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  1. Ravindra patil

    October 8, 2016 at 2:40 pm

    I want to about faizpur congress 1936, photo also

    • sreenivasaraos

      October 8, 2016 at 3:29 pm

      Dear Patil

      I didn’t quite get it.

      What is your specific question ?

      Please be clear.


      • Dimple

        May 31, 2018 at 3:19 pm

        Dear sir,
        I’m simply stunned by your vast knowledge.
        If I may, could I ask you certain questions via email regarding the alchemical process involving Mercury?
        I’m doing research for a book I’m writing….
        Thank you.

      • sreenivasaraos

        May 31, 2018 at 6:45 pm

        Dear Dimple, thank you for the visit

        Regarding the alchemical and clinical treatment of mercury ; and the Rasa siddhanta , as per Indian traditions : please read my post : Siddha and the way of Rasa ; and also follow the reference/sources and links given therein

        For further , please let me know



      September 4, 2017 at 3:08 pm

      Respectful human, kindly help whether we can get art form of what is sung in Arya Dwasathi by Great Mahan Sage Durwasa Muni


        November 13, 2017 at 6:24 am

        any wording change is required sir i am waiting for your reply

      • sreenivasaraos

        November 13, 2017 at 6:46 am

        Dear Shyan Sundar

        Sorry Sir. I did not quite get the question.

        In case you are interested in Arya Dvishati of Sage Durvasa

        its text is available in many languages at

        The Telugu version is at

        There are also audios ( U Tubes) on the suject. Please check

        Sorry Sir. I fear , I have not been of much help to you


      • ritu malik

        November 14, 2017 at 1:36 am

        Dear Mr.Rao
        Are u an enlighten master?

      • sreenivasaraos

        November 14, 2017 at 3:14 am

        Dear Ritu

        No Maa. I am far from it. Most of the times I am gullible and clueless



        November 30, 2017 at 4:21 pm

        God day, i have a definition of Hinduism please correct it


      • sreenivasaraos

        December 1, 2017 at 3:20 am

        Dear Shyam Sundar , Good Morning

        What you said , sure sounds catchy

        But, what has now called as “Hinduism” cannot be tied a neat package

        Thus what has come to be regarded as Hinduism is a peculiar, open-ended system that rejects all sorts of restrictions and defies a specific definition. That perhaps is the reason why the Supreme Court observed: ‘Hindu religion not being tied-down to any definite set of philosophic concepts, as such’.

        Please do read my two articles on the subject; and, let me know

        The Question of Hindu, Hinduism et cetera

        Have a Great Day


    • VenkatRaman

      July 29, 2018 at 4:36 am

      The wisdom of yours is really amazing sir… way I am already near to you sir by lineage…ohm thath sath….

      • sreenivasaraos

        July 29, 2018 at 2:20 pm

        Dear Raman
        You are welcome


    December 19, 2016 at 10:37 am

    Sir, I want your contact number please . If you can do, so that, to enable me to contact you directly sir. As I have some doubts on vedas. Sir please do favour.

    GSR Murthy.

    • sreenivasaraos

      December 20, 2016 at 1:38 pm

      Dear Shri Murthy , I would prefer if you could frame SPECIFIC questions and post them.That would be easier for me; and, it would also help others seeking answers to similar issues. Thank you. Regards

  3. joshy

    December 27, 2016 at 7:42 am

    i am from my village temple , an alangara gopura for sri rajaarajeswary devi is planned to build at the village entrance. In my opinion gopura is to be in kerala style with slanting roof etc..
    is there any specification according to silpa sastra in building an alangara gopura

    • sreenivasaraos

      December 27, 2016 at 8:14 am

      Dear Joshy

      I presume, your question relates to the proposed Grand entrance (Raja-Gopura) to the village/temple complex.

      It is said in the older texts that the concept of Gopura originated from extensive cow-stalls (Go-griha) which was virtually a gate-house at the doorways of a huge building , monastery , temple or even a town/village (Pura-dvaram tu gopuram I Dvara-matre tu gopuram I ).

      The Gopura, therefore, technically, denoted gate-houses of palaces, cities and residential buildings of various descriptions; and that they did not necessarily belong to temples alone.

      As far as I know, the concept of such (Raja) Gopura entered into the temple architecture of South India, rather late. And, Gopura is not an essential feature of the temple per se.

      According to the traditional texts on Shilpa-sharta, the most important part of a temple, it’s very heart as it were, is the Garbha-griha or the sanctum sanctorum. Sometimes the Garbha-griha with its Vimana alone is defined as temple per se. But, generally, it is extended by an Ardh-Mandapa, a Mandapa or a large hall up to the Bali-pita.

      In the later texts, there is mention of Gopura-s with sixteen storeys, divided into ten classes. But the details of only five storeys are given;, others being left to the discretion of the architects.

      All that is to suggest the Raja- Gopura is not an essential part of the temple; and its structure and design is left to the discretion of the architect.

      Since the temple is in Kerala, I feel, the Gopura at the entrance of the village could be in the traditional-Kerala style and design.
      I hope, it might, in some way, help you to take a view of the subject.

      But, Please do consult a technical expert before you decide.


  4. sai swaamy

    January 2, 2017 at 1:33 pm

    pls send urs mobile swamy my mob 9133425077 pls sir

  5. Sreenivasa Rao

    January 3, 2017 at 5:04 pm

    Dear Sreenivasa Rao garu,
    I am wondering if you have done any research or published any blogs on Sri Syama Saastri as part of your murti-trayam writings. Could you please direct me to any such? If you haven’t published anything yet but are willing to answer some of my questions, could you please let me know if you are available to discuss offline?
    Thank you and Regards,
    Sreenivasa Rao

    • sreenivasaraos

      January 5, 2017 at 12:11 am

      Dear Shri Sreenivasa Rao, Yes; I have prepared articles about Sri Shyama Shastry ; but not published yet.

      Of course, as compared to Sri Dikshitar and Sri Tygaraja his out put is not large and the range is not wide.

      But, the emotional appeal to Mother is intense.

      I was trying to draw a comparison with the songs of Ramaprasad Sen of Bengal appealing to Mother.

      Let me see


      Happy New Year


      • Sreenivasa Rao

        January 5, 2017 at 10:24 pm

        Hello, Thank you for getting back to me. Please do share your Syama Sastri research when you have it available. At this point though, my immediate interest is in gathering information about his pedigree – there are conflicting claims as to his family’s origins in Kambam near Ongole vs. Cumbum in TN. Are there any specific records or verified sources of his ancestry? There is a lot of circumstantial evidence that he was a native Telugu person – the aesthetics and the sweetness of his Telugu compositions is nearly impossible to achieve if one is not native to that tongue. Also, he belongs to ‘vadama’ sect which by definition means people from the north (ie. north of the Kanchi-Thanjavur axis). Most peple belonging to this sect are known to be from the banks of Krishna river. 

        I would appreciate any of your thoughts.


        Sreenivasa Rao 

  6. anitha pn

    January 16, 2017 at 8:39 pm

    Hi sir…
    I am a new reader to your articles..I like many of them..Specifically about M.N.Roy..Kindly add articles about DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN INDIAN LITERATURE AND WESTERN THOUGHTS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF INDIA if you are interested..

    Thank you.

    • sreenivasaraos

      January 17, 2017 at 12:07 am

      Dear Anitha

      You are welcome.

      Thank you for reading the series on MN Roy about whom there are not many detailed writings

      I would be grateful if I can have your feedback on some of the specific issues/articles in the series.


      It is a huge task, with about 25 odd languages, their history, developments, trends and comparison with ‘western thoughts’ (which term needs to be defined clearly, to start with).

      Unlike in the earlier days ( when most of India across the states/languages read Tagore, Saratchandra, Premchand, Khandekar , Karanth et al ) the readership across the languages , in the present day, is getting rarer. India, sadly, appears to be growing more and more region-oriented and inward looking. There appears neither the desire to learn nor the outlook to appreciate the ‘good’ happening outside of one’s own language.

      Further, there is the problem of the availability of translations of the recent works in all the Indian languages.

      For instance, I have written about Bamkim, Tagore , Sarat, Bijaya Ghosh etc ( please do read those articles here) ; But , I am unable to follow the contemporary trends / developments in modern Bengali . I hardly can go beyond Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay of the fifties. Even the works of later authors like Sunil Gangopadhyay, Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay , Bimal Mitra and Sankar in later days or Buddadev Guha are not easily available outside of Bengal.

      I wonder if any of the Universities/National Trusts or even Doctoral thesis’s have taken up the task you suggested.

      Yet; what you suggested is truly fascinating. I would love to attempt it, however inadequately.

      Let me think and also talk to a few I know,

      BTW, have you any thoughts / ideas about the subject. Please let me know.

