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  1. Padmhasinni T

    July 15, 2020 at 11:55 am

    Could I have the link for your observations on NaradiyaSiksha Music and Date of the text please

  2. Suresh G

    August 5, 2020 at 7:28 am

    Dear sir why sun light is NOT allowed permanently in Garbha Girha – south Indian temples?
    ( except some few moments in some temples)

    is it because its like Womb or allowing sun light will affect the construction/stability of Vimana & supporting walls?
    i want to know the scientific & Spiritual reason for this?

    please reply. Thanks

    • sreenivasaraos

      August 6, 2020 at 4:37 am

      Dear Sri Suresh

      Thank you for the visit; and; for the question.

      The Garbagriha is the very purpose of the temple.

      All the detailed architecture that surrounds it is rather supplementary. A temple may have a very elaborate grandiose series of enclosures filled with most intricate decorative sculptures and pillars etc. However, all that is of no avail in the absence of a small cubical of low roof, with no windows, except for the front opening.

      But, it is here, in this cubical the principle deity resides. The magnificent temple is built in celebration of the glory and splendour of one who sits, virtually hidden, in a small place.

      The layout of the temple follows the principle of progressive movement, in stages, from the gross towards the subtlest. The outer Gopurs are gaudy, filled with the figures of varieties of animals, demons and gods etc. The Mantapas that follow leading towards the sanctum get progressively simpler.

      And, the light coming from outside gets comparatively dimmer; and, ensures that by the time the pilgrim reaches the innermost chamber , the Garbagriha, her/his eyes slowly become accustomed to the darkness.

      Further, the sculpture and carvings at the doors and the vicinity of the Garbagriha are simple, modest and not so exuberant as to distract the attention of the devotee. Absolute quiet is ensured in the vicinity of the sanctum.

      Further, the only light entering into that part of the temple falls on the deity. The oil lamps that illumine the deity enhance the ambiance of serenity and peace.

      This is based on the faith that when a worshiper is in the presence of the divine, there should be nothing to distract his/her senses, including vision. One should only sense the presence of god.

      Symbolically, the devotee’s movement from the outer to the inner reaches of the temple is, at once, physical, psychological and spiritual. At each stage she/ he gradually moves from the gross to the subtle, leaving behind other thoughts and preoccupations. And, finally one is in the immediate presence of the representation of the Supreme Being.

      The entire gamut of the temple architecture simulates the Tantra ideology crystallized in the design and the principle of the Sri Chakra.

      Here, the Sadhaka moves ,step-by-step ,from the outer enclosure of the physical elements towards the innermost enclosure , passing through successive enclosures, symbolizing ascent through various levels of his consciousness . As one proceeds inward from the outermost enclosure the devotee’s thoughts are slowly refined; and the association of ideas is gradually freed from the constraints of conventional reality that normally surround one.

      And, at the center of Sri Chakra is the Bindu, the almost invisible dimensionless dot representing the energy and the transcendental aspect of the Devi.

      In all its elaborately layered structure, it is this Bindu that alone in reality is the Sri Chakra, symbolizing the Mother Goddess.

      Similar is the case with the structure of the temple.

      Some say; when one is in the presence of the deity seated in the Garbagriha one reaches into ones inner space and is reborn from its womb , transformed by the grace of the Divinity that in the inner most Avarana of the temple, the Garbagriha.


      All this sounds, I agree, highly ethereal. I was just trying restate, in a simple way, what the Texts laid out painstakingly in great detail. I am not sure, the concepts of light, darkness, silence etc., are given any credence in the recently built temples.

      Incidentally, I may mention, many researchers have studied the element of Darkness in religious places. You may, perhaps, be interested in reading one such paper : ’ A Study of Light/Darkness in Sacred Settings’ by Anat Geva and Anuradha Mukherji.

      Click to access ijac20075304.content.pdf

      The authors of this paper also mention

      Another interesting conclusion can be drawn. The reduction level of light quality in the temple also contributes to the thermal comfort in the building.Thick walls, small windows, and reduced light maintain cool and dry conditions for better thermal comfort in the hot humid climate of Southern India

      Thus, the Hindu worshipers are not distracted visually or thermally enabling to focus one’s mind on God.


      The other point you mentioned is also covered here

      Stay safe, healthy and happy

      Cheers and Regards

      • Vasanthi Prasd

        August 1, 2021 at 11:11 pm

        Brilliantly elucidated.

      • sreenivasaraos

        August 2, 2021 at 12:04 am

        Thank you

  3. baanisartpoint

    August 11, 2020 at 11:55 am

    Hi, You seem to be well versed with the history of our vedic art. I had a query regarding the iconography used for Kerala mural painting.
    Would you by any chance know of a link where I can get an image of the ancient Dhyana Sloka scriptures used by the kerala muralists for the paintings. Thanks in advance. Regards

    • sreenivasaraos

      August 12, 2020 at 4:04 am

      Dear Bp

      Thank you for the visit

      The Dhyana Shlokas – word pictures, describing the iconography of a deity are culled out of numerous sources , such as Puranas, Gitas and Shilpa texts etc.

      One can choose a particular shloka depending upon its suitability in the context of the proposed image , with regard to its features, its Ayudhas and its disposition.

      As regards the Murals of Kerala

      Please do read

      The Legacy of Chitrasutra – Twelve – The Murals of Kerala


      • baanisartpoint

        August 13, 2020 at 5:44 am

        Thank you so much for the information. I really appreciate it.

