaya

As said earlier; the Vishnudharmottara generally follows the descriptions and technical details as given in the Natyashastra; but, with slight variations. For instance; it describes Tandava as a form of dance that is characterized by intense excitement and ferocious mood; and, it is to be performed by males. And, it describes Lasya as show of amorous expressions and graceful movements of limbs; and, it is performed by women. There also some other minor variations in the enumeration of movements of certain Angas, Pratyanga and Upangas.

It devotes more space to Nrtta and Angikabhinaya. It mentions that the ideal Nrtta is full of Rasa and Bhava. It follows Tala (rhythm), Kavya-rasa (meaning) and Gita (song and lyrics). It gives happiness; and increases the Dharma.

Rasena Bhavena samanvitan ca talanugam kavya rasanugam ca/ gitanugam Nrtta mukati dha Sukhapradam dharma vivardhanam (VDP. 3.20.1)

The Vishnudharmottara devotes three Chapters (24, 25 and 26) of its Third Khanda to discuss, in detail, the various aspects of the Angikabhinaya, which portrays actions; and, also reflects emotions through movement of the various parts of the body.

The Chapter Twenty four enumerates the movements of the major limbs, the Angas, along with the uses of each of those movements. The Chapter defines the Cari and the Karana, the two vital and complicated movements required in Dancing.

In the Twenty-fifth Chapter, the movements of the Upangas or minor limbs are discussed, including the glances of the eyes (Dristi bedha) that express the   Sthayi and Vyabhicari- bhavas; the movements of the pupils; the eyebrows; the nose (nostrils), chin and lips, as well as the application of these movements.

The Chapter Twenty-six  on the Hasthas (Hastha-adyaya) gives the descriptions of the three types of the arrangement of the Hasthas (Asamyukta, Samyukta and Nrtta-hastas)

As regards the Nrtta-hastas, The Vishnudharmottara emphasised that all the Nrtta hastas should be delicate, beautiful and charming. The main characteristic of Nrtya is Lalitya, delicately graceful.

The sage Markandeya remarks: The learned should make graceful movements of the Nrtta-hasthas; because, it is the grace and beauty that differentiates Nrtta from other movements (VDP. 3.26.95).

Karya lalita sancara nrttahasta para vidhau / lalityameva viterya pratibhodanam (3.26.95)

pindi77

Pindibandha

There is also a brief description of the Pindi or Pindibandha performed by groups of dancers; which is the technique of group formations, and, weaving patterns. Pindi is described in the Vishnudharmottara as having the shape of the symbol of a particular deity. In the Natyashastra, Bharata mentions several such Pindis; and, says that the Pindis of the presiding gods and goddesses will be marked with their own banners. Thus, the Īśvara piṇḍī  is for Īśvara; Sihavāhinī for Caṇḍikā; Śikhī piṇḍī for Kumar and so on.

dance costume

Aharya

The whole of  27th Chapter is devoted to Aharyabhinaya, which deals with costume, ornaments, makeup , stage props etc. The Aharya has to be particularly suited to each type of character; and, has also to be relevant to the situation. The appropriate Aharya for each character is essential for bringing out the dramatic effect; and, often, the entire production depends on it.

The Aharyabhinaya is said to be of four kinds: Pusta; Alamkara; Angarachana; and, Sanjiva.

The Pusta refers to imitative forms made of clay, wood, cloth, leather or metal. These are the masks (Pratisirsani) of gods, demons, Yakshas, elephants, horses and birds, made by use of the Pusta techniques.

The Alamkara is adornment or decoration by means of costumes, garlands and ornaments etc.

The Angarachana (lit. Painting of limbs) is makeup by application of creams, colours, paints etc on the person of the actor.

And, Sanjiva is the use of living creatures, animals and birds.

For the Angarachana, the Vishnudharmottara mentions the rules that should be followed for gods, other beings and humans.  These have to be in accordance with the types of masks (Pratikira) and head gears or crests (Makuta or Kirita), beards, moustaches etc., of those characters.  

Three kinds of costumes are mentioned:  White, Variegated and according to male or female characters, as per the common practice.

The actors should wear the masks of various animals, and, similarly the symbols of various gods carrying their weapons should be represented by masks.

Bharata says that such different modes of dress, makeup and ornamentation should help the actors and actresses to enact their roles in a more credible manner, to bring out the right sentiment of the scene.

As regards colors with which the actors or dancers are to be painted, the Vishnudharmottara mentions five basic colors: white, red, yellow, black and green (blue?). It then enumerates five kinds of white and twelve kinds of black colors. And, by mixing one, two or three colors, with imagination, innumerable skin colors could be derived (VDP.3.27.8-9). It says, when the beauty of the limbs is increased with these colors, the presentation becomes more effective.

That is followed by specifying which characters among the gods, demons, serpents and humans should be painted with which colors. And it says, when no particular color is mentioned for a god, then it should be given Gaura (white) color.

Similarly, the text then specifies the colors of the costumes of different types of characters. It also mentions the various types of head gears, crests, masks, wigs and mustaches etc.

In short, it says, various accessories should be used , with intelligence, in accordance with the customs prevailing in the society.

*

Samanya-abhinaya

The Chapter Twenty-eight is named Samanya-abhinaya. The Samanya-abhinaya is the harmonious use of four kinds of Abhinayas; and, Citra-abhinaya applies only to the special representation of various objects and ideas.

At first, the instructions are given about the representation of five qualities of senses viz. sound (sabda), touch (sparsa), form (rupa), taste (rasa) and smell (gandha) , through gestures according to their experiences (Anubhavas) and natural expressions. Then come the representation of particular objects. The various gestures and expressions are prescribed for the representation of Bhavas including Sthayi-bhavas occurring in different Rasas. The Abhinaya to show sky, morning, night, evening, day, deep darkness, the moon-light, the smoke, the fire and different seasons follow.

*

Abhinaya

Chapters Thirty and Thirty-one give a very detailed description about the Abhinaya of the various Rasas and Bhavas by appropriate gestures. Here, the text discusses nine Rasas, including the Shanta-rasa, as compared to eight Rasas mentioned in the Natyashastra.