      Thanks for writing

      Please do read the articles on other subjects as well.

      Please keep talking


  7. Rummah

    February 1, 2017 at 4:26 am

    Thank you for the informative blog. There is so little information on the ten great cosmic wisdoms in the West.

    • sreenivasaraos

      February 12, 2017 at 5:58 pm

      Thank you Rummah

      You are welcome

      Please do read the articles and let me have your comments


  8. Rajashri Rajashekhar

    February 12, 2017 at 5:33 pm

    Dear Sir,

    I am completely impressed by you blog and verious subjects that you have considered to write. I would like to personally meet you to discuss about the work that I have undertaken in the area of Woman. My study is on scripture based.



    • sreenivasaraos

      February 13, 2017 at 3:17 pm

      Dear Rajashri

      Than you for your visit

      I am delighted you liked what you read here.

      I would now be visiting my daughter in Portland- OR-USA

      Sorry Maa

      May I know your special field of interest.

      Kindly send me your specific questions

      I shall try to reply with whatever little I know

      Please do keep reading and writing

      Warm Regards

  9. Gauri Varma

    February 21, 2017 at 9:57 am

    Dear Mr Sreenivasarao

    I have a folk painting made by a dead Maithil artist from Madhubani. It is in the Tantric style and shows the figure of Hanuman engaging in burning Lanka in the centre, with a Yantra. Around his figure are ten forms which appear to be Rudra/Shiv. They are mostly ascetics with knotted hair, tigerskins. They are also shown with tails. Each is shown riding an animal mount, including an elephant, horse, deer, bull, makara, swan, goat (?), bull, chariot (?) and one seems to be riding a dwarf or demon or young boy figure. Have not been able to find out who these forms represent. Could you please help. I have read numerous desciptions of the Rudras and Shiva’s incarnations but they dont all seem to fit these forms especially the vaeying Nimal mounts shown. I would jave liked to email you a photo of the painting. Please let me know where I can do so. Thanks and regards, Gauri Varma

    • sreenivasaraos

      February 21, 2017 at 3:32 pm

      Dear Gauri Varma, You seem to have come across a rare type of tribal depiction. That is good. You mentioned Rudra-like figures riding: elephant; horse; bull; swan; demon or dwarf etc.

      My guess is that the figures you mentioned might represent Ashta Bhairava- the eight manifestations of Bhairava, a ferocious aspect of Shiva. They guard and control the eight directions… Tantra – Sara mentions the eight Bhairavas as:

      Asitanga Bhairava (Vahana: Swan); Ruru Bhairava (Vahana: Bull); Chanda Bhairava (Vahana: Peacock); Krodha Bhairava (Vahana: Garuda, eagle); Unmatta Bhairava (Vahana: Horse); Kapala Bhairava (Vahana: Elephant); Bhishana Bhairava (Vahana: lion or Pretha i.e. Ghoul); and Samhara Bhairava (Vahana: dog).

      [Each of these eight Bhairavas, in turn, brings forth eight forms of his own representations. Thus, in all, sixty-four forms (or sub-forms) of the Bhairavas, are divided into eight sets.]

      In addition there is the Kala-Bhairava

      It is said; in the holy city of Varanasi: . Ruru Bhairava protect the south-east; Chanda Bhairava – the south; Asitanga Bhairava – the east; Kapala Bhairava – the north-west; Krodha Bhairava – the south-west; Unmatta Bhairava protect the west; Samhara Bhairava – the north-east; and Bhishana Bhairava protect the north.

      I think the figures you mentioned might perhaps be the set of eight Bhairavas

      Please see the link for the image given below

      As regards Hanuman and Bhairavas:

      A tribal legend mentions that Hanuman, also called Lanka Bir, was at the guard of cave entrance, where Vaishno Devi was meditating for nine months, before she came out of cave. There is a stream called Baan Ganga (Baan literally means an arrow), where Devi used her arrow to take out a stream of water from the hill, to quench the thirst of Hanuman, when he became thirsty. Hanuman also fought with Bhairavs before Vaishno Devi asked him to leave Bhairav to her.

      I am not sure if the picture you saw could relate to this legend.


      I am sorry; I have not been able to provide you with a definite answer.

      Kindly send your picture to me. Let me try. I could also consult someone knowledgeable in these matters.


      • sreenivasaraos

        February 22, 2017 at 7:06 am

        Dear Mr Sreenivasarao

        Thank you for your prompt and insightful reply. I attach a photo.

        This sounds very close to what has been depicted. But there are ten forms. I wonder if they rule the ten directions as per Indian Vaastu?…I attach a photo of this rare painting. I would be grateful if you could shed further light on it. I also want to say that I find your blogs very scholarly and interesting. I am giving the link to my husband too!

        Warm regards
        Gauri Varma

    • sreenivasaraos

      February 24, 2017 at 9:27 am

      Dear Gauri Varma,

      After your reply, I looked at the picture again.

      This is what I reckon. I may be wrong. Please cross check with someone who-knows.

      1. It is basically a Lanka-dahan theme.

      There are several versions of that theme using Hanuman as the central figure; and surrounding him with other deities.

      For instance; as you are very well aware, there is a depiction similar to the one you sent where the tail-blazing Hanuman is framed by Asta-Matrukas .

      2. The picture you sent is also a Lanka-dahan theme; but, with ten cardinal guardian deities: eight Dikpalas and with the sky represented by Brahma on the top (Ūrdhvā) and the Ocean below (Adhah) represented by Samudra-raja . Dikpalas

      3. For some reason, the orientation of the picture is reversed.

      In the traditional pictures the East is at the top (unlike North in modern-day depictions) with South (Dakshina; the term literally means the ‘Right) on your right, followed by North (Uttara; meaning that which follows ) on to your left.

      In your picture, the West is at the top; and east is at the bottom

      6. Please read your picture, starting at the top from your left-hand side, (for the present you may ignore the central Hanuman theme and the Chakras)

      7. It would be:

      South-West; Nritti – riding a horse
      West – Varuna – in the middle of the picture – riding a Makara
      North-West- Vayu- riding a spotted deer

      Next row (skip the Hanuman detail)

      South-Yama – riding a buffalo
      North – Kubera – riding a man (Nara-vhana)

      Bottom row (apart from Yantra etc)

      South-East – Agni –riding a goat
      East- Indra –riding an elephant- holding a thunderbolt

      And, at the far right-hand bottom corner

      North- East – Ishana – riding a Bull


      There is at the top –center of the picture Brahma, representing the sky , the zenith (Ūrdhvā). He rides a swan

      At the bottom of the picture is the Samudra-raja, Lord of the seas, representing ‘down-blow’ the nadir (Adhah) .

      He as the Lord of waters is, at times, shown on a chariot drawn by seven swans.

      Kindly verify and let me know.

      Today is Maha-Shiva-ratri. May he bless you with wisdom, happiness and longevity


      • sreenivasaraos

        February 24, 2017 at 9:44 am


        Dear Mr Sreenivasarao

        I think you are absolutely right. I too felt that Varun was shown on top riding a Makaar.

        Thank you very much for sharing your deep knowledge so painstakingly.

        A very auspicious Maha Shivratri to you and your family. I will keep following your blog. May God bless you.

        Warm regards,

        Gauri Varma

  10. Vinod

    February 21, 2017 at 11:02 am

    Hello Sir,
    I want to learn and practice Srividya. Searching for a samaya or mishra guru. Can you please help?

    • sreenivasaraos

      February 21, 2017 at 3:35 pm

      Dear RVinod

      I am not competent to advice you on this.

      I suggest , if you so like , you may contact the great scholar Mahamahopadyaya DR. R . Satyanarayana who is properly initiated into Sri Vidya Upasana by his Guru. He also written extensively on Sri Vidya.

      He may be contacted at : N0. CH 12 , ‘Thrayeelakshmi’ , 9th Cross , 4th Main , Jayanagar , Mysore 570014. Tel N0. 0821 2567891 (please re check the number).

      Good Luck

      • Vinod

        February 22, 2017 at 4:09 am

        Thank you very much for prompt reply sir!!

  11. sreenivasaraos

    March 13, 2017 at 7:20 am

    Dear Mr Sreenivasarao,

    I followed up on your very helpful information. The only other suggestion I have is that the figure guarding the nadir could be Samudra Raja or Vishnu (also called Ksheer Samudra Raja, holding a disc on a chariot drawn by swans/garuda).

    Also, not clear why the ten dikpalas are shown with monkey tails. Perhaps as attendants paying homage to Hanuman?

    Your opinion would be valued.

