RSS

Tag Archives: Someshvara

The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Sixteen

Continued From Part Fifteen

Lakshana Granthas Continued

11. Sangita-ratnakara of Sarangadeva

Clipboard01

Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara  (first half of 13th century) is of particular importance; because, it was written just before influence of the Muslim conquest began to assert itself on Indian culture.  The Music and dance discussed in Sangita-ratnakara is free from Persian influence.  The Sangita-ratnakara, therefore, marks the stage at which the ‘integrated’ Music of India was , before it branched into North-South Music traditions.

[Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara was published by Adyar Library in four volumes. Please click here for : Vol IVol II ; Vol III and Vol IV 

And, please click here for the Sanskrit text of the Nartana-adhyaya]

The Sangita- ratnakara (the ocean of Sangita) describes the varied aspects of Sangita. The Sangita that the text refers to is indeed a composite term. The Sangita, according to Sarangadeva, is a comprehensive Art-form, composed of three elements (taurya-trika): the vocal (Gitam) and instrumental (Vadyam) music; followed by the third, the dance (Nrtyam) – Gitam, Vadyam tatha Nrtyam trayam Samgitam uccyate. 

The last one, the Nrtyam, is comprised of all the three Angas:  the elements: song, instrumental music, and, Dance.

Sangita

Here, the first element (Anga) of Sangita, the Gitam, the song format, is a fusion of Nada (sounds) and Akshara (a composition made of words). Its musical element is named Dhathu; while its lyrics or composition made of words is called Mathu. Locana Pandita, in his Raga-tarangini, explains the term Gitam, as:

Dhatu-matu-samayauktam Gitam iti uccyate budhaih; tatra nadatmako dhatur mathur akshara sambhavah

The Gitam, going by its traditional definition, strictly belongs to the Salaga Suda class of Prabandha, which is composed two Angas (elements) – Pada (words) and Taala (time-beats); and, having three components or Dhatus (Tri-dhatuka Prabandha) :  Udgraha, Dhruva and Abhoga.  For more on that, please click here. But, in common practice, anything that is sung goes by the name of Gita (Giyata iti Gitam).

The next term Vadyam, covers a wide variety of musical instruments, such as: the varied string instruments; different types of Drums; bell-metal cymbals; and a host of wind instruments including flutes, pipes, conch, trumpets etc.

Thus, the Sangita Shastra as envisaged by Sarangadeva was a composite Art consisting Gita (melodic-forms); Vadya (instruments); and, Nrtta (dance or limb movements). 

By the time of Sangita-ratnakara (13th Century), three Angas (limbs) of Sangita were well developed. Of these, the Vocal music was regarded as the essential, fundamental music through which all other forms of music were to be understood and interpreted. Here again, Sarangadeva focuses on Desi Sangita, though he comments on aspects of Marga Sangita as well. On Dance (Nrtya), he offers clear picture of both Marga and Desi traditions, although in a concise manner.

*

In his work Sangita-ratnakaraSarangadeva devotes seven chapters (Sapta-adhyayi) for discussing these three components (Anga-s) of Sangita; but, mainly about the first two. These seven Chapters covering varied aspects of Sangita are:

(1) Svara-gata-adhyaya ; (2) Raga-viveka-adhyaya (3) Prakinaka-adhyaya (4) Prabhandha-adhyaya (5) Tala-adhyaya; (6) Vadya-adhyaya; and,  (7) Nartana-adhyaya

The first six Chapters discuss, what is now known as Music – vocal and instrumental – (Gitam and Vadyam); and, these Chapters, together, are reckoned among the longest works on Music, in Sanskrit, covering all its vital aspects. The First Chapter deals with Nada (the principle of sound);  the Second with Raga (musical modes); the Third with Prakirna (miscellaneous topics relating to music); the Fourth with Prabandha (structured composition); the Fifth with Marga (classical) and Desi (regional) types of Taala (rhythm); and, the Sixth with Vadya (musical instruments).

Apart from these, the Sangita-ratnakara highlighted the ever changing nature of music; the expanding role of regional (Desi) influences on it, and the increasing complexity of musical material that needed to be systemised over a period. Yet; Sarangadeva was rooted in the prevalent musical practices of his time. His stress was consistently on the Lakshya, the music as practiced than on ancient theories (Lakshana), which though he respects them highly.

Thus, Sangita-ratnakara not only provides material for the study of the ancient music, but it also gives an insight into the then current practices. In his writing, Sarangadeva draws a clear distinction between the well established ancient (purva prasiddha) and the contemporary popular (adhuna prasiddha) Ragas. He also gives descriptions of the structures and temperaments of   musical instruments such as Veena and Vamsa (flute) according to the practices of his times. 

Therefore, the Sangita-ratnakara is regarded as a standard work or an authoritative text, on which the later scholars and commentators drew upon copiously.

*

[There are two well known commentaries on Sangita-ratnakara: the Kalanidhi of Chatura Kallinatha (c.1430); and, the Sangita-sudhakara of Simhabhupala (c.1330). Most of the editions of the Sangita-ratnakara are published along with these two commentaries, with the description:

Sangitaratnakarah, Chatura Kallinathaya virachitaya Kalanidhdya tikaya; Simhabhula virachitaya Sangitasudhakara tikaya cha samethah

Of the two, the Kalanidhi of Kallinatha (c.1430) is considered almost as a supplement to Sangita-ratnakara; as it expands on the text by citing verses of other authorities, and also introducing some new elements. For instance; Kallinatha, while commenting upon the descriptions of the Arm-movements, adds an entire section on the Vartana of which he describes thirty-one varieties (SR.7.270 to 286; Pages 105 to 110). Again, he adds another section on fifty types of Calanas or Calakas, another type of arm movement (pages 111 to 124). Further, Kallinatha quotes from the ancient authority Kohala, on the subject of Caris; and adds a new a new type Cari called Madhupa-cari (SR. pp.313-17)

The King, Simhabhupala, of the Recherla dynasty of Rajachala in Andhra, in his commentary Sangita-sudhakara (c.1330), written about a hundred years earlier Kallinatha’s Kalanidhi, tried to clarify the topics dealt by Sarangadeva in a clear manner. It provides some valuable information culled from the older texts. He cites from a certain text named Prayogastabaka, said to be a commentary the Dattilam ascribed to Dattila (Ca. First century); but, its manuscript, so far, has not been found.]

Dances

The Seventh and the last Chapter (Nartana-adhyaya) of the Sangita-ratnakara is about the third component of the Sangita, which is Nartana, the Dance format which includes Nrtta, Natya, and Nrtya. Here, Sarangadeva follows King Someshvara (Manasollasa) who had divided Nartana into three categories: Nrtta, Natya and Nrtya.  Though the Chapter on Dance is titled Nartana, it discusses mainly its Nrtta and Natya aspects.

On the subject of Dance, Sarangadeva has less information to offer than his contemporary Jaya Senapati (Nrtta-ratnavali, 13th century). But, what he offers is concise and systematic, presenting a clear picture of two Dance traditions – Marga and Desi – as were practiced dancing in the author’s time. And, the Seventh Chapter, the Nartana-adhyaya, with 1678 Verses, is the longest Chapter of the text.

And, so far as Dance is considered, Sangita-ratnakara marks the stage when Dance came to be viewed and treated as an independent Art-form; and, not as a mere ingredient adding beauty to a theatrical presentation. And, another significant feature was that the regional, the Desi style of Dance was given due importance, along with the classical Marga. Here, Sarangadeva was following the trend set by King Someshvara, in his Manasollasa.

Now, we are mainly interested in the last and the Seventh Chapter Nartana-adhyaya, dealing with Dance.