It also discusses forty-nine kinds of Bhavas, beginning with Hasa, the mirth; and, they should be skilfully combined with the Rasas.

The forty-nine Bhavas or psychological states, include:  the eight Sthāyi-bhavās; thirty-three Vyabhicāri-bhāvās; and, eight Sātvika-bhāvas – (excluding Vibhava   and Anubhava).

References and sources

  1. Shri Vishnudharmottara by Dr. Priyabala Shah
  2. Arts in the PuranasChapter Two- Dance by Dr. Meena Devadatta Jeste

All images are from internet

peacock3

In the next part we shall move on to other texts dealing with Dance and its several aspects

Continued

In

Part Ten

 
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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Eight

Continued from Part Seven

Lakshana-granthas

1.Natyashastra –continued

indienabb1

The Natyashastra developed a remarkable approach to the structure of the human body; and delineated the relation between its central point (Nabhi, the navel), the verticals and horizontals. It then coordinated them, first with the positions and movements of the principal joints of neck, pelvis, knees and ankles; and, then with the emotive states, the expressions. Based on these principles, Natya-shastra enumerated many standing and sitting positions.

Accordingly, the various dance-poses and postures (like Cari and Karanas) are based on a system of medians (sutras), measures (maanas), postures of symmetry (bhangas)   and asymmetry (abhanga, dvibhanga and tribhanga); and, on the sthanas (positions of standing, sitting, and reclining). The concept of perfect symmetry is present in Nrtta; and, that is indicated by the term Sama. These principles were followed in the Shilpa (sculpture) and also in the Chitra  (painting) .

[As regards the Sutras, the vertical axis or the medians passing through the human body:

The Shilpa-shastra adopts the Angula as an unit of Tala. Different texts work out the exact proportions for the human form in terms of the Angula and Tala. But, Tala could be taken to be the length of the palm (from the wrist to the tip of the middle finger).

 The human form is not only divided into Tala on the basis of actual surface proportions but is also measured along various axes on different planes: the measures along these different sections guided the Indian sculptor in the making of images.  Five principal vertical axis (Sutra) are enumerated by the Shilpa-shastra texts.

sutras22

The Brahma-sutra is the vertical axis or the imaginary line passing through the centre of the image and represents the direction of the pull of gravity. The Madhya-sutra is the medial line drawn from the centre of the crown of the head, through the centre of the chest, the navel, the knees, down to the inner sides of the feet. The Parsva-sutra is the vertical drawn from the side of the forehead, the cheek, the side of the arm, the centre of the thighs, the centre of the knee, and the centre of the ankle-joint. The Kaksa-sutra is drawn from the arm-pit, by the side of the hip and the calf, and terminates on the fifth toe of the foot. The Bahu-sutra is the vertical drawn from the shoulder-joint to the ground

The three horizontal axes which are commonly used are the Hikka-sutra (the line passing through the base of the neck), the Bhadra-sutra (passing through the navel) and the Kati-sutra which passes through the hips and the pelvic girdle.  The sculptor is thus provided with rules both for surface dimensions and for measurements along different vertical and horizontal planes and sections for every type of image.

ballet

Based on this, Any  movement  whatsoever  can be  comprehended  into  the deflexions (bhanga) i.e., the Sama-bhanga, the Abhanga, the Tribhanga and the Atibhanga, within the complex structure of the Angula, the Tala and the Sutra measures.

*

It is said; indeed, the Nrtta technique can be better understood if one understands the concept of the Sutras and Mana of the Shilpa. .

In Indian dancing, all its movements can be analyzed in terms of the relation of the different parts of the human body to the vertical median (the Brahma-sutra) on the one hand ; and,  the measurements along the different planes denoted by the area which would be covered by the Mana, the Pramana and the Unmana corresponding to the dimensions of height, breadth and thickness and the measurements of the inter spaces (upamana) and the periphery along the circumference (the Parimana) on the other.

The leg extensions of Mandalas and Sthanas of Indian dancing can be measured along the Pramana; the movements of different parts of the body, specially the chest etc, can be measured along the Unmana; the movements of the Recita type and the Bhramaris take into consideration the Parimana measurements. 

Just as Shilpa conceives of the deflections and poses of the human body along these different planes and areas of space, so also Nrtta conceives of movement in space along the three planes. There is no attempt to spread out, or to extend the limbs to the furthest point from the center of the body. The point of perfect balance (Sama) can be maintained if there is the minimum possible deviation from the center of gravity.

tribanga

From this moment of complete poise and perfect balance, the next step is when slight movement is suggested without covering space ; but by shift of weight: this is the Abhanga pose, the point of unrest and not of movement: here there is only a slight flexing of one knee. Although the plumb line passes from the crown of the head to a point midway between the heels, it passes through the right of the navel (Nabhi) and not through the navel as in the Sama-bhanga pose. There is thus a shift of weight, which results in either a change in the position of the hip (Kati) or the placing of the foot, or sometimes by the deviation of the torso to one side.

But the placing of the feet is by far the most important method of depicting the Abhanga pose in both dancing and sculpture: the Tryasra placing of one foot, without the knee bend or the controlled Udvahita movement of the hips results in this stance: the sides (Parsva) move but slightly. In dancing, this pose is mentioned in the context of Sthanas for women, the Ayata and Avahittha sthana are fine examples of the Abhanga pose. Both in Indian sculpture and dancing, the Abhanga pose is never shown by a Kunchita or an Anchita foot; it is always the Sama-pada frontal position of one foot and slight Tryasra placing of the other

samabhangaAbhangaAtibhanga0004

The Tribhanga indicates a complete shift of weight from one leg to the other; for, here, one leg is in contact with the ground, the other can be lifted up and drawn away and in doing so the balance has invariably to be maintained by shifting the torso to the opposite direction. There are, therefore, three distinct deviations of the head, torso, and the legs from the vertical median. The central plumb line passes through the left or right pupil, the middle of the chest, the left or right of the navel down to the heels.

The human figure is divided along the three horizontal Sutras and each unit moves in an opposite direction to the first: thus if the head and hips deflect to the right the torso deviates to the left. This is one of the significant similarities of technique between Indian sculpture and Indian dancing. The conception of the Tribhanga indicates clearly the basic laws which are followed in the depiction of human movement: the human form is broken up into the units of the head, the torso (above the navel line) and the lower limbs below the Kati sutra (hip line) and these are then manipulated in different ways.