      • baanisartpoint

        April 19, 2021 at 7:51 am

        Hi, Thanks a ton. for the information.. Sorry for the late response… the notification mail was in the spam folder.. Regards, Baani

  4. Harikumar

    August 12, 2020 at 11:12 am

    Dear sir.,
    Your article on Sankhya is wonderful with lot of details and pramanas.

    I have one question.

    You have quoted the svetasvatara upanishad 5.2 which talks about Safe Kapilan.

    What is the translation of the complete mantra?

    There are some commentaries who say this mantra refer to hiranyagarbha.

    But in the vishnu sahasranamam bhagya both sankara and parasara bhatta quote this mantra;

    while commenting on the names maharishi kapilacharya.

    Please give your views on this

    • sreenivasaraos

      August 13, 2020 at 8:11 am

      Dear Harikumar

      Thank you for the visit; and, for reading it closely

      That was a good question.

      The Shvetasvatara Upanishad, one of the older Upanishads, is a versatile text. It, at once, can be adopted into many Schools of Indian philosophies (Darshana). It is therefore quoted by all the branches of Vedanta.

      But, at the same time, it is said to be more oriented towards Samkhya. And, certain verses can also be related to the Sage Kapila.

      Now, as regards the translation of the verse 2 of Chapter 5 of Shvetasvatara Upanishad :

      yo yoniṃ yonim adhitiṣṭhaty eko viśvāni rūpāṇi yonīś ca sarvāḥ / ṛṣiṃ prasūtam kapilam yas tam agre jñānair bibharti jāyamānaṃ ca paśyet // 5.2 //

      It is generally translated as:

      He alone presides over Nature in all aspects, and controls every form and every cause of production. He witnesses the birth of the first born seer of golden colour and nourishes him with wisdom. [Chapter 5 – Verse- 2)

      In certain versions, the term Kapila is said to mean color.

      And, in certain other versions Kapila is said to refer to one whose colour is golden –like tawny (Kanaka-Kapila –Varna), the sage who is identical with Hiranyagarbha.

      The Mahabharata (Shanti Parva 349.65,) states: “Kapila, the teacher of Samkhya, is said to be the supreme Rishi. Hiranyagarbha is the original knower of Yoga. There is no one else more ancient.”

      sárhkhyasya vaktā kapilah paramarsih Sa u Cyate, hiranyagarbho yogasya vettà nányah purātanah

      Elsewhere in the Mahabharata (Shanti Parva 342.95-96), Krishna states, identifying himself with Hiranyagarbha: “As my form, carrying the knowledge, eternal and dwelling in the Sun, the teachers of Samkhya, who have discerned what is important, call me Kapila. As the brilliant Hiranyagarbha, who is lauded in the verses of the Vedas, ever worshiped by Yoga, so I am also remembered in the world.’

      Thus, Kapila – Hiranyagarbha is regarded as the originator of the Yoga Shastra as also of Samkhya.


      And, at the same time, Sage Kapila is said to be an Avatara of Vishnu as Kapila Vasudeva.

      The main Purpose of Lord Vishnu’s incarnation as sage Kapila was to compile all the divine knowledge that had been destroyed and to teach this world Samkhya Shastra .

      They all are running round in circles ; and , eventually : Kapila- Hranyagarbha- Avatara of Vishnu, the Kapila Vasudeva – Originator of Yoga – of Samkhya – all run into each other.

      That might perhaps be the reason that Kapila is called by some as Hiranyagarbha

      Some classical Yoga traditions consider Hiraṇyagarbha as the originator of Yoga; though this may also be a name for Rishi Kapila, the one who also enunciated the Samkhya theories.

      I think, in the given context, it would be safer to take Kapila- Hiranyagarbha- Kapila Vasudeva- the teacher of Samkhya and Yoga – all referring to a same person.

      I am not sure if I have clarified; or, have muddled the issue further.

      Please let me know

      Please click here for a detailed discussion on Verse 2 of Chapter 5 of Shvetasvatara Upanishad , on pages 105- 110 of the book Essays On Indo-Aryan Mythology– by Sri Narayana Ayyangar (1901)

      Stay safe, healthy and happy


  5. Bala Parasuraman

    August 20, 2020 at 1:51 pm

    Dear Sir,

    Namaskarama…Sairam. I have a question and was hoping you could guide me. There is a line that comes in the Dhyana Sloka 4th chapter of Devimahatmayam. I am looking for the meaning for the line “Om Kalabrabham…” Can you please let me know the meaning of the word Kalabrabham?


    • sreenivasaraos

      August 20, 2020 at 2:45 pm

      Dear Bala

      Can you please quote the line a little more or in full

      Kindly also check the spelling

      Please let me know


      • Bala Parasuraman

        August 20, 2020 at 7:11 pm

        Dear Sir,

        Please see below.

        “Om Kaalaprabham Kadaksha Rari Kula Bayadhaam…” Unfortunately, I am unable to copy and paste the lines in this comment box. If you can share your contact details, I can send you a copy of the sloka.