Sarangadeva

Sarangadeva / Sharangdeva (1175–1247) gives some information about himself in the beginning of the work. Sarangadeva introduces himself as belonging to a family which hailed from Kashmir. His grandfather Bhaskara, an Ayurveda physician, moved from Kashmir into the newly found Yadava capital at Devagiri (Maharashtra), in the Deccan region, at the invitation of King Bhillanna V (1173-1192). After the death of Bhillanna, his son Jaitrapala or Jaitugi ascended the throne and ruled for a short period. He was succeeded in 1200 by Sevuna (Yadava) King Simhana/Singhana (1200-1247). He was a very powerful king and also a great patron of arts, literature, and science. It was during his reign that Sarangadeva was appointed in his father’s (Sodhala’s) post as the Royal Accountant (Sri-karana-agrani). Along with his work at the King’s offices, Sarangadeva continued to practice the family profession of Ayurveda. He is also said to have written a Vedanta work entitled Adhyatma-viveka. That work is not available now.

During his spare hours, Sarangadeva was busy composing his monumental work on Indian music the Sangita Ratnakara, the Ocean of Sangita. It turned out to be one of the important and comprehensive Sanskrit texts on Music of India.

**

The Nartana-adhyaya opens with the famous verse, which is commonly associated with the Abhinaya Darpana of Nandikeshvara.

Angikam Bhuvanam sloka

Angikam Bhuvanam Yasya, Vachikam Sarva Vangmayam, Aaharyam Chandra Taradi, Tam Namah Saattvikam Shivam 

Whose bodily movements is the entire universe; whose speech is the language and literature of the entire Universe; whose ornaments are the moon and the stars; Him we worship, the serene Lord Shiva. ..!

There is, in fact, a protracted debate about the original authorship of the first forty verses of the Nartana-adhyaya.

Dr. K. Kunjunni Raja, in the introduction to the Fourth Part of the Sangita-ratnakara, edited and translated by him (published by Adyar Library, 1976), observes , it appears that nearly forty-two  verses in the introductory portions of the Seventh Chapter of the  Sangita-ratnakara , are almost the same as the introductory verses found in the Abhinaya-Darpana ascribed to Nandikeshvara.

The question is who borrowed from whom?

At the outset, it appears as though Sarangadeva borrowed these portions from the Abhinaya-Darpana.  However, the commentators, King Simhabhupala (c.1330), author of the Sangitasudhakara; and Kallinatha (c.1430) author of the Kalanidhi assert that the introductory verses of the Nartana-adhyaya are genuinely Sarangadeva’s own verses. If that is so, then the date of the Abhinaya Darpana would be pushed further down.

But, the Abhinaya Darpana mentions that these verses are the teachings of the older authorities – Yetani purva-shastra-anusarena ukthani ve maya (AD.47)

It is also likely that Nandikeshvara and Sarangadeva, both borrowed from a common source.

Yet; the question is still open.

*

In the introductory section of the First Chapter, Sarangadeva lists a number of earlier authorities, the essence of whose views, he states, he is presenting in his work.

Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara is a great compilation, not an original work, which ably brings together various strands of the past music traditions found in earlier works like Nāţyashastra, Dattilam, Bŗhaddēśī, and Sarasvatī-hŗdayālańkāra-hāra. It is greatly influenced by Abhinavagupta’s Abhinavabharati and Someshvara’s Manasollasa. But for Sangita-ratnakara, it might have been more difficult to understand NatyasastraBrhaddesi and other ancient texts.

Chapter Seven, which is the last Chapter, is in two parts.  The first one deals with Nartana. The term Nartana is a common term representing the arts of Nŗtta, Nŗtya and Nāţya (SR. 7. 3).

In describing the Marga tradition of Dance, Sarangadeva follows Natyashastra. In fact, the whole of the Seventh Chapter draws most of its material from Natyashastra and its commentaries. Many of the passages narrated therein (say, verses 78 to 89) are straightaway taken from the Ninth Chapter of Natyashastra. Even the definitions offered in this Chapter are adopted from other sources.

As regards the Desi class of Dance he improves upon the explanations offered in Manasollasa of King Someshvara and Sangita Samayasara of Parsvadeva.

In the second part of this Chapter, the author describes the Bhavas  (states or moods) and the related Nine Rasa-s, namely, Śrńgāra, Vīra, Hāsya, Raudra, Adbhuta, Karuņā, Bhayānaka, Bībhatsa and Shānta.

*

Sarangadeva commences his exposition on Dance with the statement that the Natya-Veda is, indeed, threefold: Natya, Nrtya and Nrtta (Natya, Nrtya tatha Nrtta tridha tadipi kititam- SR.7.3)

[Here Sarangadeva is following the classification as given in the Manasollasa; except that he does not use the term Nartana, as Someshvara did to represent the Dance , in general.]

Of these three, Sarangadeva explains the term Natya as that through which Rasa manifests (Natya sabdau Rase mukhyo Rasabhivyaki karanam – SR.17.18) . It connotes Abhinaya, through which the import of the Drama is expressed by the actors, in varied ways, providing uninterrupted joy to the spectators (SR.7.19).

He explains Nrtya as that which expresses Bhavas (various states and moods) through Angika-abhinaya; and, it is of the Marga class (SR.7.26)

And, Nrtta, he says, is only the movements of the body (gatra-vishepa matra), devoid of Abhinayas (sarva-abhinaya vargitam) SR.7.28.

Then, Sarangadeva mentions three varieties of Nrtta: Visama (acrobatic, dancing around with ropes etc.,); Vikata (comical or ludicrous in ungainly dress and movements; and, Laghu (of Ancita and other easy Karanas) – SR.7.31.32

The Natyashastra had earlier described Tandava as the Nrtta performed by Shiva; and Sukumara (Lasya) as Parvati’s dance. And, Bharata had not qualified these dance types as either being aggressive or gentle. There was, of course, mention of Nrtya.

But, here, Sarangadeva differed from Bharata. He classified both the Nrtta and Nrtya into two kinds: Tandava and Lasya (SR.7.28). Further, he said that Tandava requires Uddhata (forceful, aggressive) and Lasya requires Lalita (delicate, gentle)   movements (SR. 7. 29- 30).

Thus, according to Sarangadeva, the Nrtya covers rhythmic limb movements (Nrtta) as also eloquent gestures expressing emotions through Abhinaya. It is a harmonious combination of facial expressions, various glances, poses and meaningful movements of the hands, fingers and feet. Nrtyam, the dance, delightfully brings together and presents in a very highly expressive, attractive visual and auditory form, the import of the lyrics (sahitya), the nuances of its emotional content to the accompaniment of soulful music and rhythmic patterns (tala-laya). And, Nrtya can portray both the Tandava and the Lasya Dance movements.

As mentioned earlier; with exception of some elements, the treatment of the Angika-Abhinaya in the Sangita-ratnakara, to a large extent, follows the Natyashastra of Bharata. But, Sarangadeva made some changes in the arrangement of the limbs, within the three groups of limbs: Anga, Upanga and Pratyanga. Here, Sarangadeva followed the Manasollasa of Someshvara – (Verses 38 to 42). For instance;

Anga

SR Anga

Bharata, under the category Anga, the major body-parts, had listed six parts as: the head,  the chest, the sides, the hips, the hands and the feet.

Here, Sarangadeva, following the general pattern as laid down by Bharata, adopts, under the Anga, the six body parts: the head; the two hands; the chest; the sides; the hips and two feet. In addition to these Six, he adds the shoulders also.

Here, Sarangadeva differed from both Bharata and Someshvara [who had included shoulders and belly in place of the hands (Hasthas) and the feet (Padas)].

Pratyanga

SR PratyangaBharata, under the Pratyanga, had mentioned six parts as: the neck, the belly, the thighs, the shanks and the arms.

Sarangadeva included all these six parts under the Pratyanga; and, in addition he also counted the knees and wrists. Here, Sarangadeva followed the classification made by Someshvara.