The most striking similarity between the two arts is seen in the manipulation of the hands, termed Hastabhinaya in dancing and Hasta or Mudra in Indian sculpture. As in Indian dancing, so also in sculpture, the hand positions and movements constitute an important aspect of technique. Much of the sculpture-like quality of the dance lies in the accurate depiction of the hand movements and the arm position along with the Tribhanga posture.

All dance poses   can be classified and analyzed in terms of the Sama-bhanga, Abhanga and Tribhanga; and, conversely all examples of Indian sculpture can be analyzed in terms of the Anga and the Upanga of dancing, especially in terms of the static positions and individual movements of the different parts of the human body as described in the Natyashastra.

I acknowledge with thanks the source: Celebration of Life: A study of sculptural and mural depictions of Dance and Music in Buddhist Art of India ]

*

These, demonstrate the principles of stasis, balance, repose and perfect symmetry; And, they are of fundamental importance in Indian arts; especially in, dance, painting and sculpture.

In the Bharatanatya, the principal stance of a dancer is one in which the body is segmented into a series of triangles. As, Dr. Kapila Vatsayana explains: 

The first triangle is formed with the line joining the shoulder points as the base; and, with the waist (navel, Nabhi) as the Apex. This inverted triangle is further highlighted by the outstretched arms, which make another triangle, in space, on either side of the vertical median.

Another triangle is formed with the waist as the apex; the line joining the knees, in their extended position,  as the base.

The third triangle is formed with the line joining the two knees (flexed and outstretched), as the base; and, with its apex at the heels (where the feet are outstretched).

It is said; while performing Bharatanatya, the artist visualizes her body as made up of triangles; and, conceives her movements in space as following either straight lines or triangles. The steps of the dance are based upon a balanced distribution of body weight and firm positions of the lower limbs, allowing the hands to cut into a line, to flow around the body, or to take positions that enhance the basic form.

There is an incredible relation between dance, geometry and numbers. The postures are characterized by linear formations and circular patterns. The straight line patterns, circular movements and the symmetry in formation of the postures, all these are vital aspects of dance.  Certain postures create a wonderful symmetry, as in geometry, adding neat elegance and beauty to the performance. A combination of good posture, balance, centering symmetry and the geometric correctness gives you Angasudhi.

As regards the numbers, almost every movement of a  Bharatanatya composition is related to  numbers, such as :  3 (Thishram); 4 (Chaturashram); 5 (Khandam), 7 (Misram) and 9 (Sankirnam) in various permutations and combinations .

The flexed position of the knees, known as Ardha-mandala (or, Araimandi), is an integral body posture and an essential aspect of the Bharatanatya; and, almost the entire dance is executed in this positions. (For instance; the basic dance movements the Adavus are performed in Araimandi.) It is the starting position of Bharatanatya

araimandi (1)

In the Araimandi, which basically means half sitting posture, the body is divided into two equal triangles with their apex meeting at the navel (Nabhi) inside a square (Mandala). 

This is based in the concept of Mandala, where the human body is said to symbolize the unity and harmony that exists in the universe. It other words; the human body is conceived as a schematic visual representation of the universe. And, it is characterized by a concentric configuration of geometric shapes.

Mandala, in Dance, is basically a standing posture. The Abhinaya Darpana describes ten such standing postures (Mandla-bedha) – Sthanaka (simple standing), Ayata, Alidha, Pratyalidha, Penkhana, Prewritten, Svastika, Motita, Samasuci and Parsvasuci.

Of which, the second one, the Ardha-mandala or Ayata Mandala is defined as: “Standing in Chaturasra, bending the knees slightly and obliquely and keeping a distance of Vitasati between the two feet “(A.D 263).

Vitastrya antaritau paadau  krutva tu chatursrakau . Tiryak kunchita janubhyam sthithirayath mandalam //AD.263 //

Araimandi

The execution of this posture is related to two basic requirements: the Sausthava and Chaturasrya :  (1) Sausthava (keeping different limbs in their proper position) – about which Bharata says that the whole beauty of Nrtta rests on the Sausthava , so the performer never shines unless he pays attention to this – Shobha sarvaiva nityam hi Sausthavam; and, (2) Chaturasrya (square composition of the body, mainly in relation to the chest) – about which Abhinavagupta remarks that the very vital principle (jivitam)  of the body, in dance, is based on  its square position (Chaturasrya-mulam Nrttena  angasya jivitam), and adds that the very object of Sausthava is to attain a perfect Chaturasrya.

The Araimandi or Mandala Sthana closely resembles Ayata Mandala (placing heels together and the toes facing outside, with the knees bent at a distance of 24 inches). And, therefore, maintaining Sausthava, keeping the body erect without a hunch, is an important of Araimandi. And, the distance from the navel to the head should be equal to the distance from the navel to the ground.

In this posture, the performer must half-sit i.e. at a position which is 3/4th of her height. The height of the dancer determines the actual measures and distances in an Araimandi.

The body should maintain a very upright posture with a good Sausthava or a straight back without any hunching.  The spine should be erect with the hands either stretched out or lodged securely on the waist. The raised elbows should in line with the shoulders, which should neither be raised nor drooped. The hands should be always kept a span away from the chest. The knees must be bent laterally making an angle. There must be a gap between the ankles which is probably equivalent to three fingers of your hand. This will give a perfect symmetry of the body (Anga Shuddam); forming dual typical triangular shape for the body and stability to dance.  The eyes must look straight and of course with a beautiful smile!

In the Araimandi, the dancer taps the floor with foot in (half-squatting) position with the heels of both feet together, and toes of both foot pointed to the opposite direction, a diamond shape will be maintained between the thighs and legs.

The Araimandi closely resembles the demi-plié of western ballet, where there is greater emphasis on the knee turn out

demi pile

 

HASTAS: HAND GESTURES:

indian_aesthetic

The most striking feature of classical Indian dances is the use of hands, the Hasthas, in the Angikabhinaya. It is of vital importance both in the enactment of Abhinaya and in Nrtta pure dance gestures. The hands , in Dance, are said to be like the voice for a singer. It is the medium for giving expression to a thought, emotion or for symbolizing an object.