    • sreenivasaraos

      August 21, 2020 at 3:27 am

      Dear Bala

      I think you are referring to the following Sloka

      Chapter 4- caturdho ̕dhyāyaḥ- dhyānaṃ

      oṃ kālābhrābhāṃ kaṭākṣair-ari-kula-bhayadāṃ maulibaddhendu-rekhām । śaṅkhaṃ cakraṃ kṛpāṇāṃ triśikhamapi karairud-vahantīṃ trinetrām ॥ siṃha-skandhādhi-rūḍhāṃ tribhuvanam-akhilaṃ tejasā pūrayantīm । dhyāyed durgāṃ jayākhyāṃ tridaśa-parivṛtāṃ sevitāṃ siddhi-kāmaiḥ ॥

      The meaning as given in the page is as under

      We meditate upon the terrifying form of the Divine Mother Jaya Durgā Devī, seated on a menacing lion and radiating a dark complexion resembling that of a rain-laden dark cloud. She holds a trident/śūla, cakra/discus, sword/kṛpāṇa and a conch. She has the lustre of a moon and has three eyes (elevated ājñā cakra). Her terrifying glance is enough to invoke great fear in the minds of enemies. She has a bandana on Her head with a crescent moon shining forth. She is resplendent in Her glory that radiates upon all the three realms. The Divine Mother should be prayed to, if one is keen upon achieving all round victory in all the three realms and for attaining the most difficult of siddhis.

      Stay safe, healthy and happy

      Gauri and Ganesha greetings

      May the Mother of Ganesha bless us all


      • Bala Parasuraman

        August 21, 2020 at 4:49 pm

        Dear Sir,

        Thanks very much for the details. Could you please point me to the exact meaning of the word ‘Kaalabrabam’ in this sloka? Also, if you could let me know the root word for this?


      • sreenivasaraos

        August 22, 2020 at 12:10 am

        Dear Bala

        The term ‘Kālābhrābhāṃ ‘ refers to the Devi Durga who is radiant like a dark rain-laden dark cloud


        There is a detailed discussion on this Dhyana-Sloka starting from page 248 of the enclosed document at

        Click to access kvp_2014.pdf

        Happy Ganesha


      • Bala Parasuraman

        August 24, 2020 at 3:40 pm

        Fantastic. Thanks very much for your inputs.


  6. S. Girish

    August 24, 2020 at 6:37 am

    Hello sir,

    Hope you are doing well and are safe. Me along with a friend of mine were researching on the concept of Ardhanarishvara. We had a few questions:

    1. What is scriptural origin of the concept ?

    2. How does the idea evolve with the evolutuion of the religious literature (like from the vedic to the puranic era to the classical era and so on) ?

    3. Can you point us to some studies which discuss the idea and related concepts in some depth.

    • sreenivasaraos

      August 24, 2020 at 3:11 pm

      Dear Girish

      Thank you for the visit

      I suggest ; you may initially read the following post

      Please also glance through the comments section

      In case there are any other particular issues

      we may get back together

      Stay safe healthy and happy


      • S. Girish

        August 24, 2020 at 5:29 pm

        Thank You, sir.

        Will get back to you if anything else is needed.

        By the way, the materials you provided a few months back for my cousin’s project on Natya Mandapas were of great use. Accept our gratitude.

        Your blog is the greatest treasure trove of Indic information that I know of. I have never seen your face but the work speaks volumes.

        I along with some of my juniors run a quizzing and knowledge dissemination company/startup and we are always in awe of your colossal body of work. The versatility you maintain is amazing.

        We would like to have a discussion session with you someday, with your permission.

        Thank You for creating this body of work.


    September 4, 2020 at 10:48 am

    Dear sir,

    Your blog is a very informative and highly educative treasure trove of our Sanatana Dharma and culture. May God bless you in all walks of your life. I am a huge fan of our temples especially south Indian temples and temple sculptures. I have some questions.
    Why the karanas of Natya Shastra are depicted only in a few temples especially depicted in south Indian temples?
    Why the North Indian temples have deities made of marbles rather than stone?
    Why Ramanuja brought the Pancharatra agamas to Sri Rangam temple? Which agama was followed in Sri Rangam temple before Ramanuja?

    • sreenivasaraos

      September 28, 2020 at 5:31 am

      Dear Shri Srikanth Ragunath

      Pardon me for the delay in responding to your comments/questions.
      You have raised four separate issues.

      1. Why the Karanas of Natya Shastra are depicted only in a few temples especially depicted in south Indian temples?
      2. Why the North Indian temples have deities made of marbles rather than stone?
      3. Why Sri Ramanuja brought the Pancharatra agamas to Sri Rangam temple?
      4. Which Agama was followed in Sri Rangam temple before Sri Ramanuja?

      These issues need some explanation

      Let’s go one by one.


      To start with, as regards your question:

      1. Why the Karanas of Natya Shastra are depicted only in a few temples; especially depicted in south Indian temples?


      A Karana is a basic unit of dance, constructed of well coordinated static postures and dynamic movements. The Karana, just as in architecture is , indeed, the factor, which characterizes the form of beauty through the perfect geometrical proportions, and harmonious composition of various body-parts. The sense of balance, ease and poise is the key.

      Since the Karanas epitomize the beauty of form; and, symbolize the concept of aesthetics, they served as models for the artist; and, inspired them to create sculptures of lasting beauty. The sculptors (Shilpis) regarded the Karanas as the vital breath (Prana) of their Art. The much admired wondrous Indian sculptures are, indeed, the frozen forms of Karanas; poems in stone
      Obviously, it is neither easy nor possible to carve such beautiful and well sculptures depicting the Karanas on each and every temple pillar. It does take a gifted and highly skilled Shilpin who is well versed both in the art of sculpture and in the art of Dance. Such talented Shilpins are not too many; and, are indeed hard to come by.

      And, therefore, each and every temple cannot have Karanas of Natya Shastra or the graceful Salabhanjikas depicted on their pillars.
      As regards the sculptures; every region and period produced its own distinct style of images with its regional variations in iconography. The temple is covered with elaborate sculpture and ornament that form a fundamental part of its conception.