    Warm regards

    Gauri Varma

  12. sreenivasaraos

    March 13, 2017 at 7:22 am

    Dear Gauri

    Sorry for the delay in responding

    1. The painting basically depicts ten directions around the Hanuman motif

    2. The SKY (Brahma) is at the TOP; and, WATERS (Samudra) is at the BOTTOM

    3. No. It is not Kshirasagara. And there is no Vishnu here. That is a different aspect. What is depicted here is a set of minor deities, with Hanuman at the center.

    4. No. There is no Garuda here. The eagle flies in the sky; and, has very little to do with Sub terrestrial waters

    5. The Waters below is often personified as a King, riding a chariot floating on water,; and which is drawn by a set of seven swans

    6. As regards the tails; like you mentioned – the Dikpalas could either be treated as aspects of Hanuman; or as minor deities paying tribute to Hanuman.

    Btw, in the older texts, the tails were at times regarded as signs of heroes; and, certain celestial deities such as Kinnaras were depicted with tails.

    I am not sure if this helps you

    Please keep talking

    Have a very enjoyable and a noisy Holi


  13. Pattabhi Sitaraman

    April 27, 2017 at 5:46 am

    Dear Mr. Rao,

    Very recently while I was browsing the net for some writing on Ganapathyam I stumbled onto your blogs and I am very happy to have access to your writings. There was a question as to who could be the author of the popular invocation to Lord Ganesh starting with “Gajaananam Bhootha Ganaathi Sevitham” and the other three that follow this sloka. From your blogs and also the various inputs from the speeches of Kanchi Paramacharya Chandrasekarendra Sarasvathi 68th Peetathipathi of the Kanchi Kamakoti peetam, I could get some inference that these four to five slokas could have been rendered for invocation of Lord Ganesh during the 1 or 2 CE. I also inferred that the author could be either Baudhayana or Yagnavalkya between 5 BCE to 2 CE. Would very much appreciate whether my inference is correct.
    With kind regards,

    • sreenivasaraos

      May 13, 2017 at 2:20 pm

      Dear Shri Sitaraman

      At the outset I beg your pardon for the delay in responding to your comment. Please excuse me. I was away; and, my health had also been rather inconsistent.

      I presume you have read my articles regarding the Origins of Ganesha Worship ; and , Ganapathi, the lord of the ganas . These cover a number of issues that might interest you.

      Ganesha, as we know and worship, does not, of course, figure in the early Vedic texts (Samhita). The Natyashastra (dated around second century BCE) begins with salutations to Pitamaha (Brahma) and to Maheshwara; and, the gods worshipped therein are basically the Vedic deities, such as: Sakra (Indra), Varuna, Vayu, Kubers, Surya, Vishnu and Sarasvathi. There is, however, no mention of Ganesha /Ganapathi.

      From what little I have read, the scholars seem to think that the four or six Vinayaka-s mentioned in Mānava-Gṛhyasūtras and the Yajnavalkya Smriti were later rendered into a single Vinayaka; and , appointed by Rudra as the Chief of the Ganas – Gananam Adhipataye.

      And, there was a deity named Dantin with an elephant – countenance (Hasthi –mukha) with a curved trunk (Vakratunda) In the Krisha Yajurveda (2.9.1163).

      These varied forms , along with others, were brought together to combine into Lord Ganesha or Ganapathi. It is said; Ganesha emerged a distinct deity in clearly recognizable form in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta Era, combining in himself the features and virtues of the several of his Vedic and Pre-Vedic predecessors.

      It was following this period, His popularity rose quickly; and, a separate Ganapthya sect which worshipped Ganapathi as the form of the Supreme Brahman came into being by about the Sixth century. Its faith and practices are described in Ganesha Purana, Mudgala Purana, Ganapathi Upanishad; and Ganesha Gita. The last mentioned, in a way, resembles Bhagavad-Gita; with Ganesha taking a position similar to that of Krishna. (Ganapathya, somehow, did not become a major sect as that of Shiva or Vishnu)

      Ganesha Purana and Mudgala Purana are the primary scriptures of the Ganapathya –s. Both are described as Upa-Puranas. While Mudgala Purana describes eight incarnations of Ganesha, the other Purana, which perhaps is the later of the two, describes four of his incarnations.

      According to the narration in Mudgala Purana, Gajanana was the fourth incarnation of the Lord Ganesha, to slay the demon of greed, Lobha.

      And, again during the 8-9th century Ganapathi was formally included among the five principal deities (Panchayatana).


      The prayer you cited “Gajaananam Bhootha Ganaadhi Sevitham” refers to Ganapathi as the darling son of Uma Devi; and as one who enjoys the essence (Sara) of kapitha (wood apple) and Jumbu (Rose apple) fruits, obviously relates to Ganapathi of the Puranas, which is after the 4-5th century.

      I therefore, feel, that the prayer mentioned you could not possibly belong to the texts of the period from fifth century BCE to Second century BCE.

      I am not sure if this meets your requirement.

      Sorry for the delay


      PS: I reckon that the Book Loving Ganesha might be interest to you. Please click here.

  14. Swaminathan

    May 13, 2017 at 12:39 pm

    A highly enlightening portal. I feel your work will not be complete without writing about Srirangam which is the largest active temple in the world. It is a rich source of architecture

  15. Parag vade

    June 9, 2017 at 2:07 pm

    Sir, thank you so much for your great contribution to satisfy need of curious minds. I googled about Faizpur congress session and reached your blog. I am preparing for civil services and your articles are going to help me long way.
    Best regards sir.

    • sreenivasaraos

      June 10, 2017 at 4:29 am

      Dear Parag , Wow , that is wonderful.

      I am delighted that the articles were of some use to you

      Wish you Best of Luck in your exams and in all your endeavors

      God Bless you

      Please keep in touch


      P:S: Could you please let me know in what way were the articles were of use to you. Your feedback may help me in orienting my further posts. Thanks

  16. Jay

    June 14, 2017 at 5:22 pm

    Hi Sreenivas sir,
    Please accept my namaskarams. Thank you for writing with such detail and responding to all questions. I have been curious about God and have been listening and reading different books and articles based out on hindu religion particularly vaishnavism as I have affinity towards all forms of Vasudeva. I came upon your blogs when trying to find a picture of Para-Vasudeva. Now I am hooked and interested in learning more. I am reading the archives going through each category.

    I have few basic questions and would appreciate your response.
    1. I hear from some that having a guru and learning japa mantras through them is the right way to initiate oneself towards God. Is this true?
    2. Will one get the benefit of God’s blessings if one followed the Ekadeshi vratams but not doing the other rituals such as celebrating other festivals or daily pujas? Does one have to be a vaishnava to fast on Dwadashi day?
    3. Will a person doing their duty – work, taking care of the family, etc. but not pursuing religious activity still attain God?
    4. Does one have to be a Vaishnava to follow the tradition? Can anyone who believes in Krishna or Narayana or Venkateshwara follow the Vaishnava tradition?
    5. Is there an audio recording of the Vedas, Upanishads and other scriptures? Can you recommend where to get them?

    • sreenivasaraos

      June 17, 2017 at 4:32 am

      Dear Jay

      I appreciate your earnestness. I am not sure I am competent to provide authentic answers to your questions. I can try , with some hesitation, from what little I know.

      At the outset, your accepting and adoring Vasudeva as your Ista-devata (chosen deity) is truly splendid. May Lord Vasudeva bless you.

      Bhakthi is intense love for God; and, your complete submission in absolute faith. It is a very hard pursuit that absorbs your entire being in act, speech and heart (Kaya, Vacha and Manasa).

      1. Yes. The guidance from a Guru is preferable. He may initiate into a mantra and guide in its practice; but, Bhakthi is your own essential pure love and dedication for your chosen object of devotion.

      2. Observing Ekadasi and such others is a part of the discipline. And, so are the Pujas, Japas etc, which are performed without any expectations. You may view those practices as complimentary. One need not be a Vaishnava to pursue such practices.

      3. Yes. That is most preferred way of life. It is not seclusion; but, being in the world unattached while pinning your faith in your god with loving devotion – that seems an ideal way.

      4. No. One need not be a Vaishnava to practice Bhakthi towards Krishna. One learns to view the whole of existence and even other gods as manifestations of Krishna.

      5. There are many sites carrying audio files of the traditional texts as also prayers etc. Please check a few given here. You may then explore.
      Vedas Chanting Audio – Android Apps on Google Play

      Grasp the wisdom in faith ; have faith in whatever you do.