[Though Natyashastra is the basic text, the practitioners of today are, mostly, guided by the Abhinaya Darpana and other texts.]

Bharata devotes Chapter Nine to Hasthas and their uses in the Natya (hastā-dīnā pravakyāmi karma Nātya-prayojakam NS.9.3)

Bharata elaborately discusses the use of hand-gestures under both the Abhinaya and the Nrtta. Then again, he classifies the Hasthas as those indicated by a single hand (Asamyukta-hastha) and those by the combination of both the hands (Samkukta-hastha).

Under the Asamyukta-hastha (single hand), twenty-four types of gestures are described. And, under the Samkukta-hastha (hands combined), thirteen types of gestures are described. Further, under the Nrtta (pure-dance movements), thirty types of Nrtta-hasthas (movements of wrist and fingers) are described.

Thus, in all, Bharata enumerates sixty-seven Hastha gestures under three broad categories. Each of these sixty-seven hand-gestures is assigned a name. And, in most cases, the object or idea denoted by that name constitutes the principle application (Viniyoga) of that Hastha.

Asamyuktahastas

Asamyuta-hastas: (Chapter 9-Verses 4 to 7) :

  • (1) Pataka (flag);
  • (2) Tripataka (flag denoted by three fingers);
  • (3) Kartarimukha (sissors-blades);
  • (4)  Ardhachandra  (crescent moon);
  • (5) Arala (bent);
  • (6) Shukatunda (parrot’s beak);
  • (7) Musti (fist);
  • (8) Shikhara (peak);
  • (9) Kapittha (elephant-apple);
  • (10) Katakamukha (crab-face);
  • (11)Sucyasya (Sucimukha-needle);
  • (12) Padmakosa (lotus-bud);
  • (13) Sarpasirsa (snake-head);
  • (14) Mrigasirsa (deer-head);
  • (15) Kangula (Langula-for denting fruits);
  • (16) Alapadma (Alapadya, Alapallava – full blown lotus);
  • (17) Chatura (four fingered);
  • (18) Bhramara (bees);
  • (19) Hamsasya (swan-beak);
  • (20) Hamsapaksa (swan-wings);
  • (21) Sandamsa (pincers) ;
  • (22) Mukula (flower-bud) ; (23) Uranabhana (spider); , and
  • (24) Tamracuda .

[For illustrations of the Asumyukta Hastas, please click here]

samyuktahastas

Samyuta-hastas: (Chapter 9-Verses 8 to 10) :

  • (1) Anjali ( putting together two Patakas ; joining the two palms together);
  • (2) Kapota (pigeon);
  • (3) Karkata (crab);
  • (4) Svastika ;
  • (5) Kataka-vardhamanaka (khataka – one kataka or half-closed hand is placed upon another);
  • (6) Utsanga ( two Arala-hands are contrarily placed);
  • (7) Nishadha (the Mukula -hand covers the Kapittah hand);
  • (8) Dola (two Pataka-hands hanging down);
  • (9) Pushpaputa (two Sarpa-sarira -hands with their fingers close to one another meeting on oneside closely);
  • (10) Makara (two Pataka-hands placed one over the other and facing downward);
  • (11) Gajadanta (elbows and shoulders in sarpasirsa-hands bent toward each other);
  • (12) Avahittha (two sukatunda-hands meet each other on the chest ; are bent; and , then slowly lowered); , and 
  • (13) Vardhamana ( two hamsapaksa -hands held in opposite direction) 

[For illustrations of the Samyukta-hastas, please click here.]

Nrttahastas1

Nrrtta-hastas : (Chapter 9 -Verses 11-17) :

The Nrtta-hastas , though suggest movement of the fingers , are invariably related to movement of the arms. Here, the position and the direction of the movement of the palms are considered important.The movement of the wrist also determines the nature the Hastha. A different meaning is suggested if the movement of the wrist and the facing of the palm are changed. Thus, the Nrtta-hasthas are related to the direction and the movement of the wrists, arms and shoulders ; and, the manipulation of the fingers and palms.

  • (1) Chaturasra;
  • (2) Udvrttha;
  • (3) Talamukha;
  • (4) Svastika;
  • (5) Viprakirna;
  • (6) Arala Katakamukha;
  • (7) Aviddhavakra ;
  • (8) Suchimukha;
  • (9) Rechita;
  • (10) Ardharechita ;
  • (11) Uttanavanchita ;
  • (12) Pallava ;
  • (13) Nitamba;
  • (14) Kesabandha;
  • (15) Lata;
  • (16) Karihasta;
  • (17) Pakshavanchitaka ;
  • (18)Pakshapradyotaka;
  •  (19)Garudapaksha
  •  (20)Dandapaksha;
  •  (21) Urdhvomandali;
  •  (22) Parshvamandali ;
  •  (23) Uromandali; 
  • (24) Urahparsvardha-mandali;
  •  (25) Mushtikasvastika;
  • (26) Nalinipadmakosa ; 
  • (27) Alapallava;
  • (28) Ulbana
  •  (29) Lalita; and
  • (30) Valita.

[For illustrations of the Nrtta-hastas, please click here]

The Vishnudharmottara (3.26.95) observes that the essential aspect of the Nrtta-hasthas is the element of grace and beauty (Lalitya). the actions should be eloquent , smooth and graceful. The movement of the arms should go with those of the other limbs (Pratyanga and Upanga); and , contribute to enhance the Bhava and the Rasa of the performance

Nrttahastas2

*

Among  all these Hasthas, there are some basic Hasthas such as: (1) the pataka-hastha , with the hand held upright, fingers fully extended  and the thumb bent so as to touch the base of the forefingers; (2) the Musti-hastha in which all the forefingers are folded, with the thumb resting on them ; or , (3) the padmakosa-hastha , which is made of hallow palms with fingers slightly apart and cupped. the remaining gestures seem to be variations of these basic Hasthas. 