      Similar is the case with the Karanas; for instance, the temples of Nagara style (Konarak, Khajuraho etc.,) have their own sets of Dancing imagery.


    • sreenivasaraos

      September 28, 2020 at 5:36 am

      Dear Shri Srikanth Ragunath

      Now , the second question

      2. Why the North Indian temples have deities made of marbles rather than stone?

      Usually, the images of the deities in the temples of South India are made out of locally available granite rock which is naturally black in color. They are intrinsically capable of resisting abrasion; are inert to weathering; are strong enough to bear massive weight; and are , also amenable to accepting a brilliant polish. The images made of such granite stones have a comparatively longer life and are highly durable.

      This might be the reason why granite is used; and, why most of the idols are black in South Indian temples. Such stone images do not get eroded easily or get discolored due to the materials used in Abhisheka (water, milk, curd, honey, turmeric and sandal).

      Another reason for not using Marble in the older temples of South India, where the sanctum is not lit, the Marble gets quickly discolored (due to application of vermilion, turmeric, lamp sooth). Hence it’s not the choice especially were the sanctum is not lit .

      In all the South Indian temples, the image of the main deity (Mula-Vigraha) is made of stone. And, it stays permanently within the sanctum. The mobile image of that presiding deity (Utsava-Vigraha) used for ceremonial purposes; and, for processions around the temple complex; and, also for carrying it outside for car-festival (Rathotsava) and other processions – are made of Pancha-loha , an alloy of five types of metals (gold, silver, copper, iron, lead).

      Having said that let me also mention that in not all the South Indian temples, the image of the principal deity (Moolavar) is made of stone. There are instances where, the images were made of wood etc.; and were later replaced by stone images. For instance; in the temple of Kanchi Varadaraja, the image of the main deity was of wood; and, was later replaced by that of stone.

      Similarly, Thiruvanathapuram Padmanabha Swamy image was later replaced by another image made of a special mix called katusarkara yogam.

      One ancient temple that still has a wood deity is in Thirukovilur, Tamil Nadu, which has a imposing 12(approx) feet high deity of Trivikrama with one foot raised.

      The Marikamba at Sirsi in Karnataka is made of wood.

      Sri Siddhi Vinayaka in Bombay ( technically , in one of the Pancha-Dravida -Desha) is also made of wood

      Bangaru Kamakshi of Tanjavur is made of solid gold.

      The images in some of the older temples, in South India, are made from Panchaloha (metal compound).

      There is a rare case of the white-looking Ganesha idol – Swetha Vinayakar or Vellai Vinayakar. The Kabardeeswarar temple is situated in the village of Thiruvalanchuli, near Swamimalai in Kumbakonam Taluk of Thanjavur district. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Shaiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil poet saints known as the Nayanars ; and, is classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.

      Further, the temple architecture is also defined in terms of the regional and cultural traditions. And, it also gets modified from time to time.

      And nowadays, due to the availability of Marble, some newly made South Indian temple idols are also made of marble and are white in color.

      As regards the temples in the North India, the images, nowadays, are generally made of white marble.

      But , this also cannot be generalized; because , the Lingams and Idols in North India have also been built using Salagrama-shila of black color. The Lingams in the ancient temples of Mahakala in Ujjain; the Lingam at Kedarnath deep in the Himalayas; Somanath in Gujarat; and, many others are made of rare types of granite stones.

      Even in regard the images of the other deities in the older temples of North India; they were made of granite stones. For instance; like the images in the temples of Badarinath in Uttarakhand; Dwaraka in Gujarat; Govind Dev (Jaipur); Radharamana (Vrndavan); Srinathji (Nathadwar); Mathureshji (Kota), Vaishnodevi (Himachal); Omkareshwar and many others are made of black stone.

      The marble came into much use since the medieval times, when Marble quarries were worked upon in North India (esp. Rajasthan). And, it was easier for transportation; and, stones were also imported from nearby countries.


    • sreenivasaraos

      September 28, 2020 at 5:00 pm

      Dear Sri Srikanth Ragunath

      The other two questions you raised were related to Pancha-ratra Agama and Sri Ramanuja.

      3. Why Sri Ramanuja brought the Pancharatra agamas to Sri Rangam temple?
      4. Which Agama was followed in Sri Rangam temple before Sri Ramanuja?

      The two major Agama traditions of the Vaishnava doctrine are Vaikhanasa and Pancharatra.
      The Vaikhanasa Agama is regarded as the older of the two. The Pancharatra Agama is said to date back to the first century of the Common Era. Pancharathra claims its origin from Sriman Narayana himself.

      For more on the Vaikhanasa, Pancharatra Agamas; and the differences between the two traditions, please check the following links:

      In the South India, Sri Yamunacharya (917-1042), the preceptor of the shrine at Srirangam, was the first to accord scriptural validity to the Pancharatra doctrine (Agama). In his text Agama-pramanyam, Sri Yamunacharya established the Pancharatra doctrine on the basis of the Upanishads (Agama); and, brought it under the Aupanishada tradition; thus giving a completely new scope for the theistic Vedanta.

      The other texts related to the Pancharatra Agama are Parameswara Samhita, a commentary on Paushkara Samhita; and, Ahirbuddhnya Samhita

      With the advent of Sri Ramanuja as the organizer of temple administration at Srirangam Temple, the Vaikhanasa system of worship lost its prominence and gave place to the more liberal Pancharatra system.

