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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Sixteen

Continued From Part Fifteen

Lakshana Granthas Continued

11. Sangita-ratnakara of Sarangadeva

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Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara  (first half of 13th century) is of particular importance; because, it was written just before influence of the Muslim conquest began to assert itself on Indian culture.  The Music and dance discussed in Sangita-ratnakara is free from Persian influence.  The Sangita-ratnakara, therefore, marks the stage at which the ‘integrated’ Music of India was , before it branched into North-South Music traditions.

[Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara was published by Adyar Library in four volumes. Please click here for : Vol IVol II ; Vol III and Vol IV 

And, please click here for the Sanskrit text of the Nartana-adhyaya]

The Sangita- ratnakara (the ocean of Sangita) describes the varied aspects of Sangita. The Sangita that the text refers to is indeed a composite term. The Sangita, according to Sarangadeva, is a comprehensive Art-form, composed of three elements (taurya-trika): the vocal (Gitam) and instrumental (Vadyam) music; followed by the third, the dance (Nrtyam) – Gitam, Vadyam tatha Nrtyam trayam Samgitam uccyate. 

The last one, the Nrtyam, is comprised of all the three Angas:  the elements: song, instrumental music, and, Dance.

Sangita

Here, the first element (Anga) of Sangita, the Gitam, the song format, is a fusion of Nada (sounds) and Akshara (a composition made of words). Its musical element is named Dhathu; while its lyrics or composition made of words is called Mathu. Locana Pandita, in his Raga-tarangini, explains the term Gitam, as:

Dhatu-matu-samayauktam Gitam iti uccyate budhaih; tatra nadatmako dhatur mathur akshara sambhavah

The Gitam, going by its traditional definition, strictly belongs to the Salaga Suda class of Prabandha, which is composed two Angas (elements) – Pada (words) and Taala (time-beats); and, having three components or Dhatus (Tri-dhatuka Prabandha) :  Udgraha, Dhruva and Abhoga.  For more on that, please click here. But, in common practice, anything that is sung goes by the name of Gita (Giyata iti Gitam).

The next term Vadyam, covers a wide variety of musical instruments, such as: the varied string instruments; different types of Drums; bell-metal cymbals; and a host of wind instruments including flutes, pipes, conch, trumpets etc.

Thus, the Sangita Shastra as envisaged by Sarangadeva was a composite Art consisting Gita (melodic-forms); Vadya (instruments); and, Nrtta (dance or limb movements). 

By the time of Sangita-ratnakara (13th Century), three Angas (limbs) of Sangita were well developed. Of these, the Vocal music was regarded as the essential, fundamental music through which all other forms of music were to be understood and interpreted. Here again, Sarangadeva focuses on Desi Sangita, though he comments on aspects of Marga Sangita as well. On Dance (Nrtya), he offers clear picture of both Marga and Desi traditions, although in a concise manner.

*

In his work Sangita-ratnakaraSarangadeva devotes seven chapters (Sapta-adhyayi) for discussing these three components (Anga-s) of Sangita; but, mainly about the first two. These seven Chapters covering varied aspects of Sangita are:

(1) Svara-gata-adhyaya ; (2) Raga-viveka-adhyaya (3) Prakinaka-adhyaya (4) Prabhandha-adhyaya (5) Tala-adhyaya; (6) Vadya-adhyaya; and,  (7) Nartana-adhyaya

The first six Chapters discuss, what is now known as Music – vocal and instrumental – (Gitam and Vadyam); and, these Chapters, together, are reckoned among the longest works on Music, in Sanskrit, covering all its vital aspects. The First Chapter deals with Nada (the principle of sound);  the Second with Raga (musical modes); the Third with Prakirna (miscellaneous topics relating to music); the Fourth with Prabandha (structured composition); the Fifth with Marga (classical) and Desi (regional) types of Taala (rhythm); and, the Sixth with Vadya (musical instruments).

Apart from these, the Sangita-ratnakara highlighted the ever changing nature of music; the expanding role of regional (Desi) influences on it, and the increasing complexity of musical material that needed to be systemised over a period. Yet; Sarangadeva was rooted in the prevalent musical practices of his time. His stress was consistently on the Lakshya, the music as practiced than on ancient theories (Lakshana), which though he respects them highly.

Thus, Sangita-ratnakara not only provides material for the study of the ancient music, but it also gives an insight into the then current practices. In his writing, Sarangadeva draws a clear distinction between the well established ancient (purva prasiddha) and the contemporary popular (adhuna prasiddha) Ragas. He also gives descriptions of the structures and temperaments of   musical instruments such as Veena and Vamsa (flute) according to the practices of his times. 