      God Bless you

      With lots of Love

  17. Ravi

    June 17, 2017 at 6:44 am


    What should be material composition of Chakra according to Vedas , which is installed above Kalash of the Temple

    • sreenivasaraos

      June 17, 2017 at 2:21 pm

      Dear Shri Ravi

      The Vedas do not of course speak of temples or of Kalashas

      These concepts came about much later. And the details of temple structure and Architecture were laid down in the Agama texts and in the texts of the Shilpa Shastra

      The early kalashas were perhaps made of stone blocks, round or ribbed. They might have been in the nature of cap-stones that structurally held the tall and tapering vimana, as in the North Indian temples. The copper and brass vases seem to have been the later innovations; and the agama books favor use of copper vases.

      For more ; please check the paragraph titled Kalashas in the post (Devalaya Vastu Part Five) at


  18. Sadhak

    June 19, 2017 at 10:43 am

    Hi Sir,

    I’m looking for Manasa devi Yantram and couldn’t find anywhere. Can you please help me with it.


  19. Gyaneshwar

    July 15, 2017 at 3:09 am

    Amazing website!
    Thank you for the info.

    Maybe you can put some of the articles on: to reach more people?
    Thank you once more

    • sreenivasaraos

      July 16, 2017 at 4:48 am

      Dear Shri Gyaneshwar, Thank you for the visit and for the appreciation.
      I trust you read some of the articles posted here.

      Thank you also for the suggestion

      I had a look at the list of papers published on


      I am not sure if anyone there would be interested in the sort of stuff I write.

      Do tell me


      • Gyaneshwar Puri

        July 16, 2017 at 6:23 am

        Yes, you can easily put your articles there. There are many varieties of articles, from research ones to blog entries. You should decide what would you like to put there. But you have invested a lot of time and effort so I think it would be worth.

        With regards

  20. JP

    July 17, 2017 at 6:27 pm


    First of all, very informative blog. Thank you.

    I’ve been doing some reading on the who is who of Mahabharata and came across several instances where Surya is depicted to be helping Draupadi. I cannot fathom – 1) why she would ask Surya, when Krishna would be the more obvious choice, if we take it with all divinity attached 2) if not, who else could Surya be? I would assume Draupadi as Agni-born was Angirasa. So why Surya? Any thoughts?

    Thanks again.


  21. Jay

    July 31, 2017 at 7:56 pm

    Hi Srinivas sir,
    Please accept my Namaskarams. Can you share anything you know about dreams, specifically seeing God in dreams? I am told that one should not share such dreams to others, but how does one understand what the dreams mean?
    I would appreciate any information you can share.

  22. Khi Deva

    August 15, 2017 at 9:46 am

    We would like to use your article on the Sri Yantra on our page to educate people who are joining the project. With your permission.

    • sreenivasaraos

      August 17, 2017 at 2:10 am

      Dear Deva , Please let me know which page you are referring to.

      Please also specify which article of mine you have in view



      • Khi Deva

        August 18, 2017 at 1:02 pm

        We have a project called The Sri Yantra Land Art Project with a facebook page. I want to share the article on the Sri Yantra to educate those coming to the page.

      • sreenivasaraos

        August 18, 2017 at 3:51 pm

        Good Deva

        Yes; you can use those

        Pl do send me the link to your site


      • sreenivasaraos

        August 18, 2017 at 3:50 pm

        Good Deva

        Yes; you can use those

        Pl do send me the link to your site


  23. Sandhya

    August 15, 2017 at 10:51 am

    Happy Day Sir,
    Can you please guide me with books in English dealing with Prabandhams.. if possible Nrtya Prabandhams.

    Sandhya Sankar

  24. Kumar

    September 1, 2017 at 6:10 am

    Dear Srinivasa Rao garu,

    Out of words or adjectives for the in-depth articles and the knowledge you are sharing…God bless you with lot more insights.

    I have a quire: When King Janaka knows about so much of Rishi Yagnavalkya, why did had to listen to astavakra geeta? Are they contemporaries?

    Please enlighten, Kindly share your emailID


    • sreenivasaraos

      September 1, 2017 at 11:39 pm

      Dear Shri Kumar

      Thank you for the visit and for the question.

      There have been many who went by the name of Janaka. They all seemed to be rulers of Videha in the region of what is now Nepal- Bihar. In the very distant past, there was a certain Janaka who was the son of the legendary King Nimi. And, in Ramayana, the father of Sita is also a Janaka; his name being Siradhvaja Janaka.

      In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, you come across the Philosopher -King Janka Videha who is identified with Kirti-Janaka (eighteenth in the line from Siradhvaja Janaka), a great patron of learning whose Court was studded with learned scholars, such as: Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, Gargi Vachacnavi, Asvala, Jaratkarva, Ushasti, Kohala and others.

      There are also many references to Ashtavakra – in Mahabharata (Vanaparva) where Lomaharsha narrates to the Paṇḍavas the legend of Ashṭavakra; and, in legends there is an Ashtavakra as being the son of Kohala (who was the student and son-in-law of Uddalaka Aruni).

      There is an Ashtavakra who is credited with Ashtavakra-Gita also known as Aṣṭāvakra Saṃhitā.

      Again, it is not clearly known who exactly is the author of Ashtavakra-Gita. But, in any case, there is little doubt that it is a very old text, probably dating back to the days prior to the early classic Vedanta period. Its Sanskrit style and the doctrine expressed therein would seem to support this view.

      It is a text that talks about Supreme detachment and absolute monism. It asserts the unreality of external world; and, absolute oneness of all existence. It dismisses names and forms as unreal and as a sign of ignorance. It does not put faith in book-learning, rituals, prayers, meditation etc. Ashtavakra annihilates the false sense of identification of the Self with the mind etc.

      Ashtavakra-Gita was one the favorite texts of Sri Ramana Maharshi. He said: “The Ashtavakra Gita, like the Ribhu Gita, teaches about the Supreme state of Realization. That is to say, when Janaka surrendered his body, mind and wealth unreservedly to the Guru, he became absorbed in his own Self and went into the state of samadhi. In other words, by teaching him the Gita, he was told that that was his real state and that he could remain established in that natural state.”

      As regards your question, I presume that the difference in Janaka talking to Yajnavalkya and to the Sage Astavakra, is perhaps comparable to that between conversing with an intellectual (say, a professor of philosophy) and meeting Sri Ramana Maharshi in person.


      But, please do read my post on Ashtavakra Gita; and, let me know.


  25. ritu malik

    October 28, 2017 at 6:56 pm

    Dear Mr.Murthy , My name is riu, I would like to ask what is the in point in shriyantra for crating a wealth, plz help me i explore alot but didn’t get specific answer of my question.

  26. Sougoumar Mayoura ( Mr)

    November 4, 2017 at 8:17 pm

    I discovered your site by reading a series of articles on M.N.ROY. I heard about him- many years ago- during my studies in law and political science. But I did not go beyond that. I see today how this man who is not so well known in the West (I am talking about intellectuals), was ahead of the question of the crisis of democracy. But I come back to you. Your blog is awesome. His wealth impresses me. A life would not be enough to read all the informations of your blog. BRAVO and good luck.

    • sreenivasaraos

      November 5, 2017 at 3:16 am

      Dear Mr. Sougoumar Mayoura

      Thank you for the visit; and, for the appreciation.

      I presume you read all the parts (23 in all) of the series. If not, kindly take your time; do read; and, let me know of your views. The comments and observations coming from an erudite scholar like you are truly valuable to me.

      As you rightly said, he is not much known or remembered in the West; and similar is the case in the East, particularly in India.

      I find the life-events of MN Roy particularly interesting, because they run through all the phases of Indian National Movement since the early 20th century up to the formation of Indian Republic. They also chronicle the birth, growth and decay of the Communist Party of India. His thoughts on Democracy, peoples’ participation and socialism are relevant even in the present-day.

      I have used MN Roy as a sort of thread to string through and to talk about the phases of extreme nationalism; socialism; and, communist development in India. Besides, his involvement with the Communist International; the national movement for freedom of India sphere-headed by Congress Party, as also with number of other parties and groups operating from within and outside India cover a vast area of interest .

      MN Roy’s associations with the daring freethinkers in France and Germany; and, the participation of those brilliant and highly motivated men and women in India’s National movement is truly amazing. I wonder whether, in today’s world, such cohesion or coming together of intellectuals, cutting across the borders, for a cause, would be possible.

      The philosophy of Radical Socialism developed by Roy , during the last phase of his life; as also his vision of future India – away from the rule of corrupt politicians and also from dictators- hold lessons for all of us.

      Please do read the other articles in the series as well.

      Cheers and Regards

  27. Mayoura Sougoumar

    November 5, 2017 at 2:41 pm

    Dear Sir, Thank you for your attention and your message of return. I would come back to you some time later when I would have been well immersed in your study. I would do it and would be happy to exchange.
    With my best thoughts. And thank you again for your mail.

  28. shardacrishna

    December 11, 2017 at 7:13 am

    The range and depth of articles presented in your blog are commendable . Words cannot communicate the sense of appreciation , sincerely ! One of the finest blogs , I must say ! Many thanks !!