[Note:

(1) In other texts, the Hasthas are often referred to as ‘Mudra-s’)

(2) In some versions of the Natyashastra, the total number of these three types of Hasthas is given as Sixty four – Catuhsasthi. Dr. ManMohan Ghosh notes on page 171, foot note 3, states that Catuhsasthi in the text should be amended to read as Saptasasthi; for, the actual numbers amounts to 67 and not 64.  I have followed Dr. Ghosh’s version.

(3) The Abhinaya Darpana also carries enumerations and descriptions of the uses of the Hasthas: 28 Asamyukta-hastas (verses 88-92, and their uses in Verses 88-171); 23 Samyukta-hastas (Verses 172-175; and their uses in verses 176-203); and 13 Nrtta-hasthas (Verses 248-249).

Thus, the numbers in each type of the Hasthas varies from those given in the Natyashastra. And, the number of the three types of Hasthas together amount to 64 (as compared to 67 in the Natyashastra).

In many cases, the names of the Hasthas and their uses differ from those given in the Natyashastra.

Natyashastra describes the thirty Nrtta-hastas – pure dance hands. It also refers to their uses in verses 184-209 of Chapter 9. There is description of three basic movements of these hastas (Hasta-pracara) viz. palms kept upwards (Uttana); downwards or oblique (Adhomuka); finger pointing sideways (Parsvaga). These movements are found both while performing pure dance (Nrtta) and for the representation of Abhinaya.

Some of the hand gestures for pure dance (Nrtta) in Abhinaya Darpana are different from those mentioned in the Natyashastra. The Abhinaya Darpana has only thirteen number of Nrtta hastas.  These Nrtta hastas are all adopted from the Asamyukta and Samyukta hastas listed in its own text (Abhinaya Darpana). In the Natyashastra, the Nrtta-hastas are all different.]

All most all the Hasthas find use in the Nritya (the dance movements with Abhinaya). But, in the Nrtta (pure dance) the commonly used Nrtta-hasthas are only the: Pataka, Tripataka, Suchi, Katakamukha, Musti and Alapadma.

The Hand-gestures constitute a very important aspect of the Abhinaya rendering to indicate or to suggest ideas, emotions, actions and objects; and, to bring out the meaning of the words sung or of the story. They also express concepts like truth, beauty, or the passage of time. The same Hasta, used with different arm movements or in a different context, can have a different meaning. It is, therefore, essential that the Hasthas should be well coordinated with the expressions of the face, of the eyes and the eye-brows to depict the apt transitory states (Sanchari-bhavas) of the dominant emotional state (Sthayi-bhava) of the Dance-item.

*

Natyashastra also provides instructions regarding the appropriateness and the mode of use of the gestures, according to popular practice lokopacarena, so that they may be understood even by the common people. The text also allows considerable degree of freedom to the artist to choose the Hasthas, keeping in view the suitability of their form, movement, significance and class.

anye cāpyarthasayuktā laukikā ye karāstviha chandataste niyoktavyā rasa bhāva viceṣṭitai NS. 9.164

It is said; almost all objects and ideas can be indicated by the gestures. Besides, one can intuitively create gestures, when inspired by the sentiments and the states of the situation.  Natyashastra gives description of varied movements where such gestures are related with the different sentiments and states (Bhavas). These are enumerated as follows: drawing upwards, dragging, drawing out, accepting, killing, becoming, urging, bringing together, separating, protecting releasing, throwing, shaking, giving away, threatening, cutting, piercing, squeezing and beating.(NS.9.161-163)

The text also specifies to the use of the Hastas, according to the social status of the character that is portrayed.  It states; in case of the superior type of characters the hand gestures should be slight and gentle; in the middling type medium sort of movement; and, ordinary acting should have exaggerated movements of hand gestures.

*

The Natyashastra also provides instructions when not to use the hand gestures. It mentions that in the following instances the Dancer should not use hand gestures; but, should employ appropriate representations ; should adopt the temperament that is most apt; and, should also resort to change of voice that is suitable to different sates and sentiments (nānā –bhava-rasānvitaḥ):

na hastābhinaya kārya kārya sattvasya sagraha tathā kākuviśeaśca nānābhavarasānvita NS.9.180

when a person is to represent himself as sad, fainting terrified, overcome with disgust or sorrow, weak, asleep, hand-less, inactive, drowsy, inert, sick, attacked with fever, seized with panic, attacked with cold, intoxicated, bewildered, mad, thoughtful, practicing austerities, residing in a cold region, prison or under arrest, running very swiftly, speaking in dream, suddenly moving away and cutting nails (NS.9.177-179)

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But, at the same time, the Natyashastra instructs that even when there is verbal acting (Vacicabhinaya) the eyes and the look (Dristi) should be directed to points at which the hand gestures are moving (tattad dṛṣṭi vilokanaiḥ), and there should be proper punctuation  so that the meaning may be clearly expressed. The intention is to enhance the appeal and total effect so that the language and the hand gestures support each other; and, become more eloquent.

yatra vyagrāvubhau hastau tattad dṛṣṭivilokanai vācakābhinaya kuryādvirāmairtha darśakai NS.9. 181

A similar rule appears in the Abhinaya Darpana: ‘Where the hand goes, there the eyes should follow; where the eyes are, there the mind should follow; Where the mind is, there the expression should be brought out; Where there is expression, there the Rasa will manifest.’

Yato Hasta tato Drushti; Yato Drushti tato Manaha; Yato Manaha tato Bhavaha; Yato Bhava tato Rasaha AD.37

This famous dictum is followed in all the Schools of dancing, while enacting Abhinaya.

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As regards the Karanas, four categories of the Karanas of the hand are mentioned: Avestita, Udvestita, Vyavartita and Parivartita.  The Hasthas (hand-gestures), in their various movements, when applied either in Dance or Drama, should be followed by Karanas having appropriate expression of the face, the eyebrows and the eyes.

The movements of the Hasthas can be in three ways: upwards, sideways and downwards. These movements have to be in tune with the suitable expressions in the eyes, the eye-brows and the face.

In regard to their application of the Hasthas, they can again be classified into three broad types: natural; interpretative; and, symbolic.

:- The Natural gestures generate from intentions calling for natural actions, which are simpler in communication; like come, go, stop, yes and no etc.