Therefore, the Sangita-ratnakara is regarded as a standard work or an authoritative text, on which the later scholars and commentators drew upon copiously.

*

[There are two well known commentaries on Sangita-ratnakara: the Kalanidhi of Chatura Kallinatha (c.1430); and, the Sangita-sudhakara of Simhabhupala (c.1330). Most of the editions of the Sangita-ratnakara are published along with these two commentaries, with the description:

Sangitaratnakarah, Chatura Kallinathaya virachitaya Kalanidhdya tikaya; Simhabhula virachitaya Sangitasudhakara tikaya cha samethah

Of the two, the Kalanidhi of Kallinatha (c.1430) is considered almost as a supplement to Sangita-ratnakara; as it expands on the text by citing verses of other authorities, and also introducing some new elements. For instance; Kallinatha, while commenting upon the descriptions of the Arm-movements, adds an entire section on the Vartana of which he describes thirty-one varieties (SR.7.270 to 286; Pages 105 to 110). Again, he adds another section on fifty types of Calanas or Calakas, another type of arm movement (pages 111 to 124). Further, Kallinatha quotes from the ancient authority Kohala, on the subject of Caris; and adds a new a new type Cari called Madhupa-cari (SR. pp.313-17)

The King, Simhabhupala, of the Recherla dynasty of Rajachala in Andhra, in his commentary Sangita-sudhakara (c.1330), written about a hundred years earlier Kallinatha’s Kalanidhi, tried to clarify the topics dealt by Sarangadeva in a clear manner. It provides some valuable information culled from the older texts. He cites from a certain text named Prayogastabaka, said to be a commentary the Dattilam ascribed to Dattila (Ca. First century); but, its manuscript, so far, has not been found.]

Dances

The Seventh and the last Chapter (Nartana-adhyaya) of the Sangita-ratnakara is about the third component of the Sangita, which is Nartana, the Dance format which includes Nrtta, Natya, and Nrtya. Here, Sarangadeva follows King Someshvara (Manasollasa) who had divided Nartana into three categories: Nrtta, Natya and Nrtya.  Though the Chapter on Dance is titled Nartana, it discusses mainly its Nrtta and Natya aspects.

On the subject of Dance, Sarangadeva has less information to offer than his contemporary Jaya Senapati (Nrtta-ratnavali, 13th century). But, what he offers is concise and systematic, presenting a clear picture of two Dance traditions – Marga and Desi – as were practiced dancing in the author’s time. And, the Seventh Chapter, the Nartana-adhyaya, with 1678 Verses, is the longest Chapter of the text.

And, so far as Dance is considered, Sangita-ratnakara marks the stage when Dance came to be viewed and treated as an independent Art-form; and, not as a mere ingredient adding beauty to a theatrical presentation. And, another significant feature was that the regional, the Desi style of Dance was given due importance, along with the classical Marga. Here, Sarangadeva was following the trend set by King Someshvara, in his Manasollasa.

Now, we are mainly interested in the last and the Seventh Chapter Nartana-adhyaya, dealing with Dance.

Sarangadeva

Sarangadeva / Sharangdeva (1175–1247) gives some information about himself in the beginning of the work. Sarangadeva introduces himself as belonging to a family which hailed from Kashmir. His grandfather Bhaskara, an Ayurveda physician, moved from Kashmir into the newly found Yadava capital at Devagiri (Maharashtra), in the Deccan region, at the invitation of King Bhillanna V (1173-1192). After the death of Bhillanna, his son Jaitrapala or Jaitugi ascended the throne and ruled for a short period. He was succeeded in 1200 by Sevuna (Yadava) King Simhana/Singhana (1200-1247). He was a very powerful king and also a great patron of arts, literature, and science. It was during his reign that Sarangadeva was appointed in his father’s (Sodhala’s) post as the Royal Accountant (Sri-karana-agrani). Along with his work at the King’s offices, Sarangadeva continued to practice the family profession of Ayurveda. He is also said to have written a Vedanta work entitled Adhyatma-viveka. That work is not available now.

During his spare hours, Sarangadeva was busy composing his monumental work on Indian music the Sangita Ratnakara, the Ocean of Sangita. It turned out to be one of the important and comprehensive Sanskrit texts on Music of India.

**

The Nartana-adhyaya opens with the famous verse, which is commonly associated with the Abhinaya Darpana of Nandikeshvara.