 

 Upanga

And, under Upangas, Bharata had included nine elements , such as : the eyes; the eyebrows; the eyelids; pupils; the nose; the lips; the cheeks; the chin and the mouth; in addition to facial colors.

[Sarangadeva enumerates thirty-six varieties of glances, as did Bharata. And, he remarks: these may be taken only as illustrations; but, in fact, its possibilities are innumerable, depending upon the actions of the brows, pupils and the eyelids.]

SR UpangaSarangadeva, in addition to the nine Upangas in the head, as mentioned by Bharata, brought in the elements of the breath, the teeth and the tongue. However, Bharata had not considered these three as Upangas.

Apart from the twelve Upangas located in the head, Sarangadeva counted the heels; the ankles; the fingers of the hand; the toes; and the soles of the feet. Here he was clearly deviating both from Bharata and Someshvara. Because, Someshvara had included only the tongue and teeth as Upangas, in addition to those mentioned by Bharata; but, he had not included those parts with other limbs as Upangas. Obviously, Sarangadeva adopted these details from some other source.

 

*

As regards, the colours of the Face (Mukha-raga), Sarangadeva adopts the four colours as mentioned in the Natyashastra: Svabhavika (natural); Prasanna (clear); Raktha (red); and, Shyama (dark) Verses 527-528

Asamyuktahastas

As regards the position of the hands (Kara-Pracara), Bharata had classified these into three kinds: Uttana (facing upward); Adhomukha (facing downward); and , Parsvagata (turned to the sides). Sarangadeva , however, adds twelve more  positions of the hands as sub-classification of  the three mentioned by Bharata: Agratastala (palm facing forward); Svasamm-mukhatala (palms turned to oneself); Urdhva-mukha (pointing upward); Adho-vadana (pointing downward); Paran-mukha (pointing outward); Sammukha (pointing toward oneself); Parsvato-mukha (pointing to the sides) ; Urdhvaga (moving up); Adhogata (moving down); Parsva-gata (moving to the side) ; Agraga (moving forward); and, Sammukha-gata (moving toward oneself). (Verses 532-537, Page 182)


flower design

Sarangadeva mentions (in Verses 42 to 48, Pages 16-17) that henceforth, in the Chapters to follow, he would be describing:

Sarangadeva mentions (in Verses 42 to 48, Pages 16-17) that henceforth, in the Chapters to follow, he would be describing:

: – The positions of the hands (Kara-Pracara); the movements of the hands (Kara-Karana); the actions of the hands (Kara-Karma); the places for the hands (Hastha-kshetra);

:- The descriptions of the two-fold Karanas , the Marga and the Desi Nrtta karanas,  those accompanied by jumps (Utpluti); the Angaharas along with their Recakas ; the Caris , with their Marga and Desi variants; the Sthanakas; the Vrttis; the Nyayas , with their Pravicaras , the Mandalas of all kinds;

: – The descriptions of the Lasyangas; the Rcakas;

: – The procedures for practice (Srama) of Dance ; the definition of a person fit for Dancing (Patra); the qualifications of a Nartaki, the qualifications of the Dance-teacher; the merits and de-merits of the Dance troupe;

: – The descriptions of the Acharya, the Nata, the Nartaka, Vaitalika, Carana, and Kolhatika;

: – Particulars of the rules relating to Gundali; the correct description of Peranin and his style;

: – The descriptions of the assembled spectators, the leader of the assembly, and the location of the assembly; and,

: – The descriptions of the Nava Rasa-s and Bhava-s;

Sarangadeva , generally, follows the descriptions provided in the Natyashastra and the  Manasollasa , while enumerating the different  positions and movements of the various elements and components of the body; the Caris, Sthanas,  Karanas and the Angaharas of both the Marga and the Desi types; the Lasyangas; qualities of the Dancers; qualities of the Dance teacher; the Desi Nrtta and its various forms ; and , discussions on the Rasas , Bhavas etc.

**

Sarangadeva’s description of Caris, Sthanas, Karanas and Angaharas of the Marga type are as per the Natyashastra.

[Sarangadeva explains Cari as the combination of the beautiful movements of the feet, shanks, thigh and the hips, performed in coordination. The term Cari, he says, is derived from root Car ( to move); and, by adding the suffix i (n) and ni , at the end.]

But, the Desi styles of Bhumi (36 types) and Akashi Caris (19 types); six Sthanas for men, seven Sthanas for women and twenty-three Desi Sthanas; nine sitting and six reclining Sthanas (altogether fifty-one Sthanas); the four types of Vrittis; the Bhumi and Akashi Mandalas; the Desi Lasyangas; and the 36 Utpluti-karanas from regional traditions, which demand strenuous physical exertion and perfect control of the limbs, are the same as those in the Manasollasa of Someshvara.

Some of the thirty-six Utpluti-karanas in the Sangita-ratnakara are also the same as in the Manasollasa, which lists eighteen karanas of the Desi variety (Manas. 16. 4. 1384-99).

*

As regards Bhramaris, in the Natyashastra, the Bhramari was the name of a Cari; and, it was not a particularly complicated revolving movement.

In the later times, many types of Bhramaris were developed; all of them being variations of the whirling movements. Gradually, as these diversified into more elaborate movements, they came to be recognized as constituting a distinct class. The earliest text to do so was Parsvadeva’s Sangita-samayasara (7.193) a treatise on Desi music and dance prevalent in 13th century; and, it describes eleven Desi karanas; along with five Bhramaris.  

The Abhinaya-Darpana (289- 98) also regards the Bhramaris as a distinct group.

Here, Sarangadeva was following Parsvadeva, who had described Utpluti-karanas needed for the Desi Nrtta along with eleven Desi Karanas with different Desi Sthanas; and, five Bhramaris.

These Bhramaris are included among Utpluti-karanas by Sarangadeva, also. And, it indicates that by his time, the Bhramaris were so developed and so important as to be regarded as a form of Karanas.

karanas_dribbble

After the description of the Sthanas which include sitting and lying postures that are appropriate to drama, the author discusses the four types of vrttis (caturdha Vrtti) , the modes of depiction and styles of presentation : Kaisiki; Sattvati; Arabhati; and, Bharati. Bharata regarded the Vrttis or the Styles as one among the most important constituent elements of the play. In fact, he considered the Vrttis as the mother of all poetic works – sarveāmeva kāvyānāṃ-mātkā vttaya smḥ (NS.18.4).

This is followed by a description of Mandala (combination of Caris); and then of ten Lasyangas of the Desi variety.

Jaya Senapati (Nrtta-ratnavali), who was a contemporary of Sarangadeva, gives a list of forty-six Lasyangas; and, Parsvadeva, who preceded both, had listed twenty Desi Angas.

But it is Sarangadeva’s list of ten Lasyangas that was cited by the  later authors.

**

Next, Sarangadeva describes the Gaundali and the Perani, the two dances commonly performed in the Desi tradition.  Here, Sarangadeva follows Sangita-Samayasara of Parsvadeva.

Parsvadeva, had mentioned Perana, Pekkhana, Gundali and Dandarasa, as forms of the Desi-Nrtya. He had also discussed the Sthanas and Caris needed for these Desi types of dances; and, in particular, the five elements or components (Angas) of Perana Dance: Nrtta, Kaivara, Ghargara, Vagada and Gita.

Parsvadeva had described Nrtta as consisting Lasya and Tandava aspects , which are based rhythm and tempo; Kaivara as praising the king through praising his ancestors; Gharghara as rhythmic stamping of feet , with bells tied to the ankles; Vagada as miming of ludicrous characters; and, Gita as a song sung according to the rules of a pure or mixed raga, complete with Alapa.

In that context, he had given the details of the instrumental music, drumming in particular, needed for four kinds of Desi dances, namely, Perana, Pekkhana, Gundali and Dandarasa. Parsvadeva had also indicated the requirements of a good dancer, her physical appearance; and, the way she should be dressed etc.