: – The Interpretative hand gestures are executed in imitative manner to represent objects; say, like birds, animals. The hand-gestures, in such cases, take their name after the objects they represent. They are also often used to translate a poetic image e.g. comparing the eyes of a Nayika with those of a deer (Mrganayani) or comparing them with lotus (Padmakshi) or the shape of a fish (Meenakshi). This category of hand-gestures may also be used to suggest actions like holding a sword and shield; or of movement of the wheels of a chariot, riding, movement of a horse etc.

: – The Symbolic hand-gestures are used mostly to express abstract notions; and, are best appreciated contextually. Concepts like truth and beauty are exquisitely expressed through hand gestures in the right context of  the unfolding of the plot of a story or description or narration.

This technique is to be utilized along with other aspects of Angikabhinaya, facial gestures, expressions reflected in the eyes and suggesting states and sentiments.  The overall effect of the suggestion should be augmented by the participation of the body as a whole.

Adavus

SARIRA

The Sarira-abhinaya relates to the actions of the major limbs (Anga).

Under the classification of Sarira abhinaya, while describing the Anga (major limbs), Bharata refers to the movement of the arms (bahu).

Bahu-Arms

Under this classification, Bharata refers to the movement of the arms (Bahu), in verses 212 to 213 of the Chapter 9. And, with that he concludes Chapter Nine.

Here he mentions ten types of Arm-movements, which evidently relate to training methods as also to the pure-dance technique Nrtta).They are also applied in Abhinaya portion (Nrtya) of the dance.

Tiryak, Urdhvagata, Adhomukha, Aviddha, Apaviddha, Mandala, Svastika, Aneita, Kuncita and Prsthaga

Tiryak tatho urdhvasasthohya adhomukhaś cā añcito’ apaviddhastu maṇḍala gatistathā svastikaś ca pṛṣṭhānu sāri ca 221

Abhinavagupta says, with the numerous circular movements (vaichitrena Bahu paryayayena) of the arms in different speeds, combined with various wrist positions, can generate innumerable Hastha gestures:

Yetheshu karaneshu chatushra drutha-madhya-vilambita-adi vaichitrena Bahu paryayayena cha samasthani yojina yada niyujyante tada patha vartanadi shatasaharenyvam ta brthani

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Chest (Urah or Vakasthalam)

The Chapter Ten commences with the descriptions of five types of chest; and, their uses in Abhinaya: (But, in the longer version, this appears at verse 224 of Chapter Nine).

ābhugnamatha nirbhugna tathā caiva prakampitam udvāhita sama caiva ura pañcavidha smtam 224

Abhugna (slightly bent), Nirbhugna (unbent), Prakampita (shaking), Udvahita (raised) and Sama (natural).

As regards their applications (Viniyoga), which are well suited to Abhinaya in the Natyadharmi mode:

Abhugna is used to show in hurry, despair, fainting, sorrow, fear, sickness, broken heart, touching of cold objects, rains; and, being ashamed of some act.

Nirbhugna is used to show resentment, look of surprise, assertion of truth, referring to oneself haughtily and excess of pride

Prakampita occurs in laughing, weeping, weariness, panic , hiccough and misery

Udvahita is used to show deep breathing, viewing some huge object and yawning

Sama is when all the limbs are in the Chaturasa; and with Sausthava of the chest

(Abhinaya Darpana does not describe the movements of the chest)

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Sides (Parsva)

Bharata says that the sides (Parsva) are of five kinds: Nata (bent) Sammunata (raised) Prasarita (extended) Vivartita (turned around); and, Apasrta (drawn away).

 nata samunnata caiva prasārita vivartito tathā apastameva tu pārśvayo karma pañcadhā NS.9.236

 As regards their uses in the Abhinaya:

Nata is where the waist is slightly bent on one side; and one shoulder is drawn away slightly. It is used for suggesting Abhinaya of approaching someone.

Samunnata is the counterpart of Nata. Here , the waist is raised on the other side ; and along with that the arms and shoulders are also raised, in going backwards.

Prasarita is stretching of the sides; as in joy and the like.

Vivartita is turning around.

 And, the Apasrta is drawing away; and, returning to the original position after Vivartita movement.

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Stomach (Udara)

The use of the stomach (belly), the Udara, in the Abhinaya, is said to be three kinds: Ksama (thin); Khalva (depressed) and Purna (full)

Udara tridhā tanu kāma nata , khalva pūram, ādhmātam ucyate NS.9. 243

In the Abhinaya , these come into play on different occasions : Ksama  (thin belly) in laughter, weeping inhalation and yawning; Khalva (depressed) in sickness, penance, weariness and hunger; and, Purna (full) in emitting breath, fatness, disease, too much eating and the like.

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Waist (Kati)

The waist in Dance, is said to be of five kinds: Chinna (turned aside, in turning the middle of the waist); Nivrtta (turned round, in turning to the front from the reverse position); Recita (moved about, in all directions); Prakampita (shaken, obliquely moving up and down); and, Udvahita (raised, in the raising of the waist slowly).

Chinā caiva nivttā ca recitā kampitā tathā udvāhitā caiva kaī nāye ntte ca pañcadhā NS.9.246

As regards the use of the waist in Dance : Chinna in exercising the limbs in showing hurry and looking around; Nivrtta in turning round; Recita in movements of general types; Prakampita in the walking of hunchbacks and persons of the inferior type; and, Udvahita to show the movements of corpulent persons and the amorous movements of  women.

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Thighs (Uru)

The uses of the thighs (Uru) and their principal movements, followed by those of the shank (Jangha) ; and, their  inter related movements are described in detail and classified.

The movements of the thighs (Uru) are said to be of five kinds: Kampana (shaking, raising and lowering of the heels repeatedly); Valana (turning, drawing the knees inward); Stambhana (motionless); Udvartana (springing up, drawing the knees inward and moving it ); and, Vivartana (turning around, drawing the heels inward).

kampana valana caiva stambhano udvartane tathā nivartana ca pañca itāny ūru karmāi kārayet Ns.9.252

In case of thighs, the frightened movements of persons of inferior types are to be shown by Kampana (shaking); while Valana (turning) is used in the movement by women at ease; Stambhana (motionlessness) in states suggesting perturbation and despair; Udvartana (springing up) in movements of classical dance; and, Vivartana (turning round) in going round due to causes like hurry.