      Sri Ramanuja permitted participation of lower castes and ascetics, the Sanyasins (who were not placed highly in the Vaikhanasa scheme) in temple services. He also expanded the people participation in other areas too with the introduction of Uthsavas, celebrations, festivals, Prayers etc. This change spread to other Vaishnava temples particularly in Tamil Nadu. From the end of the tenth century the Pancharatra became the dominant temple-worship-tradition in South India.

      It was explained that while the Srauta and Smarta rituals of the Vedas were intended for the intellectuals, the Pancharatra was given to ordinary people who longed to worship with heart full of devotion and absolute surrender to the will of God.

      I trust this would do for the present



    September 7, 2020 at 6:26 am

    Dear Sir,

    Thanks very much for the details. Could you please point me to the exact meaning of the word “వేదాంతశాస్త్రం”, Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. i want English and Telugu books ? Hindu religious books?

    • sreenivasaraos

      September 17, 2020 at 5:27 am

      Dear Shri Reddy Garu

      Vedanta is one of the world’s most ancient spiritual philosophies and one of its broadest, based on the Vedas, the sacred scriptures of India. It is the philosophical foundation of India; And, Vedanta is also universal in its application and is equally relevant to all countries, all cultures, and all religious backgrounds.

      There are innumerable books in various languages about Vedanta. It is hard to pinpoint and recommend a particular text.

      You may perhaps start with the following two pages ; and, then branch off to your own preferences.

      Have a Great Day Sir

      with Regards and respects

  9. Ravindra

    October 8, 2020 at 4:16 pm

    Dear Sir, Namaste.

    Really this is a wonderful blog. I am so much impressed. I need a clarification from you Sir.

    Is there any particular dimension for garbhagruha? I mean any proportion between its length, width and height?

    Hope to hear from you Sir.

    One more thing: the whole blog is in english. I would like to convert these useful and valuable materials to kannada. Will you please permit me?




    October 9, 2020 at 9:16 am

    Dear Sir,

    Thank you for answering my questions.


    October 23, 2020 at 7:32 am

    Dear Sir Namaskaram,

    I have a doubt, In all the Yagna ceremonies we invoke the Vedic deities such as Agni, Indra, Varuna, Vayu, etc.. How come these Vedic deities doesn’t have any temples specifically for them? How did the triad of Trimurti ( Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva) and Tridevi worship come? Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita says that He is the one to be known in all the Vedas and Vedanta, however, Krishna is not mentioned in Vedas?

    • sreenivasaraos

      October 23, 2020 at 8:44 am

      Dear Shri Raghunath

      Please read the following two articles.
      These might help you to gain a better understanding of the things in question



        October 27, 2020 at 3:52 am

        Dear Sir Namaskaram,

        Thank you for answering. It was a very enlightening article and I got my answer to the question. Please share your biodata as I cannot open your complete bio. I am doing a Ph.D. in Physics and I am always interested in knowing our Sanatana culture which is linking science and religion. Hence please continue your works as it will enlighten people who are keen on exploring our forgotten roots of knowledge. As Vijayadasami is also known for Madhwa Navami, please post some articles on Madhvacharya, Dvaita Philosophy, and Sri Ragavendra Theertharu.

  12. Anita

    December 7, 2020 at 3:48 pm

    Dear Sir, thank you very much for your dedication in sharing all these beautiful hymns with us. I am especially interested in your detailed explanation of the Sri Suktam. Can you please share where you were able to collect the yantra diagrams for each of the Suktas and their corresponding Dhyana Slokas. Thank you

    • sreenivasaraos

      December 7, 2020 at 6:23 pm

      Dear Anita

      Thank you for the visit; and, for the appreciation

      As regards the Dhyana-slokas and the corresponding Yantra-diagrams, they are from the book ‘Sri Sukta’ with commentary by Prof. S K Ramachandra Rao

      I suggest you may , please , contact the publishers of the book, for a copy of it

      Their address is : Prof. S K Ramachandra Rao Memorial Trust; No.305 , 6th Cross ; Jayanagar , First Block; Bangalore – 560 011. Phone # 080 26563957

      Wish you Good Luck

      May the Mother Bless you


    • sreenivasaraos

      December 8, 2020 at 1:57 am

      Dear Anita

      Thank you for the visit; and, for the appreciation

      As regards the Dhyana-slokas and the corresponding Yantra-diagrams, they are from the book ‘Sri Sukta’ with commentary by Prof. S K Ramachandra Rao

      I suggest you may , please , contact the publishers of the book, for a copy of it

      Their address is : Prof. S K Ramachandra Rao Memorial Trust; No.305 , 6th Cross ; Jayanagar , First Block; Bangalore – 560 011. Phone # 080 26563957

      Wish you Good Luck

      May the Mother Bless you


  13. Abishek

    December 9, 2020 at 7:19 pm

    This is a fantastic blog. It is a shame that I had not come across this for all these years, several of your posts gives answers to several questions I had on our Indian tradition, philosophy, and parts of our phycology as well. Thank you so much for taking the time to put all your thoughts together.

    You might be aware that there has been a recent (read last few years), a lot of claim about rasamani (mercury ball worn around the neck), I stumbled upon the alchemy part of your blog where you go in detail about the significance and references from Ayurveda, Siddha and even the science of making it quoting – Rasaratna Samuchchaya.

    Do you happen to have any insights on texts or references on wearing mercury on us? Perhaps direct me to an article, text or translation on it? Thanks is Advance.


  14. Jaipat Singh Jain

    December 27, 2020 at 10:24 pm

    Thank you so much for your describing nava-taal and dasa-taal. I am curious to learn about the taal-maan of a standing statute of Bahubali. How may I reach you and consult with you? Thanks much.