Sarangadeva, following Parsvadeva, also talks of the qualities and appearance of the Peranin a male dancer; and, says that the Peranin should : have his body covered with white coloured ash ; have his head shaved, leaving a small tuft of hair (Shikha); wear number of shining anklet-bells (Ghargharika); have a good voice ; be clever; be an expert in Tala and Laya; and, should be an attractive dancer (Verses 1301-3, Pages 384-85)

He also explains the sequential process of a performance, including the musical accompaniment, in the pure mode or Shuddha-paddhati, and the Gaundali of the Desi tradition (Verses 1316-25, Page 389). Here, Sarangadeva follows Manasollasa, entirely

The Gaundali and the Perani  seemed to have been the most common Dance-items in Desi tradition; because, they are mentioned in all the texts from the Sangita-samayasara in the twelfth/thirteenth century down to the Siva-tattva-ratnakara of Basavabhupala of Keladi (1684 A.D.-1710 A.D.)

And, Perani was popular, particularly in the Andhra region. And, Jaya Senapati had discussed it in fair detail. Its popularity is attributed to its fast movements; and, to the use of ankle bells.

Pekkhana or Preksana, a Desi Dance with Lasya and Gaundali are described with accompanying vocal and instrumental music. The Gaundali dance certainly survived till the eighteenth century; but,  later, it seemed to have faded away.

*

After describing these two dance pieces, Sarangadeva enumerates the qualifications of the Acharya (the teacher); the Nata (the actor); the Nartaka (the dancer); the Vaitalika (a common entertainer); the Charana (an expert in understanding Gharghara, a distinctive feature of the Desi dances of the Dravida region); and, the Kolatika (a performer who specializes in Bhramari, rope-walking and dancing with a dagger). Next, he describes the audience and the sitting arrangements.

Then, after describing the Lasyangas, Sarangadeva explains the importance of aesthetic beauty; and,  lays down the rules of exercise, and describes the qualities and faults of a performer (including a description of her make-up and costume), and those of the teacher and the group of supporting performers. Then he describes the sequential process of a performance, including the musical accompaniment, in the pure mode or Shuddha Paddhati.

The Chapter offers guidelines for dance practice; dancer’s merits, credentials and shortcomings; and, the description of the music/performance hall. In doing so he combines the material from the Natyashastra with that from later works; and , presents a coherent view not found in previous works.

rasas

In the second part of this Chapter, the author describes Rasas , the Nine Rasas (Nava-rasa), thirty-three Sthayi-bhavas, eight Sattvika-bhavas , thirty-three Vyabichari  Bhavas; and the definition of Sattva. Sarangadeva largely follows the explanations offered by Abhinavagupta on the theories of Rasa.

Sarangadeva mentions that all the eight kinds of states or Sattvika-bhavas (temperamental states) can appear in any of the Rasas. And, in a Drama one Rasa must be made prominent; and, other Rasas should be supplementary.

**

The Seventh and the Final Chapter concludes with the Verse wherein Sarangadeva avers that he did not compile this work out of pride of his learning or knowledge; but, as a means to reach out and to seek a place in the hearts and minds of the learned.

Na vidya-darpato grantha pravrttirmam kim tvidam / Vidvan manasa –vasaya gantu patheyam asthitam // SR.7.1678 , Page 476 //

sangita-ratnakara-.jpg

lotus333

In the Next Part, we shall move on to another text.

Continued

In

The Next Part

 

References and Sources

  1. Movement and Mimesis: The Idea of Dance in the Sanskritic Tradition by Dr Mandakranta Bose
  2. Sangita ratnakara  https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-
  3. Sangita ratnaj -kars : https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt- https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-
  4. All images are from Internet

 

 
Leave a comment

Posted by on December 10, 2018 in Art, Natya

 

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Fourteen

Continued From Part Thirteen

Lakshana Granthas – continued

 9. Manasollasa / Abhilasita-artha-cintamani of King Somesvara

someshvara 01

Manasollasa (मानसोल्लासthat which delights Manas-heart and mind), also called Abhjilashitarta-Chintamani (the wish-fulfilling precious gem)  ascribed to the Kalyana Chalukya King Someshwara III (ruled 1126-1138 AD) is an encyclopaedic work, written in Sanskrit, covering wide ranging varieties of subjects.

Someshvara III was the third in the line of the Kings of the Kalyani Chalukyas (also known as Western Chalukyas). He was the son of the renowned King Vikramaditya VI (1076-1126) and Queen Chandaladevi. King Someshvara, celebrated variously as Tribhuvana-malla, Bhuloka-malla and Sarvanjya-bhupa, was a remarkable combination of an enlightened Ruler and an erudite scholar.  Someshvara was a noted historian, scholar and poet; and, his fame as an author, rests on his monumental compilation Manasollasa.  He is also said to have attempted to script a biography of his father VikramadityaVI, narrating his exploits, titled Vikramanka-abhyudaya; but, the work remained incomplete.

King Someshwara was also an accomplished musician and a gifted composer.  He is said to have composed in varied song-formats such as: Vrtta, Tripadi, Jayamalika, Swaraartha, Raga Kadambaka, Stava Manjari-, Charya and so on. He composed Varnas, Satpadis and Kandas   in Kannada language. In addition, he compiled Kannada folk songs relating to harvest –husking season, love, separation (in Tripadi); marriage-songs (in Dhavala); festival and celebration songs (Mangala);  songs for joys dance with brisk movements (Caccari);  songs for marching-soldiers (Raahadi); Sheppard-songs (Dandi) ; and, sombre songs for contemplation (Charya).

Someshvara is said to be the earliest to codify the tradition of allocating the six Ragas to the six seasons: (1) Sri-raga is the melody of the Winter (2) Vasanta of the Spring season (3) Bhairava of the Summer season (4) Pancama of the Autumn (5) Megha of the Rainy season and (6) Nata-narayana of the early Winter.

Prince Someswara was regarded by the later authors as an authority on Music and Dance. And, Basavabhupala of Keladi (1684 A.D.-1710 A.D.) composed his Shiva-tattva-ratnakara modelled on Somesvara’s Manasollasa.  The noted musicologists Parsvadeva and Sarangadeva quote from Manasollasa quite often.  Further,   Sarangadeva in his work mentions Someswara along with other past-masters of music theory (Rudrato, Nanya-bhupalo, Bhoja-bhu-vallabhas tatha, Paramardi ca Someso, Jagadeka-mahipatih).

Someswara describes two schools of music – Karnata and Andhra; and, remarks that Karnata is the older form. This, perhaps, is the earliest work where the name Karnataka Sangita first appears (Musical Musings: Selected Essays – Page 46 )

Manasollasa defines chaste Music as that which educates (Shikshartham), entertains (Vinodartham), delights (Moda-Sadanam) and liberates (Moksha Sadanam)   –

 Shikshartham Vinodartham Cha, Moda Sadanam, Moksha Sadanam Cha.

This, I reckon, by any standard, is a great definition of Classical Music. And, this is how the chaste and classical music is defined even today.

Such Music, he says, should be a spontaneous source of pleasure (nirantara rasodaram), presenting varied Bhavas or modes of expressions (nana-bhaava vibhaavitam) ; and , should be pleasant on the ears (shravyam) .

Someshwara classified the composers (Vak-geya-kara) into three classes: the lowest is the lyricist; the second is one who sets to tune songs of others; and, the highest is one who is a Dhatu Mathu Kriyakari – one who writes the lyrics (Mathu), sets them to music (Dhatu); and, ably presents (Kriyakari)  his composition.

 someshvara 03

Someshvara III was succeeded by his son Jagadeka-malla II (r.1138–1151 CE), also known as Pratapa Prithvi Bhuja. He was also a merited scholar, who wrote Sangitha-chudamani, a work on music. He was the patron of the scholar and Grammarian NagavarmaII, the author of famous works, in Kannada, such as:  Kavya-avalokana and Karnataka Bhasha-bhushana.