Angikam Bhuvanam sloka

Angikam Bhuvanam Yasya, Vachikam Sarva Vangmayam, Aaharyam Chandra Taradi, Tam Namah Saattvikam Shivam 

Whose bodily movements is the entire universe; whose speech is the language and literature of the entire Universe; whose ornaments are the moon and the stars; Him we worship, the serene Lord Shiva. ..!

There is, in fact, a protracted debate about the original authorship of the first forty verses of the Nartana-adhyaya.

Dr. K. Kunjunni Raja, in the introduction to the Fourth Part of the Sangita-ratnakara, edited and translated by him (published by Adyar Library, 1976), observes , it appears that nearly forty-two  verses in the introductory portions of the Seventh Chapter of the  Sangita-ratnakara , are almost the same as the introductory verses found in the Abhinaya-Darpana ascribed to Nandikeshvara.

The question is who borrowed from whom?

At the outset, it appears as though Sarangadeva borrowed these portions from the Abhinaya-Darpana.  However, the commentators, King Simhabhupala (c.1330), author of the Sangitasudhakara; and Kallinatha (c.1430) author of the Kalanidhi assert that the introductory verses of the Nartana-adhyaya are genuinely Sarangadeva’s own verses. If that is so, then the date of the Abhinaya Darpana would be pushed further down.

But, the Abhinaya Darpana mentions that these verses are the teachings of the older authorities – Yetani purva-shastra-anusarena ukthani ve maya (AD.47)

It is also likely that Nandikeshvara and Sarangadeva, both borrowed from a common source.

Yet; the question is still open.

*

In the introductory section of the First Chapter, Sarangadeva lists a number of earlier authorities, the essence of whose views, he states, he is presenting in his work.

Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara is a great compilation, not an original work, which ably brings together various strands of the past music traditions found in earlier works like Nāţyashastra, Dattilam, Bŗhaddēśī, and Sarasvatī-hŗdayālańkāra-hāra. It is greatly influenced by Abhinavagupta’s Abhinavabharati and Someshvara’s Manasollasa. But for Sangita-ratnakara, it might have been more difficult to understand NatyasastraBrhaddesi and other ancient texts.

Chapter Seven, which is the last Chapter, is in two parts.  The first one deals with Nartana. The term Nartana is a common term representing the arts of Nŗtta, Nŗtya and Nāţya (SR. 7. 3).

In describing the Marga tradition of Dance, Sarangadeva follows Natyashastra. In fact, the whole of the Seventh Chapter draws most of its material from Natyashastra and its commentaries. Many of the passages narrated therein (say, verses 78 to 89) are straightaway taken from the Ninth Chapter of Natyashastra. Even the definitions offered in this Chapter are adopted from other sources.

As regards the Desi class of Dance he improves upon the explanations offered in Manasollasa of King Someshvara and Sangita Samayasara of Parsvadeva.

In the second part of this Chapter, the author describes the Bhavas  (states or moods) and the related Nine Rasa-s, namely, Śrńgāra, Vīra, Hāsya, Raudra, Adbhuta, Karuņā, Bhayānaka, Bībhatsa and Shānta.

*

Sarangadeva commences his exposition on Dance with the statement that the Natya-Veda is, indeed, threefold: Natya, Nrtya and Nrtta (Natya, Nrtya tatha Nrtta tridha tadipi kititam- SR.7.3)

[Here Sarangadeva is following the classification as given in the Manasollasa; except that he does not use the term Nartana, as Someshvara did to represent the Dance , in general.]

Of these three, Sarangadeva explains the term Natya as that through which Rasa manifests (Natya sabdau Rase mukhyo Rasabhivyaki karanam – SR.17.18) . It connotes Abhinaya, through which the import of the Drama is expressed by the actors, in varied ways, providing uninterrupted joy to the spectators (SR.7.19).

He explains Nrtya as that which expresses Bhavas (various states and moods) through Angika-abhinaya; and, it is of the Marga class (SR.7.26)

And, Nrtta, he says, is only the movements of the body (gatra-vishepa matra), devoid of Abhinayas (sarva-abhinaya vargitam) SR.7.28.

Then, Sarangadeva mentions three varieties of Nrtta: Visama (acrobatic, dancing around with ropes etc.,); Vikata (comical or ludicrous in ungainly dress and movements; and, Laghu (of Ancita and other easy Karanas) – SR.7.31.32

The Natyashastra had earlier described Tandava as the Nrtta performed by Shiva; and Sukumara (Lasya) as Parvati’s dance. And, Bharata had not qualified these dance types as either being aggressive or gentle. There was, of course, mention of Nrtya.