    • sreenivasaraos

      December 28, 2020 at 4:02 am

      Dear Sri JS Jain

      Thank you for the visit; and for the appreciation.


      The colossal image of Gommateshwara (Bahubali) standing erect on the summit of the large Vindyagiri Hill, in Shravanabelagola, is among the tallest monolithic statues in the world. It is carved out of a single block of granite. It was commissioned by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander, Chavundaraya during about 983 C.E. And, it is one of the largest free-standing statues in the world.

      The statue , in motionless contemplation in kayotsarga (standing still) posture , depicts the prolonged meditation of Bahubali.

      The image of Gommateshwara has curly hair ringlets and large ears. The eyes are open as if he is viewing the world with detachment. His facial features are perfectly chiseled with a faint touch of a smile at the corner of the lips that embodies a calm inner peace and vitality. It stands nude ; and, faces North.

      The spirit of Jaina renunciation is fully brought out in this statue. The nudity of the image indicates absolute renunciation, while its erect posture suggests perfect self-control.

      The most endearing part of the image is its face with its serene contemplative expression adorned with a faint benign smile, signifying the inward bliss; while Gommata gazes out on to the open space.

      His shoulders are broad, the arms stretch straight down and the figure has no support from the thigh upwards. The arms hang straight down the sides with the thumbs turned outwards. The waist is small. From the knee downwards, the legs are rather short and thick.

      The figure has no support about the thighs. Up to that point, it is represented as surrounded by ant hills from which emerge serpents and a climbing plant (Madhavi) twines itself round both the legs and arms terminating at the upper part of the arm in a cluster of berries or flowers.

      The anthill , in the background , signifies his incessant penance.

      On either side of Gommateshwara stand two tall and majestic chauri bearers in the service of the Lord. One of them is a yaksh and the other one is a yakshini. These richly ornamented and beautifully carved figures complement the main figure.

      The pedestal is designed to represent an open lotus. The image is carved in fine-grained light-grey granite. It looks as bright and clean as if it had just come from the chisel of the artist. It is probable that this image was cut out of a great rock which stood on the spot as it would have been an impossible task to transport a granite mass of such huge size up the oval hill-side.

      On a clear day, this sacred place assumes an indescribable charm at dawn ; at sunset; in moonlight; and, in the darkness of a starlit night.

      As for its Icononometry; it is depicted in Uttama-Dasa-Tala, standing erect

      Measurements: The measurements of the different parts of the image which were taken by the department of archaeology are as follows:

      Total height of the image – 58′-0″ in exquisite proportion.

      • Total height of the image – 58′-0″
      • Total height to the bottom of the ear – 51′-0″
      • From the bottom of the ear to the crown of the head (about) – 6′-6″
      • Length of the foot – 8′-3″
      • Length of the great toe – 2′-9″
      • Half girth of the thigh – 10′-0″
      • Breadth across the pelvis – 13′-0″
      • Breadth at the waist – 10′-0″
      • Breadth across the shoulders – 23′-7 1/2″
      • From the base of the neck to the ear – 2′-6″
      • Length of the fore finger – 3′-9″
      • Length of the middle finger – 5′-0″
      • Length of the third finger – 4′-8″
      • Length of the fourth finger – 3′-2″


      stay safe, healthy and happy

      Cheers and regards

      P:S: When you Google, it is better to search for Gommata or Gommateshwara than “Bahubali’

  15. guru rama

    December 30, 2020 at 10:14 am

    Dear Sir, While searching for a classical music Brandish got into this wonderful blog. While seeing replies just wanted to ask on the Principles Of Vaastu Sastra .. Can you just put some pointers on this subject as many search leads to Vaasthu Purush etc.., There was a book by Samarangana Sutra dara that was in Amazon also .. Tried purchasing but could not get a some useful material as such to relate to epics. I am asking something wrong please excuse. Thank you and continue this kind of work

  16. guru rama

    December 30, 2020 at 10:14 am

    Dear Sir, While searching for a classical music Brandish got into this wonderful blog. While seeing replies just wanted to ask on the Principles Of Vaastu Sastra .. Can you just put some pointers on this subject as many search leads to Vaasthu Purush etc.., There was a book by Samarangana Sutra dara that was in Amazon also .. Tried purchasing but could not get a some useful material as such to relate to epics. I am asking something wrong please excuse. Thank you and continue this kind of work


    December 31, 2020 at 9:33 am

    Please post some articles on Madhwacharya and the Dvaita Philosophy. You have not responded to this since October 2020.

    • sreenivasaraos

      January 3, 2021 at 1:45 pm

      Dear Sri Raghunath

      Pardon me for the delay in responding to your comment

      I was not very familiar with the subjects you mentioned

      Yet; I did try

      But, it was not convincing or thorough enough

      So, I gave it up


      Please excuse me


      Have a great new Year



        January 5, 2021 at 3:54 am

        Ok, Sir. Thank You for responding

  18. prabhusponder

    January 20, 2021 at 10:36 pm

    I am currently trying to understand and translate in Tamil in my blog about , Sri Dakshinamurthy Stotram.. I would like to use the excellent information provided in your two blogs and quote them as an excerpt. It is a personal blog with no commercial motives. Can I have your permission Sir ? Thanks

    • sreenivasaraos

      January 21, 2021 at 2:38 am

      Dear Prabhu

      Yes Sir

      You may

      God Bless you

      Have a Great Day


      PS :Please also see my series on
      Sri Mutthuswami Dikshitar, Sri Thyagaraja and and Sri Shyama Shastry
      And on
      The Music of India

  19. Kishori

    February 8, 2021 at 4:23 am

    I am gathering information about the origin of Raagas in Indian Classical music. Where can I get a soft copy(I am ready to pay the charges if required) of Mantanga Muni’s Brihaddeshi(Hindi, English or Marathi)?