The Sangita-Cudamani of Jagadeka-malla covers many topics related to music, such as: Alapana and Gamaka;   the desired qualities of a singer, of a composer; the voice culture; design of the auditorium, and so on.  The later scholar Parsva Deva (12th century), the author of Sangita Samayasara, followed the work of Jagadeka-malla on subjects like Ragas, Prabandhas, etc. Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara (first half of 13th century) also mentions Jagadeka-malla (Jagadeka-mahipatih) , with respect.

someshvara 02

It is said; Someshvara commenced compiling the Manasollasa, while he was a Prince; and completed it during 1129 (1051 Saka Samvatsara), which is about two-three years after he ascended the throne.

The Manasollasa  covering a wide variety of subjects ranging from the means of acquiring a kingdom, methods of establishing it, to medicine, magic, veterinary science, valuation of precious stones , fortifications, painting , art, games ,  amusements , culinary art , dance , music and so on , is a monumental work of encyclopedic nature. The text, in general, provides valuable information on the life of those times. It is also of historical importance as it gives the geographical description of Karnataka of 12th century; as also of the contemporary socio-cultural and economic conditions; and of the varied occupations its people.

The entire work of the Manasollasa extends to about 8000 Granthas or verse-stanzas; and, it is composed in the Anustubh Chhandas (metre), with few prose passages interspersed in between. Its Sanskrit is simple and graceful; making it one among the elegant works of Sanskrit literature that reflect the life and culture of mediaeval India.

The treatment of the subjects is sophisticated, cultured, suiting the elite atmosphere of a King’s court. The style of presentation is lucid; and, is yet concise.

*

The Manasollasa, virtually, is a guide to royal pastimes; and, is divided into five sections, each containing descriptions of twenty types of Vinodas or pastimes. The reason, each section is called a Vimsathi (विंशति), is because; each contains twenty Adhyayas (chapters).  The book is thus a tome of 100 Chapters, which are grouped into five Viśathis (twenties). But, since the Chapters are of unequal length, the Vimsathis also vary in size.

Each Section (Vimsathi) is dedicated to specific sets of topics. The five Vimsathis are:

  Rajya Prakarana; Prapta-Rajya SthairikaranaUpabhogaVinoda and Kreeda

vimsathi table

:- The First Vimsathi, the Rajya Prakarana, describes the means of obtaining a kingdom and governing it efficiently; the required qualifications for a king who desires to extend his kingdom; as also the qualifications of the ministers, their duties and code of conduct  that enable the King to rule a stable, prosperous kingdom. It recommends delegation of powers to various authorities at different levels, with a limited degree of autonomy, under the overall supervision of the ministers.

:- The Second Vimsathi, the Prapta Rajya Sthairikarana describes the ways of maintaining a king’s position strong and stable; retaining it securely; and, ways  of governance of the State, its economics, infrastructure, architecture etc. It also talks about maintenance and training of a standing army, the required capabilities and responsibilities of its commander (Senapathi). This sub-book includes chapters on veterinarycare, nourishment and training of animals such as horses and elephants that serve the army.

As regards economy, it mentions about the administration of the Treasury and taxation; of levying and collection of taxes (Shulka).

:- The Third Vimsathi, the Upabhogasya Vimsathi details twenty kinds of Upabhogas or enjoyments; and, describes how a king must enjoy a comfortable life, including cuisine, ornaments, perfumery and love-games.  

It also speaks of other pleasures of sumptuous living, such as: living in a beautiful palace; enjoying bathing, body-massage, anointing, gorgeous clothing, attractive flower garlands, stylish footwear, rich ornaments; having elaborate royal seat, trendy chariot, colorful umbrella, luxurious bed, enchanting incense; and , enjoyable company of beautiful and witty women etc.

In this section, two chapters are dedicated to Annabhoga or enjoyment of food, describing how various recipes are to be prepared as well as how they should be served to the king. Manasollasa is a treasure trove of ancient recipes. And Jala or Paniyabhoga, talks about the enjoyment of drinking water and juices (Panakas).

The text cautions that fresh and clean water is Amrita (nectar); else, it cautions, if it is sullied, it would turn to Visha (poison).  Someshvara recommends that water collected from rains (autumn), springs (summer), rivers and lakes (winter) for daily use, be first boiled and be treated with Triphala, along with  piece of mango, patala or champaka flower or powder of camphor for health,  flavour and delight.

:- The Fourth Vimsathi of Manasollasa, the Vinoda Vimsathi, deals with entertainment such as music, dance, songs and competitive sports. It speaks of diversions like: elephant riding, horse riding, archery, fighting, wrestling, athletics, cockfights, quail fights, goat fights, buffalo  fights, pigeon fights, dog games, falcon games, fish games and deer hunting etc.

It also mentions the cerebral pleasures such as: rhetoric, scholarly discussions, vocal music, instrumental music, dancing, storytelling and magic art.

The Vinoda-Vimsathi also describes how a king should amuse himself, with painting, music and dance.   The subjects of Music and dance are covered under Chapters sixteen to eighteen of the Vinoda Vimsathi. The vocal and instrumental Music is covered in two sections: Geeta Vinoda and Vadya Vinoda; and, dances are covered under Nrtya Vinoda.

 : – The Fifth and the last Vimsathi, the Krida-Vimsathi describe various recreations. The last two sections, in particular, are virtually the guides to Royal pastime (Vinoda). These include sports like: garden sports, water sports, hill sports and sporting with women; and, games like gambling and chess.

The text is notable for its extensive discussion of arts, particularly music and dance. A major part of Manasollasa is devoted to music and musical instruments, with about 2500 verses describing various aspects of it. Thus, the two exclusive chapters concerning music and dance have more number of verses than the first two sub-books put together. That might, perhaps, reflect the importance assigned to performance arts during the 12th-century India.  And, Someshvara III’s son and successor king Jagadeka-malla II also wrote a famed treatise on music, Sangita-Cudamani.

adavu harini

As regards Dance, the Manasollasa deals with the subject in the Sixteenth chapter, having  457 verses (from 16.04. 949 to 16.04.1406), titled Nrtya-Vinoda, coming under the Fourth Vimsathi of the text – the Vinoda Vimsathi – dealing with various types of amusements.

Manasollasa is the earliest extant work presenting a thorough and sustained discussion on dancing. It not only recapitulates the accumulated knowledge on dancing, inherited from the previous authorities; but also gives a graphic account of the contemporary practices. Someshvara, sums up the views of the earlier writers, which continue to have a bearing on the dance scene of his time (12th century); and, lucidly puts forth his own comments and observations. Here, Someshvara, retained, in his work, only those ancient dance-features (Lakshanas) that were relevant to his time; and, eliminated those Lakshanas which were no longer in practice.

And, another important factor is that Someshvara introduces many terms, concepts and techniques of dancing that were not mentioned by any of the previous dance practitioners and commentators. He mentions new developments and creations that were taking place, as noticed by him.

The Manasollasa is, thus, a valuable treasure house of information on the state of dancing during the ancient times. Another important contribution of Nrtya Vinoda is that it serves as a reliable source material for reconstruction of the dance styles that were prevalent in medieval India.

It is also the earliest work, which laid emphasis on the Desi aspect for which the later writers on this subject are indebted.

The notable features of the Nrtya Vinoda are: the orderly presentation of topics; concise rendition facilitating easy reference; and, the prominence assigned to current practices that are alive than to the ancient theories.