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Shank (Jangha)

The position of the shank (Jangha) is said to be five kinds: Avartita (turned, left foot turning to the right and the right turning to the left); Nata (knees bent); Ksipta (knees thrown out); Udvahita (raising the shank up); and, Parivrtta (turning back of a shank)

āvartita nata kiptam udvāhitam athāpi ca parivtta tathā caiva jaghā-karmāi pañcadhā NS.9. 259

As regards their uses in Drama and Dance: Avartita in the jester’s walking; Nata for assuming standing position (sthana) and sitting postures (asana) ; Ksipta in classical dance; Udvahita in movements like quick walking; and, Parivrtta in classical dance and so on.

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Feet (Pada)

Padabhedha2

The feet and its movements are, of course, the most important aspects of Dance – both in its Nrtta and the Abhinaya formats.

The positions of the feet are said to be of five kinds: Udghattita, Sama, Agratala-sancara, Ancita and Kuncita

udghaṭṭita samaścaiva tathā agratala sañcara añcita kuñcitaś caiva pāda pañcavidha smta NS. 9. 266

Udghattita (standing on the forepart of the feet and then touching the ground with the heels); which, is applied in the execution of the Udghattita Karanas, both in the slow (vilamba) and fast (Dhruta) tempos (Kala)

Sama (feet naturally placed on an even ground); where the feet are kept still in natural positions of the various Karanas. But, in the Recakas, the feet should be moved

Agratala-sancara (the heels thrown up, the big toe put forward and the other toes bent); which is used in urging, breaking and standing postures(Sthanaka), kicking, striking the ground, walking, throwing away something; and , in various Recaka movements and in walking on the forepart  of the foot , as when the heel is injured

Ancita (the heels on the ground, the fore part of the feet raised and all the toes spread); which is to be applied in representing a movement with wound in the forepart of the foot, turning around in all ways, and in various Bhramaris

And,

 Kuncita (heels thrown up, toes all bent down and the middle of the feet too bent), which is to be used in elegant , proud (Uddata) gaits , turning around to right and left , and in the Atikranta Cari

It is mentioned; the persons practicing the Caris should take up simultaneously the movements of the feet, the shanks and the thighs; for, in the movement of feet are included all the movements of shanks and thighs. The thighs follow the way in which the feet are moved and these two limbs constitute together the cari of the feet.

These descriptions of the different actions of the feet (Pada-bheda) are particularly relevant to the various Nrtta postures and movements of the Anga and Pratyangas. It is also greatly used in the Abhinaya aspects of the Bharatanatya and Kuchipudi dance forms.

[The Abhinaya Darpana does not specifically discuss movements of the feet. It factors the whole leg, from thighs to toes, as a single Pada-bheda outlining the actions like standing, walking, roaming, and jumping. In its discussion of the jumps (utplavanas), spiral movements or turns (Bhramaris) and the different types of walking Caris and Padacari, it utilizes the various positions of the feet, as described in the Natyashastra. And, it also indicates, fairly clearly, whether the toe or the heel or both should touch the ground in any of the movements.]

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Stanakas – Static Postures

Sthanakas

After this description of the individual limbs, Bharata takes up the postures and movements of the entire body (Chapter Ten, verses 50-71). As many as forty Sthanas are discussed under the category of static postures. They are: Vaisnava, Samapada, Vaisakha, Mandala, Alidha and Pratyalidha, which used variously.

vaiṣṇava samapāda ca vaiśākha maṇḍala tathā pratyālīha tathālīha sthānānyetāni a nṛṇā NS.10.51

The descriptions of these Sthanas and their applications on the Nrtta and Abhinaya are provided in fair detail.

:- Vaishnava: the feet are kept two and a half Talas apart from each other. One of them should be on the ground in the natural posture, the other is lifted and turned sideways with the toes stretched and turned towards the shin. The body and arms are in the Saushthava position.

In the Vaishnava posture, persons of the superior and the middling types should carry on their ordinary conversation while performing their various duties. It should he used in throwing a disc, holding a how, in patient and stately movement of the limbs and in anger. On being reversed it is to be used in anger or love. And similarly in the administration of rebuke, and in love, distress, apprehension, envy, cruelty, assurance and recollection, it is to be assumed when the erotic, the marvelous, the odious and the heroic sentiments are prominently introduced. The presiding deity of this sthana is Vishnu.

:- Samapada: the feet are kept in their natural posture at one Tala‘s distance and the body keeps the natural Saushthava position.

The Samapada posture is to he assumed while accepting blessings from the elders. The bridegroom at the marriage ceremony, persons in the sky, chariot and aerial car, and persons practicing / vows are also to assume this Sthana. The presiding deity is Brahma.

:- Vaisakha: the feet are kept three and a half Talas apart from each other, the thighs remain steady and the feet are raised and moved apart.

The Vaisakha Sthana is to he assumed while riding horses and in exercise, exit, mimicking large birds, practice of bending the bow and in the Recakas of the feet. The presiding deity of this sthana is Kartikeya.

:- Mandala:  the feet are turned sideways and are kept at four Talas apart; thighs and knees also look sideways and the waist remains in its natural position.

The Mandala-sthana should he assumed in the use of weapons like the bow and the thunderbolt, riding of elephants and mimicking large birds. The presiding deity of this Sthana is Indra.

:- Alidha: if the right foot in the Mandala position is moved sideways at 5 Talas distance from the left foot, then it is called Alidha.

Alidha should be assumed in all acts relating to the heroic and the furious sentiments (Vira and Raudra Rasas), duel of wrestlers and in the representation of enemies, an attack on them and release of missiles. The presiding deity is Rudra.

:- Pratyalidha: the right foot is bent and is in the Kunchita position; and, the left foot is stretched opposite to the Alidha position.

Pratyalidha is used in relation to Alidha-sthana. The missies made ready for throwing from the Alidha sthana are to be actually thrown from the Pratyalidha –sthana.