    • sreenivasaraos

      December 11, 2017 at 11:04 am

      Dear Sharada, Thank you for the visit; and , for the appreciation.

      I am delighted you found these articles readable .

      Please keep in touch , posting comments


  29. majorsri

    February 6, 2018 at 6:32 am

    Dear Mr. Rao,

    I am Srikanth from Bangalore. Firstly, pranam for the amazing effort on your blog. Truly humbled. Thank you so much. Would it be possible to get in touch with you, please let me know. I have left my email as needed. Thank you

  30. durga

    March 7, 2018 at 3:22 pm

    Dear Mr. Srinivas Rao,

    I am following your blog from sometime and used to read occasionally. This is huge collection and I see you have lot of interest and knowledge in this area.

    I am interested in Vedic Psychology and I hope you might be having some links or collection on it. Can you please help me if anything available from your collection.


    • sreenivasaraos

      March 7, 2018 at 8:00 pm

      Dear Durga, thank you for following and reading some of my posts.

      Could you please be more specific about what you mentioned as ” Vedic Psychology ”
      Please also let me know your particular field of interest.

      Regards and Cheers

  31. Krishna

    March 11, 2018 at 3:02 am

    Dear Sir,
    What’s the meaning of prastara? Is it the horizontal roof of the Garbagriha which is then used as a base for adding additional layers like hara,…, over which another slab (do not know the term for this) is laid?
    Thank you,

    • sreenivasaraos

      March 11, 2018 at 7:56 am

      Dear Krishna, Yes Sir. You are right. In the context of the architectural detail of the Vimana, the Prastara, as you said, is the horizontal beam over which stand the other superstructures like Hara (parapet), Tala, Griva (neck), Shikhara (tower) and Stupi (finale).

      The term Prastara has several meanings as given in

      But in the design of the Vimana, Prastara means the meeting place of the two divisions of the Vimana, namely the Prasada varga and the Pada varga. It marks the end of the cell of the Garbagriha and the beginning of the spire (Shikhara)

      Prastara in western terms means entablature, meaning: roof, parapet: their mouldings and proportionate measurements; and, ornamentation

      Please read my post Temple Architecture – Devalaya Vastu – Part Five (5 of 9); and check the illustration given under the Section dealing with Vimana


      • Krishna

        March 11, 2018 at 5:10 pm

        Dear Sir,
        Thank you for the detailed reply. I read your fascinating detail on “proportions” in Devalaya Vastu Section 5. I request you to kindly clarify the doubts I have. If the Deity is 6 foot (or 4 foot detity+2 foot pedestal), the Grabhagriha floor dimensions should be 8 foot by 8 foot (not more nor less) in Dravidian architecture? What should be the height of walls? If it has to be a cube then lengthX breadth X height should be 8 X 8 X 8 right? Using this as a moola. then the roof (and shikara) are calculated as you described. Can you use the 6 foot deity as an example and give the details on how to go about the dimensions of the garbagriha (you already did but somehow due to my limitations I could not comprehend). Please bear with me as I come back with more questions.

  32. Sashikanth Ananthachari

    March 16, 2018 at 12:14 am

    I have been working on the Mahabharata tradition in TN and in my filming of a lot of village storytellers and Koothu artists I stumbled on ideas I think coming from Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta, I have not learnt Sansktit and would like to meet you in this regards, ie to learn, if possible
    with warm regards

    • sreenivasaraos

      March 16, 2018 at 4:14 am

      Dear Shri Sashikanth, thank you for the visit.

      I am presently out of India. You may kindly send me specific questions. I shall , with my limited understanding, try to contribute. Let me also mention that I am not a scholar of any sort. My acquaintance with the texts you mentioned is marginal.

      I read with great interest ther blog about your experiences in Calcutta , the books you read and the persons you met. It makes a delightful reading.

      May I suggest , you read my series of articles on M N Roy , his life and times. Many of the characters/ persons you mentioned in your blog figure also there . The series covers a wide range of subjects such as nationalism, violence, communism , independence movement , rational humanism, democracy and post independence era.

      Since , your site is named after Draupadi, please also see my article on Draupadi.

      I am not snaring you ; but, only trying to share common interests.

      Cheers and Regards

  33. Supriya N

    April 3, 2018 at 2:26 pm

    Dear Sir,

    Namaskaara. I am humbled and in gratitude of being able to read your blog with such detailed research presented so elegantly. Congratulations and Thank you for this blog.

    I am Supriya and teach in a school in Bengaluru. I have left my email ID and the website of our school in the required field. Could you please let me know of a way to get in touch with you? We are trying to generate interest in children about owning up our roots and I found your blog very interesting and relevant for some topics that we are also exploring with respect to Indian history to add on to our curriculum.

    We were wondering if we could use some content about Temple Architecture from your site and condense it for our Children – of course with due credit and your approval. Also trying to explore ways if we could connect with you about our Project. Look forward to hearing from you.

    Warm Regards,

    • sreenivasaraos

      April 4, 2018 at 5:21 am

      Dear Supriya , thank you Maa for reading the articles; and , also for the appreciation. I am glad you found them useful. I trust you saw the articles on other subjects as well.

      Regarding the Temple Architecture ; yes you may use it in whatever manner you deem suitable. When I just went back to see those articles, I realized they indeed make a difficult reading. It is up to your ingenuity how to render these in a manner that children can absorb, without much difficulty . Do you have in your mind an outline of the scheme of presentation?

      Sadly , I may not be able to associate with task, as I am away form India. In case you have specific questions , kindly let me know.

      Your question reminds of another person involved in children’s education.She wanted to present Sishira Rtu . Please check this link at : ;

      and the one on nursery rhymes at :

      Please let me know if I could be of any assistance. Sorry I have nor been of much help

      Good luck in your endeavor

      Cheers and regarda


    April 5, 2018 at 8:33 am

    Hello Srinivasa Rao gaaru. wanted to know more on the sthapathis and how they project managed the buildings and temples. Where can i get information on this. My mail ID is Would love to hear from you.

    • sreenivasaraos

      April 7, 2018 at 11:27 pm

      Dear majorsri, I presume you are referring to the Sthapathis as in the older texts. In case you need to contact any of the present-day Sthapathis or consulting firms, you may check on Google “sthapati temple architecture consultants’, which lists such ones.

      As regards the Sthapathis or Sthalapahi of the past, I mentioned about them briefly in Part nine of my series on temple architecture . Just to recount here:

      The temple construction project begins with identifying the most suitable site for erecting the structure. This involves examination of all aspects relating to the location, the extent, the orientation, the quality of soil, the water source, the environment and astrological suitability of the site etc. This elongated process goes by the name: Bhupariksha. The principal elements involved in a temple –projects are: Sthala (temple site); Teertha (Temple tank) and Murthy (the idol). Elaborate rules are laid out in the classical texts on Shilpa Shastra, describing the required qualities of the places where a temple is to be erected; as also of the other two elements.

      The initial team is comprised by an Acharya, a scholar learned in traditional lore; a Sthapathi, a qualified and an experienced director for the temple construction project; and Shilpi, the sculptor.

      Acharya is the learned preceptor who gives the Yajamana (one who sponsors the temple project) the necessary advice and guidance in selecting the proper site, the Sthapati and other Shilpins. The Sthapati, Yajamana and the Acharya form the trinity of Vastu-sthapana (construction); they are compared to Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra.

      As regards the construction per se, The Manasara, one of the principal texts dealing with all aspects of temple construction, mentions a team of four types of architects – the Sthapati, Sutragrahin, Vardhaki and Takshaka.

      The Sthapati (one who establishes things – Sthapatih sthapanarhah syat) is the chief architect or master builder empowered to plan, design and direct the construction from the beginning to the end. The second chapter of the Manasara specifies in detail, the qualities, the virtues and the requirements of a Sthapathi under the section ‘Shilpi-lakshanam’. He is well experienced in all aspects of temple architecture (Sarva shastra-visaradah); and is a highly qualified master craftsperson, well versed in Shastras and the Vedas. He is pictured as a cultured, decent man, free from vices, truthful and in control of his senses. He has the ability to plan, design, use the instruments; coordinate, and direct the work of his entire team.

      Sthaptih sarva-sastrajnah; Veda-vichchhastraparagah; Acharya-lakshanair yuktah; Sthapatih sthapanayarhah; Sthapanadhipatir yasmat tasmat sthapatir uchyate. (M. II, 19—30.)

      The Sutragrahin is the supervisor and is said to be normally the Sthapati’s son or disciple; one who clearly understands the mind of the Sthapathi. He is also well-qualified in the Vedas and Shastras. He is an expert draftsman or Rekhagna, who directs the rest of the work force. He is good in calculations. His job is to see that all building parts are aligned correctly, in proper measurements. He should be able to give instructions to the other craftsmen.