For these and other reasons, the Nrtya Vinoda of Manasollasa, occupies a significant place in the body of dance literature. 

dance_mh39

Someshvara introduces the subject of dancing by saying that dances should be performed at every festive occasion (Utsava), to celebrate conquests (Vijaya), success in competitions and examinations (Pariksha) and in debate (Vivada); as well as on occasions of joy (Harsha), passion (Kama), pleasure or merriment (Vilasa), marriage (Vivaha), birth of an offspring (putra-janma) and renouncement (Thyaga)- Manas.950-51

He then names six varieties of dancing; and, six types of Nartakas. The term Nartaka, here, stands for performers in general; and, includes Nartaki (danseuse), Nata (actor), Nartaka (dancer), Vaitalika (bard), Carana (wandering performer) and kollatika (acrobat).

Someshwara uses the term Nartana to denote Dancing, in general, covering six types:  Natya (dance with Abhinaya), Lasya (graceful and gentle), Tandava (vigorous), Visama (acrobatic), Vikata (comical) and Laghu (light and graceful).

The other authors, such as Sarangadeva, Pundarika Vittala and others followed the classifications given Manasollasa.

[Someshvara cautions that Kings would do well to avoid performing dance items like Visama (acrobatic) and Vikata (comic); perhaps because, they were rather inappropriate for a King.]

Manasollasa is also significant to the theory of Dance, because it caused classifying the whole of dancing into two major classes:  the Marga (that which adheres to codified rules) and Desi (types of unregulated dance forms with their regional variations).  

Manasollasa also introduced four-fold categories of dance forms: Nrtya, Lasya, Marga and Desi.

In regard to Dance-movements, Someshwara classifies them into six Angas, eight Upangas and six Pratyanga; with some variations, as compared to the scheme devised by Bharata.

The other important contribution of Someshvara is the introduction of eighteen Desi karanas, (dance poses and movements) that were not mentioned in other texts. However, the Desi aspects are discussed without mention of the word.

*

Somesvara’s exposition of Dance techniques could be, broadly, classified under  two groups: (1) body movements relating to Anga, Upanga and Pratyanga; and, (2) the other relating to Sthanas, Caris and Karanas etc.

In regard to the former category, relating to the Angika-Abhinaya, Someshvara, in his Nrtya Vinoda, generally, follows the enumerations and descriptions as detailed in the Natyashastra of Bharata (Marga tradition) , with a few variations and modifications. And, the discussion on Angika Abhinaya occupies a considerable portion of the Nrtya Vinoda.

The Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas enumerated and described by Someshvara under the Nrtya Vinoda were classified by the later scholars as belonging to the Desi tradition. That was because they differed from the ‘Margi’ Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas of Bharata‘s tradition. However, Someshvara had not specifically employed the term ‘Desi’ while describing those dance-phrases. He had merely stated in the Gita-Vinoda section that he will be discarding the Lakshanas, as enunciated by Bharata; and, that he will only deal with the techniques that are developed and are in practice (Lakshya) during the current times. The scholars surmise that might be the reason why he does not specify the Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas described by him as belonging  to the Desi Class.

**

Angika Abhinaya

As mentioned earlier; with exception of a some elements, the treatment of the Angika Abhinaya in the Nrtya Vinoda, to a large extent, follows the Natyashastra of Bharata. But, Someshvara made some changes in the arrangement of the limbs, within the three groups of limbs.

For instance; Bharata, under the category Anga had listed the head, the hips, the chest, the sides and the feet. And, under the Pratyanga, he had mentioned: the neck, the belly, the thighs, the shanks and the arms. And, under Upangas, Bharata had included the eyes, the eyebrows, the nose, the lips, the cheeks and the chin.

Someshvara, under the Angas followed the general pattern of classification as laid down by Bharata; but, included shoulders and belly in place of the hands (Hasthas) and feet (Padas). His Pratyanga includes the arms, the wrists, the palms, the knees, the shanks and the feet. And, under the Upanga, Someshvara included teeth and tongue (Bharata had not reckoned either of these under his scheme.)

Almost all writers follow the classification made by Bharata; and, not that of Somesvara. And, that doesn’t seem surprising; because, the hands (Hasthas) and feet (Pada-bedha) are the most essential elements of any dance-form.  They surely are indeed one among the major-limbs (Anga) so far as the dance is concerned; and, it may not be right to treat these as minor-limbs (Pratyanga) as Someshvara did.

But, some justify Someshvara’s position, saying that he was mainly concerned with the Desi-Dance form where the emphasis was more on the agile, rhythmic and attractive feet and body movements than on the Abhinaya or expressions put out through eyes, facial expressions and palms.

At the same time; it is said that Someshvara was not wrong in classifying shoulders and belly under the major-limbs (Anga); since, anatomically they indeed are large.

As regards the thighs, they are not included by Someshvara in all the three categories; perhaps because the movements of the shanks also account for that of the thighs.

Bharata had not mentioned either the teeth or the tongue in his classifications; but, these are included by Someshvara under Upangas.

**

The elements covered under Anga, Upanga and Pratyanga  in both the texts are as follows:

Angas (major limbs)

angas table

Under the Angas (major limbs), Someshvara enumerates the movements of the: Head (13 types); Shoulder (5); Chest (5); Belly (4); Sides (Parshva); and Waist (5).

(1) The Thirteen types of head movements (Shiro-bheda)  comprised : Akampita (slow up and down movement); Kampita (quick up and down movement); Dhuta (slow side to side movement); Vidhuta (quick side to side movement); Ayadhuta (bringing the head down once); Adhuta (lifting obliquely); Ancita (bending sidewise); Nyancita (shoulders raised to touch the head); Parivahita (circular movement); Paravrtta (turned away); Utksipta (turned upwards); Adhogata (turned downwards); and , Lolita (turned in all directions).

[All the thirteen head movements laid down by Bharata have been included by Somesvara, along with their explanations and uses.]

(2) Five shoulder (Bhuja) movements are: Ucchrita (raised); Srasta (relaxed); Ekanta (raising only one shoulder); Samlagna (clinging to the ears); and, Lola (rotating).

[Bharata had not discussed the shoulder movements.]

(3) Five chest (Urah or Vakasthalam) movements are: Abhugna (sunken); Nirbhugna (elevated), Vyakampita (shaking); Utprasarita (stretched); and, Sama (natural).

[It is the same as in Bharata’s text.]

(4) Four belly (Jatara) movements are: Ksama (sagging); Khalla (hollow); Purnarikta (bulging and then emaciated); and, Purna (bulging).

[Bharata had mentioned only three; the Purnarikta is added by Someshvara.]

(5) Five side (Parshva) movements of sides are:  Nata (bent forwards); Samunnata (bent backwards); Prasarita (stretched); Vivartita (turning aside); and, Apasrata (reverting back to the front).

[It is the same as in Bharata’s text; only, the definition of Prasarita is missing.]

(6) Five movements of the waist (Kati) are:  Chinna (turned obliquely); Vivrtta (turned aside); Recita (moving round quickly); Andolita (moving to and fro); and Udvahita (raising)

[The names and descriptions of a couple of waist movements are changed.]

**

Upangas (features)

upanga table

Under the Upangas (features) the following types of movements are listed:  Eyebrows (7); Eyes (3); Nose (7); Cheeks (5); Lips (8); Jaws (8); Teeth (5) ; Tongue (5) and facial colours ( 4)

(1) Seven varieties of eyebrow movements (Bhru-lakshanam)Utksipta (raised); Patita (lowered); Bhrukuti (knitted; Catura (pleasing); Kuncita (bent); Sphurita (quivering); and, Sahaja (natural).

[They are almost the same as in Natyashastra. The Sphurita, here is the same as Recita of Bharata; and, its description is also slightly different. But the movements of the eyeballs, eyelids, are not mentioned in the Nrtya Vinoda.]

(2) Three groups of eye movements (Dṛṣṭī-lakaam) are based upon Rasa; Sthayi-bhava and Sancari-bhava.

The first group covers eight Rasas; the second eight Sthayi-bhavas; and the third has twenty Sancari-bhavas. The total number of glances is Thirty-six, the same as in the Natyashastra.