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These postures are important from the point of Abhinaya, particularly in the Dance-dramas depicting battle scenes. In such cases, the shooting of an arrow and releasing missies and other actions are enacted in Alidha and Pratyalidha postures

The interesting description is found about the four Nyayas in using weapons in the fights: Bharata, Sattvata, Varsaganya and Kaisika.  These are called as Nyayas, because the fights on the stage are regulated (niyante) by the type of the Angaharas. In these Nyayas arising out of the various Caris, the actors should walk about on the stage at the time of using weapons.

bhārata sātvataścaiva vāragayo’tha kaiśika bhārate tu kaīcchedya pādacchedya tu sātvate NS.10.73

These are the ways of handling the weapons: in the Bharata, the weapon should strike at the waist; in the Sattvata at the foot; in the Varsaganya at the chest; and, in the Kaisika at the head.

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Gaits (Gati)

The various Gatis, the gates, are described in Chapter 13 in one version; and, in Chapter 12 of another version of the Natyashastra.  The descriptions (gatipracāra) of the gaits ,  here, are given with reference to their uses by different types of characters in a Drama, broadly divided into three categories: superior, middling and inferior.

But, these can also be adopted into the Abhinaya in Dance.

Natyashastra mentions that the gaits are to be executed in – slow, medium and quick – tempos (Kaalas), according to the nature of 45 different characters.

Bharta then explains the types of gaits in various Rasas (such as Srngara, Vira, Hasya, Vira etc). For instance; in love-scene, the gait of the lover should, generally, be graceful; but, when the lover meets his love secretly, his gaits should be slow, careful and silently watching around with anxiety.

Bharata also describes the walking styles (Gati) and postures (Sthana) of women, as : Ayata, Avahittha and Asvakranta

strīā sthānāni kāryāi gativābharaeu ca āyata cāvahittha ca aśvakrāntamathāpi ca NS.12.160

He mentions: Ayata-sthana of women (right foot in Sama and the other placed obliquely) is to be used in invocation, dismissal, observing carefully, and thinking; and, in concealment. As the dancer enters the stage, holding flowers in her hands (Pushpanjali); and, later scatters those flowers on the stage, she is said to assume Ayata-sthana.

The Avahittha posture (left foot in Sama and the right foot placed obliquely)  is when the dancer keeps her left foot in Sama; and the other at the side Tryasra and the left waist rose. It is said to be a natural posture for women when engaged in conversation; and, when in playfulness, amorous diligence or looking towards the way, expecting someone.

The Asvakranta-sthana (one foot in Sama and the other bent on the forepart ) is to be assumed while taking hold of the branch of a tree; plucking a cluster of flowers; or while taking rest or in repose. The Dancer maintains this Sthana till any movement (Cari) begins. Bharata adds that this is the rule of the Sthana  is common for women and men

However, Bharata says that it should be remembered that these rules regarding the Sthanas need not be strictly followed; and, different gaits and postures can  be adopted following the practice of people; and, the dancer’s imagination.

Abhinavagupta also mentions that in the Nrtta though the Gati could generally follow the Natyadharmi, one should also keep in view the context  (prasanga) of the times, the situation (desham, kalam) and the prevalent practices (vaktavya)

Cari, Mandala prasangasya chitta-vrttitvad Gati viniyoga meva pratijanite/ Gatisha prakrutim rasa-avastham desham kalam cha apekshya vakthavya prati purusha abhidanath

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Sitting postures (Asana)

The Chapter 12 of the Natyashastra gives detailed description and uses of the various sitting postures. These are stylized postures, according to the nature of the characters. Bharata also refers to the postures in bed.

Nānā bhāva samāyuktas tathā ca śayanā aśraya vikambhitā añcitau pādau trika kiñcit sam-unnatam NS.12.203

There are variety of postures to be assumed as per the occasion and context like sitting at ease, in a thinking mood, in sorrow, in fainting and intoxication, in shame and sleep, on ceremonial occasions ; pacifying a beloved woman, in worshipping a deity. These activities are covered by the plot of the Rupaka and Uparupakas. Therefore, they are found in vogue in varying degree with variations as per the context, the place and the practice.

There are rules regarding offering seats to persons of different social stations and the offices held by them. These rules are of seats  are distinguished according the context and the location in which seats are offered ; say , in royal courts, in the inner apartments , in public places etc.  But, while in one’s own house, one can take any seat according to one likes.

Lying-down postures (Shayana)

Six lying-down postures are mentioned by Bharata. They are Akuncita, Sama, Prasarita, Vivartita, Udvahita and Nata.

ākuñcita sama caiva prasāritavivartane udvāhita nata caiva śayane karma kīrtyate NS.12.228

Akuncita: limbs should be narrowed down and knees stuck to the bed; and, it is used in representing persons attacked with cold;

Sama: face should be turned up and hands dropping down freely; it is used in deep sleep;

Prasarita: one arm is used as pillow and the knees stretched; it is for representing one enjoying sleep of happiness;

Vivartita: lying down with face downward; it is used to suggest wound from any weapon, death, vomiting, intoxication and lunacy;

Udvahita: head should be resting on the hand or the shoulder and elbow pressing the ground; it  is used in sports and on entrance of the master; and,

Nata: shanks should be slightly stretched and both hands loose; it is to be used in laziness, fatigue and distress.

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In this limited space, I have tried to cover a fairly large area of Angikahhinaya and Natyadharmi mode as per the tradition of the Natyashastra. I am aware of my inadequacies.  But, I trust the articles in this series will ignite the desire to earnestly go further and to study the texts in their own contexts; and, also to devise methods and techniques to apply their principles to suit the present-day Dance scenario. That would, hopefully, help to keep alive our dance traditions, albeit with slight requisite modifications, in the context of our time.

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In the next part we shall move on to other texts dealing with Dance and its several aspects

Continued

In

Part Nine

 

References and Sources

The illustrations of Samabhanga, Abhanga and Atibhanga are from the Brahmiya Chitra karma Shastra by Dr. G.Gnananada

The Sutra illustration is by Shilpa Siddanthi Sri Siddalingaswamy of Mysore

ALL OTHER PICTURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS ARE FROM INTERNE

 

 
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Posted by on October 21, 2018 in Art, Natya

 

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