      The Vardhaki is the painter and has made a special study of it. He is also well-versed in the Vedas. He takes charge of strength and quality of materials used in the construction. Vardhaki also ensures proper alignment, assembling and joining together of the building elements shaped by Taksaka.

      Taksaka is the craftsman who cuts and shapes the building elements; such as: wood, stone and metal. He is in charge of reducing the size of materials to the appropriate size and shape. The Takshaka is also the master carpenter who is responsible for all the intricate wood work including doors, windows, pillars etc.

      These four classes are considered the representations of Vishwakarma, Maya, Manu and Tvasta, the sons of Brahma, the creator.

      But, in actual practice, these four are ranked in hierarchical position. The Sthapathi at the top is the Guru of all (Sthapatis tu Sva-turyebhyas trisrinya gururiti smritah). Next to him is the Sutragrahi (Sutragrahi gurur dvyabhyam); and, below him are Vardhaki and Takshaka (Takshakasya gurur nama; Vardhakiti prakirtitah.) (M. II. 19-22.)

      The actual construction process of a temple can be divided into three steps. The first is the planning of the temple by architect, second is the carving of different parts and the third is assembling the parts.

      In the first stage, the architect prepares a list of all the parts that go into the details of the temple; like the figures, pillars, beams, and brackets etc. These parts are usually composed of several elements. For example, a pillar is made of at least five parts, while the dome is made of several units. This is one of the reasons, it is said, why the temples do not normally collapse in case of earthquakes or cyclones; as its parts are not joined rigidly (say by materials like cement) but can vibrate within the surrounding structured space.

      In the second stage, the teams of assistants of the Shilpi carve the parts and segments according to the temple Acharya’s, Sthapathi ’s and Shilpi’s drawings, designs, specifications and guidelines. The parts thus got ready are transported to the site. And, at times the transportation to the site, itself, becomes a huge task. For instance, it is said that a four km long ramp was constructed to transport and place in position the dome of the Brihadishwara temple in Thanjavur.

      The stability of the temple structure is attributed to its principles of unity, harmony, balance and distribution of weight. It is said, if one member of this family breaks, the unity, peace and stability of the family is sure to crumble. . Hence, no member moves from its place, and holds the structure together even in the face of destruction all around. These aspects are ensured during the third stage.

      The third stage is the assembling of the readied parts i.e. the actual construction of temple. The various elements and parts of temples are interlocked to hold in position. All the parts have mortise and tendon joint for ensuring strength; and a hole or slot is cut into each piece of readied part, for a projecting part tendon of the adjacent part to be inserted into the next. These mortise and tendons not only hold the parts their positions securely but also allow space for the stones to expand in heat or even to vibrate modestly.

      The third stage and the second stage have to be well coordinated in order to take care of precise alignments and possible corrections. Though this stage, inevitably, means the slowing down of the construction pace, it is said, the Sthapathi or Sthalapahi, the one who supervises the actual construction process on site, takes extra care to ensure precise positioning and alignment of each part and segment; and to meticulously follow the overall proportion, stability and visual appeal, as specified and envisaged in the Vastu mandala and the construction plans.

      The size and the nature of the structure will determine the various kinds of building materials to be employed at different stages of its construction. Generally the use of iron, considered the crudest of metals, is strictly avoided within the temple structure, as iron tends to get rusty and endangers the stability and the life of the structure. The stone which has a far longer life and is less corrosive, is the major building material employed in temple construction. (There are elaborate methods for testing and grading the stones; and more about that in the final part) The main structure and the dome are invariably constructed of tested stone.

      The Building materials like stone, brick, mortar, wood, etc., are selected for the main body of the temple, whereas elements like gold and silver are be used for final ornamentation. Marble is not used in Southern structures. Materials like simulated marble, plastic and asbestos, strictly, are not acceptable building materials. Only organic materials are used in temple architecture. The traditional Indian temples of stone, it is said, are designed to last for 800 years unlike RCC structures which are guaranteed for 80 years. Incidentally, the Ayadi aspects are worked out to ensure longevity of the temple.

      As regards your other question: Where can I get information on this? , the primary source is the text of the Shilpa Shastra, the Manasara or Mayamatam, which deals with construction aspects such as: selection of suitable site for temples, the variety of pillars, types of Mantapas and patterns of Vimanas etc . The text in translation is available on the net .Another text , Samarangana Sutradhara, mentions details of craftsmen, artists and the divisions of their work , traditional skills etc.

      The rest may be supplemented by the series on temple Architecture I have posted. It covers some (but not all) aspects of temple construction.


      • majorsri

        April 9, 2018 at 3:21 am

        Thank you So much. Your writing is invaluable to say the least. My no is 7760988879. Would love to discuss more on this, if you are ok. Thank you once again.

  35. Raviteja KVNS

    April 17, 2018 at 10:56 am

    Sir Namastey,

    My query is regarding Sri Rudram. The existed Sri Rudram is taken from Yajur Veda, the reciting style is according to Yajurvedic rules. I heard some stanzas of Sri Rudram reciting in Rig Vedic style from the below link. Does Sri Rudram exist in Rig Veda? The Sri Rudram in Yajur Veda, was it derived from Rig Veda? Please give me a detailed explanation.

    Thank you

    • sreenivasaraos

      April 17, 2018 at 6:42 pm

      Dear Shri Raviteja, Yes Sir

      There are as many as seventy-five references to Rudra in the Rig-Veda Samhita. Most of those occur in the First and the Second Books.

      The Rig-Veda Samhita has 39 verses dedicated to Rudra.

      And, the version of Rudra-adhyaya in the Vajasaneyi Samhita of Shukla Yajurveda (chapter 16) comprises 66 mantras (here known as kandikas). Many of these kandikas are drawn from Rig-Veda Samhita.

      Then, there is the version of Rudra-adhyaya appearing in the Taittiriya Samhita of Krishna Yajurveda (Kanda 4; Praparthaka 5). This is more comprehensive, having as many as 170 mantras, including the 66 kandikas of the Vajasaneyi Samhita.

      Please read my post The Rudras Eleven at

      And, in particular, refer, therein, to Paragraph H. Rudra Prashna; and, also to Notes at the end of the article detailing the verses dedicated to Rudra in the Rig-Veda Samhita.

      I trust this helps. Please let me know


  36. trs

    April 22, 2018 at 3:27 am

    dear one, i wish to meet you. Can you give me address and convenient timings> i wish to discuss regarding Srividya. yours trs murthy

    • sreenivasaraos

      April 22, 2018 at 5:19 am

      Dear TRS, Thank you for the visit. I am presently out of India. Further, I am not duly initiated into Sri Vidya Upasana.

      In case you are keenly interested , I suggest you may please try to approach Mahamahopadhyaya Dr.R.Sathyanarayana , an erudite scholar , an ardent Sri Vidya Upasaka , and one who has been properly initiated into Sri Vidya.

      He is also the Founder Director, Srividya Pratishthaan, Foundation to Preserve, Perpetuate and Disseminate the Knowledge of Srividya Tantra.

      If you could meet and converse with him ,that would be more purposeful,

      Dr.R.Sathyanarayana may be contacted at : No. 12, ‘Trayeelakshmi’, 9th Cross, 4th Main, Jayanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, Pin: 570014, Tele-fax: +91 821 2567891,

      Good luck , Cheers

  37. Sharon

    April 28, 2018 at 11:47 am

    Dear sir,

    First of all thank you for sharing your valuable knowledge that i am searching.

    I have some doubts/questions.Please enlighten me on this matter

    1.What is the difference between ‘moola mantra’ and ‘beeja mantra’ and it’s purpose?
    2.How to invoke a deity during prayer using mantra ?
    3.what are the moola mantra and beeja mantra of hindu dieties(Ganesha,shiva,vishnu,krishna etc) ?
    4.I don’t have a Guru yet.Will there be anything concern about using mantras without a guru ?

    Provide any reliable link/website on this subject.

    Hare Krishna

    • sreenivasaraos

      April 30, 2018 at 3:43 am

      Dear Sharon

      Thank you for the visit

      To start with; all the texts do mention that one needs to be formally initiated into a Mantra through the guidance /protection of a Guru. That has been the practice.

      As regards the Mantra; the term is generally explained as mananat trayate mantrah; on contemplation of which one is liberated. It is the harmonious and powerful union of mind (Manas) and word (Vac). And, Mantra is neither a magical formula, nor is it a logical sentence. It is the living sound, transcending beyond the intellectual explanations. Its essence has to be grasped in earnestness and faith.