[As regards the use of the glances, Someshvara gives, in addition, the uses of the Sancari-bhava- glances, which were not  in the Natyashastra.]

(3) Six kinds of nose (Nasika) movements – Nata (closed); Manda (slightly pressed); Vikrata (fully blown); Suchavas (breathing out); Vaikunita (compressed) and Svabhaviki (natural).

[It is the same as in Bharata’s text. Only the description of Suchavas varies slightly. ]

(4) Six types of cheek (Ganda) movements are:  Ksama (diminished); Utphulla (blooming); Purna (fully blown); Kampita(tremulous); Kunchitaka (contracted);  and, Sama (natural).

[It is the same as in Bharata’s text. Only the description of Purna and its uses varies slightly.

The Nrtya Vinoda does not discuss the movements of the neck.]

(5) Ten varieties of lip (Adhara) movements are : Mukula (bud-like); Kunita (compressed); Udvrtta (raised); Recita (circular); Kampita (tremulous); Ayata (stretched); Samdasta (bitten); Vikasi (displaying); Prasarita (spread out); and , Vighuna (concealing).

[Of the ten varieties of lip-movements mentioned by Someshvara, only three of them (Kampita, Samdasta and Vighuna) are from the six listed by Bharata. The other seven lip movements described by Somesvara are taken from other texts.]

(6) Eight kinds of chin (Chibukam) movements are: Vyadhir (opened); Sithila (slackened); Vakra (crooked); Samhata (joined); Calasamhata (joined and moving); Pracala (opening and closing); Prasphura (tremulous); and, Lola (to and fro).

[Bharata had mentioned seven kinds of gestures of the chin (Cibuka) ; and, these were combined with the actions of the teeth, lips and the tongue . In the list of Someshvara, except Vyadhir and Samhata, none of the other movements is mentioned by Bharata]

(7) Five types of teeth (Danta) movements are: Mardana (grinding); Khandana (breaking); Kartana (cutting); Dharana (holding); and, Niskarsana (drawing out).

(8) Five varieties of tongue (Jihva) movements are:  Rijvi (straight); Vakra (crooked); Nata (lowered); Lola (swinging); and, Pronnata (raised).

[Bharata had not discussed teeth and tongue movements. Instead, he had mentioned six movements of the mouth (Mukha). ]

(9) Lastly, the four facial colors described are: Sahaja (natural), Prasanna (clear), Raktha (red); and, Shyama (dark).

[It is the same as in Bharata’s text.]

**

Pratyangas (minor limbs)

pratyang table

Under the Pratyangas (minor limbs) the following limbs are listed:  Arms –Bahau (8); wrists (4); Hands-Hasthas (27 single hand, 13 both hands combined, Nrtta-hasthas 24); Hastha –Karanas (4); Knees (7); Shanks (5); and, feet (9);

Further, under the Nrtta (pure-dance movements), thirty types of Nrtta-hasthas (movements of wrist and fingers) are described.

(1) Eight movements of the arms (Bahu) are: Sarala (simple);Pronnata (raised); Nyanca (lowered); Kuncita (bent); Lalita (graceful); Lolita (swinging); Calita (shaken); and, Paravrtta (turned back).

[Bharata mentioned ten movements of the arms; but had not described them.]

(2) Four movements of the wrists – Akuncita (moving out); Nikuncita (moving in); Bhramita (circular); and, Sama (natural).

[Bharata had not mentioned wrist positions and movements separately; but had dealt with them under Nrtta-hasthas.]

(3) Three groups of hand (Hastha-bheda) gestures are: twenty seven single hand gestures (Asamyuta-hastas); thirteen gestures of both the hands combined (Samyuta-hastas); and twenty four Nrtta –hasthas.  The three together make sixty-four hand gestures.

[The movements of the hands (Hastha) are discussed in detail both in the Natyashastra and in the Nrtya-Vinoda. Bharata had included the hand-gestures under the category of Anga (major limbs); while Someshvara brought them under Pratyanga (minor limbs). The number of hand-gestures and the composition each of the three varieties does vary; but, the total number of hand-gestures, in either of the texts, is sixty four.

However, the names and uses of many Hasthas of Nrtya Vinoda differ from those listed in the Natyashastra.

For instance; Someshvara does not mention the single-hand gestures Lalita and Valita; as also the Nrtta-hastha Arala. He substitutes them by other Hasthas. And, in the case of Musti, he includes an additional type of Musti, where the thumb is beneath the other fingers. And, in certain instances, Somesvara goes further than Bharata, by giving the exact positions of the fingers, while describing a hand-gesture; as in Ardhacandra, Mrgasira and Padmakosa.

Bharata had stated that the hand-gestures and their use, as mentioned by him, are merely indicative; and, it is left to the ingenuity of the performer to improvise, to convey the intended meaning. Such possibilities, he said, are endless. Someshvara also made a similar remark.]

Both the authors – Bharata and Someshvara- describe four categories of the Karanas of the hand: Avestita, Udvestita, Vyavartita and Parivartita.

These gestures also associated with Nrtta-hasthas, in their various movements, when applied either in Dance or Drama, should be followed by Karanas having appropriate expression of the face, the eyebrows and the eyes.

(4) Seven movements of the knees (Janu) are – Unnata (raised); Nata (lowered); Kuncita (bent); Ardha-kuncita (half bent); Samhata (joined); Vistrtta (spread out; and Sama (natural).

 [Natyashastra doesn’t analyze movements of the knee (janu), the anklets (gulpha) and the toes of the feet; as is done by other texts. But, it described the five shank-movements, as arising out of the manipulation of the knees.]

(5) Five movements of the shanks (Jangha) are – Nihasrta (stretched forward); Paravrtta (kept backwards), Tirascina (side touching the ground), Kampita (tremulous) and Bahikranta (moving outwards).

[But these do not resemble any of the shank movements found in the Natyashastra. Someshvara might have taken these movements from some other text. The five movements of the shanks (Jangha) as mentioned in the Natyashastra are:  Avartita (turned, left foot turning to the right and the right turning to the left); Nata (knees bent); Ksipta (knees thrown out); Udvahita (raising the shank up); and, Parivrtta (turning back of a shank)]

(6) Nine movements of the feet (Pada-bheda) are:  Ghatita (striking with the heel); Ghatitotsedha (striking with the toe and heel); Mardita (sole rubbing the ground; Tadita (striking with toes); Agraga (slipping the foot forward), Parsniga (moving backwards on the heels); Parsvaga (moving with the sides of the feet); Suci (standing on the toes) ; and Nija (natural).

Along with the movements of the feet five movements of the toes are described namely – Avaksipta (lowered); Utksipta (raised), Kuncita (contracted); Prasarita (stretched); and, Samlagna (joined).

The Natyashastra does not specifically discuss the toe movements.

[Natyashastra had described five kinds of feet positions: Udghattita; Sama; Agratala-sancara; Ancita; and, Kuncita.

Agraga and Parsvaga, the two feet movements indicated by Someshvara were not mentioned by Bharata.

There is one major difference between these two sets of feet movements. In the Natyashastra the feet movements indicate floor contacts and placing the feet in a particular position. But in the Nrtya-Vinoda, except for Suci and Nija, all other feet movements, consist of actual movements, which arise out of the combinations of the basic feet positions, as mentioned by Bharata.

For example, Ghatita, Ghatitotsedha, Tadita and Parsniga are all combinations of Ancita and Kuncita feet positions. And, Suci and Nija are only static positions. They correspond to the descriptions of Samapada and Sama respectively, as given by Bharata.]

Shirobhedas or Head movments

Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas

After an analysis of Angika Abhinaya, the Nrtya Vinoda takes up the discussion of Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas.