  20. Kishori

    February 8, 2021 at 6:28 am

    Thank you very much Sir for your timely reply.
    I could download the chapter from the link and also I will refer to the link you have provided for reading. This site is very very helpful.

    Regards, Kishori.

  21. chimalamarri Srinivaasa

    February 22, 2021 at 1:31 am

    Sir, namaskarams, your knowledge base on Alaya silpa sastra is excellent. I desire your service in constructing a SRI Laxmi Narasimha temple. Please share me your contact info. At present I am residing in Rajahmundry. You if give address I can come personally and meet you to respect your knowledge.

    • sreenivasaraos

      February 22, 2021 at 5:08 am

      Dear Sri Srinivasa

      Thank you for the visit; and, for the appreciation

      The articles I have posted on temple design and architecture are based mainly in the ancient texts.

      These do bring out the principles, practices and norms of temple architecture. And, they, indeed, are educative and useful in understanding the theories of temple design and its purpose.

      But, what you are looking for, I presume, is the application of those principles. It would, therefore, perhaps, be more useful if you could go by the experience of those, similar to you, who constructed temples, particularly, in recent times.

      I would advise you to consult an expert in the field, a practicing Architect/Sthapathi

      I am aware that I have not been of great help to you. But, I hope, this would help you to take a broader view of your project and proceed further.

      May the Mother bless us all

      Please keep in touch


      • chimalamarri Srinivaasa

        February 23, 2021 at 6:09 am

        Namaskarams. I thank you for your kindness. Few years back shot a documentary film film for Karnataka silpa gurukulagala kendra under able guidance Dean Shri G.Gyanaanada Garu. As you adviced I will approach him. Those who there in this Alaya shilpam seems not cost effective. However thanks for your advice.

  22. శారద

    February 25, 2021 at 11:19 pm

    Dear Sir,
    I am Sharada Murali, a resident of Australia and a Carnatic Music teacher (amateur).
    I am trying to understand a small thing in Carnatic music, regarding different kaala krithis. Hope you can help me.
    My understanding is
    madhyamakaala is when we sing two letters per beat ( 2 akshara kaalams)
    and chowka kaalam is when we sing 4 letters per beat (4 akshara kaalams).
    Q1) Is my understanding right?
    Q2) Is there any list of madhyama kaala kritis available? I have some in my text book “kotta sangeeta vidyadarpanamu”, but they are all a bit too tough to teach to kids who are just beginning to learn kritis.
    My email address is if needed.

  23. Pranav

    March 8, 2021 at 12:00 pm

    Namaskaram Srinivasarao Garu!

    Thank you for sharing valuable information and putting it succinctly at one place. No words to explain my gratitude.

    • sreenivasaraos

      March 8, 2021 at 12:59 pm

      Dear Pranav

      You are most welcome

      Please do read the posts’ and , let me know

      Stay safe, healthy and happy

      Cheers and Regards

  24. kamesh S

    March 24, 2021 at 9:37 am

    Namaskarams sir, I am kamesh (18 yrs) from chennai, I’m quite curious about Advaita vedanta and looking forward to getting into srividya upasana. The problem is, I cannot study the vedas right now due to my college education and idk if it is right to study/understand vedanta without adhyayanam of the vedas, please help me out as to ‘how to proceed’ and ‘where to start’. Also you are doing a great job! keep up your good work so that people like myself can benefit.

    Shri matre namaha!

    • sreenivasaraos

      March 25, 2021 at 5:49 am

      Dear Kamesh

      Thank you for the visit.

      I am glad to hear of your interest to learn

      I suggest , you may please try to approach Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. R. Sathyanarayana, an erudite scholar; an ardent Sri Vidya Upasaka; and, one who has been properly initiated into Sri Vidya.

      He is also the Founder Director, Srividya Pratishthaan, and Foundation to Preserve, Perpetuate and Disseminate the Knowledge of Srividya Tantra

      Dr. R. Sathyanarayana may be contacted at: No. 12, ‘Trayeel-akshmi’, 9th Cross, 4th Main, Jayanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, Pin: 570014, Tel N0. 0821 2567891; Tele-fax: +91 821 2567891

      You may even consider calling on him

      Good Luck, Cheers

      May that Mother Bless us all

  25. ramsamba

    March 30, 2021 at 4:36 am

    Revered Sir:

    What a wonderful blog you have written on Indian Classical Music, such a jewel it is.

    I came upon your site in Google Search, where I was searching for the aspect of when ragas are to be played during the 24 hour day. I was searching whether the raga’s time dependencies had any spiritual foundations, and it is great to learn that it was Narada Muni who has brought this to us. That leaves no doubt on the universal connections of ragas.

    Apart from part 15, are there any treatises or your own write-ups on these time-of-day dependencies of ragas?

    Thank you.