      Usually, a Mantra commences with Om, the Pranava, which is considered as the Bija (seed) of that Mantra, from which the Mantra emanates. There are also some other Bija Mantras, which basically are sounds, having no definite meaning; but are regarded as representing the power or the energy of that deity.

      For instance; the Tantra ideology regards Bija (seed) Mantra Hrim, as being equivalent to the Pranava Om. It is the Bija Mantra of the Great Goddess Devi, representing Her supreme reality. There is a faith that just as the tree, the flowers, and the fruit, emerge from the seed, so also do the different aspects of the Devi emerge from her Bija mantra , Hrim.

      Thus, the mono syllabic Bija mantras, which are of Tantric nature, are potent with inherent Shakthi or power. They are believed to be the more accessible forms of the deity’s ultimate form. That is because, it is believed, that Bija mantra is the true-name’ (nija –naama) by which the deity is invoked. Its other names are mere the popular ones by which the people of the world call her/him (laukika) .

      The Bija mantras are subtle sounds of abstract language, attempting to visualize the un-differentiated divine principle.

      Each Bija-akshara (syllables) has its own identify and association; and, each represents a certain aspect of the Goddess. But, when these Bija-aksharas are put together and composed in the form of a mantra, it becomes the manifest, subtle form (Sukshmarupa) of the Mother Goddess. Such a Mantra is regarded as the basic Mantra (Mula Mantra) of the deity.

      For instance; in the Sri Vidya tradition, the fifteen lettered Panchadasi (Panchadasaksharii) mantra is revered as the verbal form of the Mother Goddess. It is, initially, composed of fifteen Bija mantras (ka – e – ī – la- hrīṁ; ha – sa – ka – ha – la – hrīṁ; sa – ka – la – hrīṁ). Each of these syllables has its own connotation. By adding to it, the secret syllable śrīṁ, the series is transformed into the sixteen lettered Shodashi mantra. The Bijakshara śrīṁ is regarded as the original form of the Mother Goddess Sri. This sixteen syllable mantra is revered as the Mula-mantra or the basic Mantra of the Devi.

      It is said; when one utters a deity’s Mantra, one is not naming the deity, but is evoking its power as a means to open oneself to it. There is a faith; mantra gives expression to the identity of the name (abhidana) with the object of contemplation (abhideya). Therefore, some describe mantra as a catalyst that’ allows the potential to become a reality’. It is both the means (upaya) and the end (upeya).

      You asked about Bija and Mula Mantras of various deities; and how they are invoked. Please check the following link which gives such details.

      As for the general theory and principles of the Mantra, there are countless books , each putting forth its own ideology. There are also some others which treat the subject in broader perspective .For instance; Vac – the concept of the word in selected Hindu Tantras by Andre Padoux (translated by Jacques Gontier), devotes an entire chapter (seven from pages 372 to 426) to explain the concept of Mantra.

      There is The Mantra by Harvey P. Alper; The Ancient Science of Mantras by Om Swami; Mantras: Words of Power by Swami Sivananda Radha; Mantra Yoga and the Primal Sound: Secrets of Seed (Bija) Mantras by David Frawley ; and so on

      But, such books are very scholarly; and, often make a difficult reading. I suggest take a preview of these books on the Google before you think of buying any.
      Pardon me. I am not sure if I have been of any help to you. In case, I can be of any assistance, please do contact me.

      Warm Regards

      • Sharon

        May 4, 2018 at 6:17 am

        Dear sir,
        Thank you very much for your blessings.My understanding’s are very little that i came to know after reading your blog.Please spread some light on me.

        Chanting mantra formally initiated by a guru and chanting without a guru’s initiation.What is the difference in them ?Is it meaning chanting mantra without a guru’s initiation is futile ?Or these mantras should only be used by specific people ?

        Hare Krishna

      • sreenivasaraos

        May 5, 2018 at 3:26 am

        Dear Sharon

        I am not sure I am competent to provide you with a definitive answer, From what I understand , it is not the last the last option you mentioned that truly matters.

        As for repeating a mantra in order to understand it in an academic sense , one can do it on ones own.

        But, to practice it rigorously as a Mantra sadhana ; it is said, one needs to acquire it from an authoritative source – the Guru . And one also needs to practice it under the Guru’s guidance. That is where the proper initiation and a worthy Guru become relevant.

        At the same time; the text do caution that a practitioner should take care to avoid the two extremes of blind faith and skepticism. It is also said – ‘ do not take initiation just out of curiosity’.

        One should , therefore, receive it faith; and, practice it with the purity of heart and sharpness of intellect. It seems; It is the intensity of practice and the determination to pursue it that matters

        This is all I know. Pardon me , if I have not been of any help.

        Wish you Godspeed in all your endeavors. May that Supreme Mother bless us all.

        Warm Regards

  38. Vimal

    April 29, 2018 at 8:35 am

    Dear Sreenivas sir. I am really impressed by your blog. I am a university student and am currently looking for books that would illuminate on subject matters such as the forms of vishnu and other vaishnava deities. In other words I am looking for books such as vaishnava agamas and shilpa shastras that talks about forms and iconography in specific. I saw your articles on related matters, but I am wondering if you can point out to me any specific books that I can purchase either at chennai or trichy? If not online purchasing is good too. Looking for specific titles that I can look for. So far I heard of Vishnu Kosha. I am wondering if there are more books that you are aware. Tamil or English books are ok for me.

    • sreenivasaraos

      May 1, 2018 at 4:53 am

      Dear Vimal,

      Thanks for the visit.

      The subjects you mentioned- Agama and Shilpa – are quite vast.

      As regards the Agamas, you have vast body of literature spread across the Vaikhannasa and Pancharatra Agamas with their own branches and subdivisions. Perhaps you could commence with The Vishnu Kosha by Prof. SK Ramachandra Rao ; and follow the bibliography given there.

      You may also refer to my posts on Vishnu Dwadashanama; Vaikahanasa Agama etc., which give lists of the related sources and references. If you can search for the books and links given there it would be quite useful.

      In regard to the Shilpa texts related to Vishnu , the Brahmiya Chitra Karma Shastram, dated around the sixth century, which particularly is devoted to Vashnava Agama , is , of course, the primary amd the most authoritative source. The text is published in four volumes by Dr.Gnanananda, in Kannada.It is also available on the net.

      I am not sure if Sri Brahmeeya Chitra Karma Shastram is available in English. You may try the Saraswati Mahal Library – on line

      Kashyapa Shilpa Shastram , a Vaishnava text, is available on the net

      You may also read Vishnudharmottara- purana –Part Three , which is also available on the net

      And, you have , of course, the voluminous encyclopaedic work The Elements of Hindu Iconography by TA Gopinatha Rao . It is available in print as also on the net.

      As you proceed further you will surely come across may other texts and references on the subjects of your interest.

      Good Luck


  39. Srinivas

    May 5, 2018 at 3:42 pm

    Dear Sreenivasarao garu,

    I am Srinivas from Bangalore. I would like to get initiated into Srividya upasana. Can you please guide me on that? Many thanks for your help.

    Best Regards

    • sreenivasaraos

      May 5, 2018 at 5:22 pm

      Dear Shri Srinivas

      I am not duly initiated into Sri Vidya Upasana. I am , therefore, not competent to advice in the matter.

      In case you are keenly interested , I suggest you may please try to approach Mahamahopadhyaya Dr.R.Sathyanarayana , an erudite scholar , an ardent Sri Vidya Upasaka , and one who has been properly initiated into Sri Vidya.

      He is also the Founder Director, Srividya Pratishthaan, Foundation to Preserve, Perpetuate and Disseminate the Knowledge of Srividya Tantra.

      If you could meet and converse with him ,that would be more purposeful,

      Dr.R.Sathyanarayana may be contacted at : No. 12, ‘Trayeelakshmi’, 9th Cross, 4th Main, Jayanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, Pin: 570014, Tele-fax: +91 821 2567891,

      Good luck , Cheers

      • Srinivas

        May 6, 2018 at 3:31 am

        Dear Sri Sreenivasarao garu,

        Many many thanks for the information. I will reach out to Sri R. Satyanarayana and move forward.

        Best Regards

  40. Kuldeep P

    May 13, 2018 at 11:00 am

    Hello Sir,
    Your blog is indeed enlightening and vast source of knowledge. I love reading it and try to assimilate as per my capability. Regarding Rig-Veda, is there any information available about the creation periods or chronology of various mandalas like which mandala forms earliest part of Rig-Veda. It is seen that Sanskrit in some hyms of 1st and 10th mandalas resembles to more modern Sanskrit… so those might be later ones. Request you to kindly guide in this regards.

    • sreenivasaraos

      May 13, 2018 at 7:33 pm

      Dear Shri Kuldeep,
      Thank you for the visit; and, for the question.