The Nrtya Vinoda discusses in all, Twenty one Sthanakas; Twenty six earthly (BhumaCaris and Sixteen aerial  (AkasakiCaris; and Eighteen Karanas.

Sthanaka is a motionless posture; a Cari is the movement of the lower limbs, which starts from one Sthanaka position and ends in another. A  Karana, on the other hand, relates to the sequence of static postures and dynamic movements. Thus, the Sthanaka and the Karana are associated with the movements of the entire body; and, the two are interrelated.

The Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas were also discussed by Bharata in his Natyashastra. But, the Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas as enumerated by Someshvara differ from those described by Bharata. Those

Since the two sets of Dance-features differed significantly, the later writers, in order to distinguish the two, classified the ones described in Natyashastra under the Marga class; and, those in the Nrtya Vinoda under the Desi class.

But, Somesvara had not qualified such dance features enumerated by him in the Nrtya Vinoda with the suffix ‘Desi’. He had merely stated that he will disregard the features (Lakshanas) as defined by Bharata; and will deal only with those that were developed during the current times and those that are still in practice (Lakshya).

Some scholars opine that the Desi Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas of Someshvara could very well be treated as additions or supplements to the Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas defined by Bharata.

mj84

The term Desi, in the context of dance, stands for all those Dance techniques, postures and movements that were not mentioned in the Natyashastra, the seminal work of Bharata. Desi was used in contrast to the Marga or the classic tradition of Bharata.

And, Desi also meant those Dance-forms and movements that were created in various regions of the country for the pleasure and entertainment of the common folks. They even varied from region to region; and, in that sense the Desi could even be called ‘local-styles’. In the post-Bharata times, many other movements were created and were codified as Desi varieties.

folk dance desi tradition

Such Desi Dances were, usually, spontaneous and free-flowing, not restricted by the regimen of strict rules of a particular tradition. Further, the rhythmic, agile feet and body movements, innovative gestures; and entertaining dance sequences performed with joy and jubilation characterize the Desi Dance. And, there is not much emphasis on Abhinaya through eyes or facial expressions.

Over a period of time, say by the time of Somehsvara (12th century) the Desi styles gained more ground and popularity. And, that is reflected by the number of works of the medieval times that gave greater prominence to Desi elements. The Nrtya Vinoda of King Someshvara also could be placed in that context.

nam240h

As mentioned, a Sthanaka is a static posture, in which greater importance is assigned to the position of the legs.  Here, the limbs are at a state of rest and harmony. Perfect and balanced disposition of the body is an essential feature of the Sthanaka. In dance, it is employed to precede and succeed any flow of the sequence of movement; as well as to portray an attitude. The dancer starts from one position to make a sequence of movements which end, in the same, position with which the dancer started, or in some other position. When the sequences are many and at a fast pace the postures may however get eclipsed.

The definitions of the Sthanakas as rendered by Someshvara relate exclusively to the position of the lower limbs; and, they do not describe the carriage or the relative disposition of the upper limbs.  This signifies that the upper limbs including the hands could be used in any manner that is appropriate. Further, unlike Bharata, Someshvara does not categorize the Sthanakas into Purusha (male) and Stri (female) Sthanakas.

Of the twenty one Sthanakas described in the Nrtya Vinoda, only two bear the same names of two Margi Sthanakas. They are Samapada and Vaisnava Sthanakas.

The Vaisnava Sthanakas in both the traditions are similar. But, the Samapada Sthanaka of the Desi style differs from the Samhata Sthanaka of the Margi tradition.

nam240f

The Cari constitutes the simultaneous movement of the feet, shanks, thighs and hips. They are classified into two groups: one in which feet do not loose contact with the floor; and, the other in which the feet are taken off the ground.

The Nrtya Vinoda mentions Twenty six earthly  (BhumaCaris and Sixteen aerial (Akasaki) Caris

The earthly Caris consist of movements of the 1eg as a whole, in which the feet are normally close to the ground. There are however two exceptions to this rule found in the Harinatrasika and the Sanghattita Cari, which replicate the leaping movements of a deer.

a5b27 4eb506

The aerial (AkasakiCaris comprise of the movements of the legs which are lifted or stretched up in the air. Some of the names of the DesiAkasaki Caris are to be found in the Margi tradition as well. They are Urdhva-janu (uplifted knees); Suci (pointed); Vidhyut-bhranta, (alarmed by lightning); Alata (square position); and, Danda-pada (as if punishing).

nam240g

Towards the end, the Nrtya Vinoda describes Eighteen Karanas. Such Desi Karanas, as described by Someshvara, are merely agile movements involving Jumps and leaps. Therefore, the later writers designated such Desi Karanas as Utpluti Karanas.

Since, Someshvara focused on the Dance-forms that were alive and in practice during his time, he made no effort to restore the 108 Karanas, most of which had gone out of use by then. Similar was the case with the Angaharas, Recakas and Margi-Caris, which perhaps were rather distant from the people of his time; and, not in active practice.

The use of these leaping Karanas are said to employed, especially, in the Laghu or Laghava and Visama Nrtya, which involve acrobatics . They range from the simple and ordinary jumps like the Ancita Karanas to very dextrous and nimble foot-movement like the Kapala-sparsana (bringing a foot very close to or touching the cheek)

Chhau-Dance

To sum up

The Nrtya Vinoda soon gained the status of an authoritative text; and, esteem scholars and commentators – especially Sarangadeva and Jaya Senapathi- quoted from it extensively.

To sum up, the significant features of the Nrtya Vinoda are:

(1) Importance assigned to Desi forms of Dance, which were in active use, and their techniques; and, introducing Desi Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas.

(2) Bringing together various dance forms under the common term Nartana; and, coining the descriptive terms Laghava, Visama and Vikata.

(3) Re-classification of the body-parts: Anga, Upanga and Pratyanga. And , including the descriptions and uses of additional limbs such as shoulders, wrists, knees, teeth and tongue.

(3) The descriptions of certain types of movements that were not mentioned in the Natyashastra. These include, belly-movements (Riktapurna); Lip-movements (Mukula, Kunita, Ayata, Recita and Vikasi); Arm –movements (Sarala, Pronnata, Nyanca, Kuncita, Lalita, Lolita, Calita and Paravrtta); Leg-movements (Ghattita, Ghatitosedtaa, Tadita, Mardita, Parsniga, Parsvaga, and. Agraga); and, five movements of the toes.

(4) Coordinating eye-glances with the transitory states (Sanchari-bhavas)

(5) And, suggesting variations in the execution on and uses of Nrtta-hasthas.

**

For these and other reasons, the scholars recommend that the Nrtya Vinoda could be gainfully used as a supplement to the study of Natyashastra and of the Sangita-ratnakara. The Nrtya Vinoda could also serve as a link that bridges the scholarship of the ancients and the practices prevalent among common people of the medieval times. That would help to gain an overall view of the progress and development of the Dance traditions of India, over the centuries.

desi dances

 In the Next Part , we shall move on to another text.

Continued

In

The Next Part

 

References and Sources

  1. Movement and Mimesis: The Idea of Dance in the Sanskritic Tradition by Dr Mandakranta Bose
  2. https://archive.org/details/TxtSkt-mAnasOllAsa-Somesvara-Vol3-1961-0024b/page/n128
  3. A critical study of nrtya vinoda of manasollasa      V,Usha Srinivasan
  4. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/59351/9/09_chapter%203.pdf
  5. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/59351/10/10_chapter%204.pdf
  6. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/59351/11/11_chapter%205.pdf
  7. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/59351/12/12_conclusion.pdf
  8. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/59351/6/06_synopsis.pdf
  9. https://nartanam.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/vol-xvii-no-iv-final.pdf
  10. http://www.worldlibrary.org/articles/someshwara_iii
  11. ALL IMAGES ARE FROM INTERNET
 
Leave a comment

Posted by on November 25, 2018 in Art, Natya

 

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,