    • sreenivasaraos

      March 30, 2021 at 5:52 am

      Dear Ramsamba

      Thank you for the visit and for the appreciation

      At the outset, let me mention that it would be more purposeful if the articles in the series are read in their sequence
      As regards the subject you mentioned , you may read the articles on these pages :

      1. Naradiya Shiksha

      2. Sangeet Makranda of Narada (Ch. III, 10-23):

      3. Bharatabhashya, of King Nanyabhupala

      Although today, in Karnataka Samgita, we do not differentiate between Ragas based on the concept of the Ragas that are suited for a particular periods of a day, certain Ragas are considered best, when sung at certain times of the day. The following list gives a brief overview of Ragas that are appropriate for a certain time of the day.
      Suitable Ragas

      Early morning and before sun rise: Bhoopalam, Bauli, Malayamarutham
      Mornings and after sun rise: Bilahari, Kedaram, Dhanyasi
      Before mid-day: Asaveri, Saveri, Devamanohari
      Noon to Midday: Sri raga, Manirangu, Madhayamavati
      Late noon (1 to 4 PM) : Mukhari, Begadai
      Evening: Vasantha, Nattakuranji, Poorvikalyani
      Night: Neelambari, Kedaragowla
      Any time of the day : Bhairavi, Kamboji, Shankarabharanam, Kalyani

      Please also read the other articles on the series


  26. Mandeera

    April 15, 2021 at 3:54 am

    Respected sir, pls could you guide me with information on the text Bharatarnava and why it hast been mentioned in your article on list of books related to dance and music. Thank you

  27. jamnyc2021

    April 27, 2021 at 2:41 am

    Hi Mr. Sreenivasa Rao
    What is the best way I can connect you via email? I have many questions regarding your posts

    • sreenivasaraos

      April 27, 2021 at 3:07 am

      Dear Jamny
      Please frame specific questions
      Post them on the page of the concerned subject
      I shall try to reply to the extent of my limitations

  28. retreat48

    May 12, 2021 at 1:59 pm

    I came across a song sri bahulamati played on the Vina artist Ranganayaki Rajagopalan. This song is not found in any of the books that I have. I could not find any information on this song on the Internet.

    • sreenivasaraos

      May 12, 2021 at 3:43 pm

      Can you please name the Raga and the composer.
      Let me try
      Thank you

      • retreat48

        June 15, 2021 at 10:03 pm

        The raga is Arabhi and the announcer mentions Shyama Shastri as the composer. I am not able to find it in any of Shyama Shastri’s compositions books.

      • retreat48

        June 15, 2021 at 10:21 pm

        I can send you the audio if I have an a=email address.

  29. Dharmendra Chaubey

    June 15, 2021 at 12:43 pm

    I wish to have Dhyāna shloka for the 8th Srisukta mantra in devanagari script for pronunciation.
    Please do favour.
    Thank you

    • sreenivasaraos

      June 16, 2021 at 2:26 am

      Dear Chaubey

      I have tried
      But this may not be exact
      Pardon me

      दउरभाग्य-भू-धारा- विदार ना – वज्र-मिडे |
      रोगा-आरती-घोरा-फाणी मरदन पाक्शी-राजम
      लक्ष्मी-पाद-द्वया-अनार्थ-हरम सुखरथी

      Ajnana-pathaka-tamah-sthiti- surya-rashmim
      daurbhagya-bhu-dhara- vidarana- vajra-mide |
      roga-arti-ghora-phani mardana pakshi-rajam
      lakshmi-pada-dwaya-anartha- haram sukharthi ||

      • Dharmendra Chaubey

        June 16, 2021 at 11:40 am

        Sir thank you for your effort and request to get the pronunciation from the source texts.

  30. harshalatha45gmailcom

    June 24, 2021 at 4:25 pm

    Namakaram sir. I thank you for your text on Ashtavakra gita and explanation of some of its verses. I believe that an understanding of non-duality can show me the practical path of emancipation from my limiting beliefs, agonies of mind and my self-doubts. I wish to explore more on non-duality and its interpretation in Ashtavakra Gita.
    Can I get your explanation of more verses of Ashtavakra gita please?
    Thanks and regards
    Harsha lata

  31. sreenivasaraos

    June 25, 2021 at 2:53 am

    Dear Harsha Lata

    Good Morning Maa

    Thank you for the visit .

    please see my post on Ashtavakra Gita at

    As you mentioned , I have provided explanations to some Verses dealing with the Advaita. That was because of the constraints of time and space that limit a blog.

    But in case ,you need to go through the entire text , you may read the translations of Bart Marshall , which is brilliant ; and the translation by John Richards, which also provides the Sanskrit text

    In case you like to go through notes and sagely observations on the Ashtavakra Gita , you may refer to the notes made by Swami Shraddananda , a monk of the Sri Ramakrishna Order; as also the comments made by Sri Ramana Maharshi, a very incarnation of Sri Dakshinamaurthy

    I have provided the links to all the above references in my post . I hope they do work.

    Please try

    Thank you Maa for the interest you have shown in an old and a forgotten blog; and breathed fresh life into it

    Have a Great Day

    Cheers and Regards

  32. Palaparthi Aditya

    July 10, 2021 at 5:58 am

    Sir, I am feeling great that I came through your site which I have bookmarked. One of the searches on Google resulted to this blog. May I ask for a quick phoen call with you, I am sure you will be able to help me point to the right direction. I am looking at a teacher for my 5 year old kid who can teach singing Ramayanam. I stay in Hyderabad, is there a way I can have a quick chat with you? Looking forward to hearing from you.

    • sreenivasaraos

      July 11, 2021 at 3:38 am

      Dear Aditya
      Sorry Sir. I have been away for quite some time. I have no credible contacts.
      I may not be able to help you in this regard
      Please excuse me

      • Aditya Palaparthi

        July 13, 2021 at 1:53 pm

        That’s ok. Tha k you for your response sir.

  33. Anita Korde

    August 11, 2021 at 3:07 am


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