      As regards the question of chronology that you mentioned, it is hard to determine their strict sequential order.

      However, some attempts have been made to work out a time-frame/chronology. And, as always there are more than two opinions on that question too.

      In the absence of external evidences, all scholars delved deep into Rig Veda Samhita and subjected its text to intense study and scrutiny from various angles, including grammar, etymology, language, style, usage of terms etc. Based on such studies, many scholars (mainly the western scholars) opine that the ten Books of the Rig Veda were compiled at different points of time. ,

      Of the ten Mandalas (Books), the six Mandalas, numbering from 2 to 7 are homogenous in character and are considered the oldest parts of the Rig Veda. Each of these six books was composed by a Rishi and by members of his family / disciples and of his Gotra. These Mandalas (2-7) are therefore often called Family Books.

      On the other hand, the books 1, 8 and 10 were not each composed by a distinct family of Rishis but by different individual Rishis.
      The Books #1 and 8 are almost Family Books as a majority of their hymns are composed by the family of Kanvas and many hymns are found in both the Books.

      The Book # 9 is different from the rest; all the hymns therein are addressed to Soma (while not a single hymn is addressed to Soma in the Family Books) and by groups of Rishis.

      The tenth Book is a collection of various earlier and later hymns. Book # 10 appears to be of a later origin and of a supplementary character.

      Thus, the Books # 1 and #10 are considered the latest and the longest Books together accounting for about 40 percent of the bulk of the Rig Veda.

      But, generally, when someone says “early ‘or ‘late’ Veda, it is assumed they are referring to this sequence. ( numbers 1 , 2 , etc)

      The Indian scholars however argue that all the ten Books were compiled in one stage..They point out that the mantras across the books overlap; the mantras of the “early books” also appear in the “later books”. They surmise that the compilers might have started with simpler mantras and then moved on to more complicated ones. Well, of course, this too is disputed.

      In any case, all appear to agree that Rig Veda is the oldest Book; and has been carefully preserved.

      Please also see :


  41. Sharon

    May 18, 2018 at 6:33 am

    Dear sir,

    What you have to say about ‘naga'(snake god) worship in Hinduism.Which scriptures mentioned about ‘naga’? Please provide some detailed explanation.Any books to read to get more details?

    • sreenivasaraos

      June 9, 2018 at 8:57 pm

      Dear Sharon

      Pardon me for the delay in responding to your query.

      My health , lately, has been rather indifferent; and, I was also caught with a few other things


      As I started writing a reply to you, it grew rather lengthy

      I have , therefore , posted my response as a blog

      Please check the following lihk


      I trust that would not burden your patience rather too heavily

      Please take your time; read at at your leisure; and, let me know if it answers your question

      Please keep talking


  42. Shyam Sunder Singh

    May 22, 2018 at 2:06 pm

    Dear Sir, i cam across your site today (22-05-2018) i seem quite informative, authentic and scholarly. Sir need information on modern sama ganam notation which has symbols like 1111/333 etc can you please help out with this, Thanking you in anticipation – Shyam

  43. Bharat

    June 3, 2018 at 12:42 pm

    Hello, we are searching for the script for Sariputra Prakatana drama Script. Do you happen to know where we can get it ?

    Thank you.

  44. Bharat

    June 3, 2018 at 12:43 pm

    Hello, we are searching for the script for Sariputra Prakatana drama Script. Do you happen to know where we can get it ?

    Thank you…

  45. Thirunavukkarasu Sivasubramaniam

    June 24, 2018 at 5:42 am

    High class posts shows the Author’s profound knowledge in Sanatana Darma.

    • sreenivasaraos

      June 24, 2018 at 6:40 am

      Dear Shri Sivasubramaniam

      Thank you for the visit; and, for the appreciation.

      I shall be grateful if you could kindly post your comments on any of the articles you read so far

      Thanks again


      • deepavaliblog

        June 25, 2018 at 11:46 am

        Dear Sir

        Can you please let me know how to identify the carnatic raga of a given song or lyric.

        Thanking you in anticipation.

        With Best Regards

      • sreenivasaraos

        June 25, 2018 at 12:34 pm

        Dear Shyam

        Wow. One has to know the Raga-structure – the Arohana and Avarohana of its notes. Or, one has to gain familiarity by listening to classical music regularly ; and by following the rendering of the various compositions and remembering the Raga of each one. It is by practice ; and diligence.

        Then , there is , of course , the mechanical method : you may just Google the lyrics of the song and ascertain its details.

        There is a website : , which claims that it provides an easy approach for identifying, appreciating and understanding ragas . You may try ; attempt to learn to identify the Ragas


      • deepavaliblog

        June 27, 2018 at 10:01 am

        Dear Sir

        Thanks a lot for your reply. Recently i bought the book called “A gentle introduction to carnatic music” which take one into basics of carnatic music very brilliantly, i hope the ragasurabhi link provided by you take me forward further. Thanks once again.

        With Best Regards

      • sreenivasaraos

        June 27, 2018 at 12:05 pm

        Dear Shyam

        You are welcome

        That is very good. I trust that helps.

        Enjoy the music ; and, the learning


  46. Nethra

    July 3, 2018 at 5:55 am

    Nice Info !!!!!With interested in Mantra siddhi concept … can you pl help me on the same.

    Thank you

    • sreenivasaraos

      July 4, 2018 at 4:04 am

      Dear Netra
      all the texts do mention that one needs to be formally initiated into a Mantra through the guidance /protection of a Guru. That has been the practice..
      Cheers and Good Luck

  47. Aditya

    July 20, 2018 at 3:08 pm

    Dear Shri Sreenivasa Rao,

    I read your blog about the temple architecture and got to know about a lot of things. It was very informative, thank you. I have a question related to this, if I may ask. There is a stark difference between the Padmanabhaswamy temple at Trivandrum and Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam. The idol of Padmanabhaswamy is is Yoga nidra. One hand of the idol is placed on a shiva linga (The index finger specifically, similar to jnana mudra). The other hand assumes, perhaps another mudra, I am not too sure. The point is, the posture is very distinct and unique to the idol. On the other hand, the ranganatha swamy idol assumes no mudra! If you notice, it is very simlar to reclining buddha or the sleeping buddha. In addition, the gopuras of temples of Tamil Nadu resembles the pagodas of Buddhists. I am of the opinion that Srirangam or the ranganatha temples were all Buddhist places of worship at some point in time and were later converted to Hindu temples. What is your view on this?
    Eagerly awaiting your reply.

    • sreenivasaraos

      July 21, 2018 at 4:36 am

      Dear Aditya

      Thanks for the visit; and, for the remarks

      I came across speculations on similar lines. I am not sure. And, prefer to go by the traditional view

      Thanks . Cheers

  48. Sharon

    July 27, 2018 at 4:13 pm

    Dear sir,

    Who is Ayyappa and who is Dharma sastha? both same or not ?Please spread some light on sabarimala story.Why this temple located at Hill top?


    • sreenivasaraos

      July 28, 2018 at 7:25 am

      Dear Sharon

      Glad to see you again. You are welcome

      Regarding Ayyappa , there is much material on the net.

      You may check ;

      Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide by Roshen Dalal

      Ayyappa: as Dharma Sastha

      and others

      Now, in the present period, the names Ayyappa ; Ayyanar and Sastha have become synonyms

      There is also much discussion about the Buddhist influence in the formation of Ayyappa

      Please check here about Kerala Buddhism

      Please also check : A Social History of India By S. N. Sadasivan ( page 102 onward) where in the context of Buddhism in Kerala , it talks about Sastha as a form of Buddha ( page 127)’

      And , to your question : why the temple is on hilltop: Mr . Sasasivan writes ; the temples on the Western Ghats were constructed , mainly to provide protective environment to the Buddhist monks for their spiritual development and intensive study.

      He also mentions that the defender of the faith was named Sastha. The 18 steps to his temple have many symbolisms (page 128).

      It is said; Ayyappa who liberated the temple , himself assumed the title of Sastha , protector of the Dharma ; hence, Dharmasastha.

      The subject is somewhat debatable. Better to take it , as it is now


      • Sharon

        July 28, 2018 at 1:28 pm

        Dear sir,

        Thank you very much for your quick reply.i believe there is only one truth but may have different ways to reach there.Usually may be stuck at somewhere on the way.Then came to know the way is wrong.I don’t think everything on net is trustworthy, especially spiritual concern.Also difficult to find out the real one.I think you are a wise scholar or an enlightened master.Thank you very much for answering my questions.

      • sreenivasaraos

        July 28, 2018 at 2:01 pm

        Dear Sharon

        Thank you Maa

        Please keep talking

        Warm Regards


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