But, here, Sarangadeva differed from Bharata. He classified both the Nrtta and Nrtya into two kinds: Tandava and Lasya (SR.7.28). Further, he said that Tandava requires Uddhata (forceful, aggressive) and Lasya requires Lalita (delicate, gentle)   movements (SR. 7. 29- 30).

Thus, according to Sarangadeva, the Nrtya covers rhythmic limb movements (Nrtta) as also eloquent gestures expressing emotions through Abhinaya. It is a harmonious combination of facial expressions, various glances, poses and meaningful movements of the hands, fingers and feet. Nrtyam, the dance, delightfully brings together and presents in a very highly expressive, attractive visual and auditory form, the import of the lyrics (sahitya), the nuances of its emotional content to the accompaniment of soulful music and rhythmic patterns (tala-laya). And, Nrtya can portray both the Tandava and the Lasya Dance movements.

As mentioned earlier; with exception of some elements, the treatment of the Angika-Abhinaya in the Sangita-ratnakara, to a large extent, follows the Natyashastra of Bharata. But, Sarangadeva made some changes in the arrangement of the limbs, within the three groups of limbs: Anga, Upanga and Pratyanga. Here, Sarangadeva followed the Manasollasa of Someshvara – (Verses 38 to 42). For instance;

Anga

SR Anga

Bharata, under the category Anga, the major body-parts, had listed six parts as: the head,  the chest, the sides, the hips, the hands and the feet.

Here, Sarangadeva, following the general pattern as laid down by Bharata, adopts, under the Anga, the six body parts: the head; the two hands; the chest; the sides; the hips and two feet. In addition to these Six, he adds the shoulders also.

Here, Sarangadeva differed from both Bharata and Someshvara [who had included shoulders and belly in place of the hands (Hasthas) and the feet (Padas)].

Pratyanga

SR PratyangaBharata, under the Pratyanga, had mentioned six parts as: the neck, the belly, the thighs, the shanks and the arms.

Sarangadeva included all these six parts under the Pratyanga; and, in addition he also counted the knees and wrists. Here, Sarangadeva followed the classification made by Someshvara.

 

 Upanga

And, under Upangas, Bharata had included nine elements , such as : the eyes; the eyebrows; the eyelids; pupils; the nose; the lips; the cheeks; the chin and the mouth; in addition to facial colors.

[Sarangadeva enumerates thirty-six varieties of glances, as did Bharata. And, he remarks: these may be taken only as illustrations; but, in fact, its possibilities are innumerable, depending upon the actions of the brows, pupils and the eyelids.]

SR UpangaSarangadeva, in addition to the nine Upangas in the head, as mentioned by Bharata, brought in the elements of the breath, the teeth and the tongue. However, Bharata had not considered these three as Upangas.

Apart from the twelve Upangas located in the head, Sarangadeva counted the heels; the ankles; the fingers of the hand; the toes; and the soles of the feet. Here he was clearly deviating both from Bharata and Someshvara. Because, Someshvara had included only the tongue and teeth as Upangas, in addition to those mentioned by Bharata; but, he had not included those parts with other limbs as Upangas. Obviously, Sarangadeva adopted these details from some other source.

 

*

As regards, the colours of the Face (Mukha-raga), Sarangadeva adopts the four colours as mentioned in the Natyashastra: Svabhavika (natural); Prasanna (clear); Raktha (red); and, Shyama (dark) Verses 527-528

Asamyuktahastas

As regards the position of the hands (Kara-Pracara), Bharata had classified these into three kinds: Uttana (facing upward); Adhomukha (facing downward); and , Parsvagata (turned to the sides). Sarangadeva , however, adds twelve more  positions of the hands as sub-classification of  the three mentioned by Bharata: Agratastala (palm facing forward); Svasamm-mukhatala (palms turned to oneself); Urdhva-mukha (pointing upward); Adho-vadana (pointing downward); Paran-mukha (pointing outward); Sammukha (pointing toward oneself); Parsvato-mukha (pointing to the sides) ; Urdhvaga (moving up); Adhogata (moving down); Parsva-gata (moving to the side) ; Agraga (moving forward); and, Sammukha-gata (moving toward oneself). (Verses 532-537, Page 182)


flower design

Sarangadeva mentions (in Verses 42 to 48, Pages 16-17) that henceforth, in the Chapters to follow, he would be describing:

Sarangadeva mentions (in Verses 42 to 48, Pages 16-17) that henceforth, in the Chapters to follow, he would be describing:

: – The positions of the hands (Kara-Pracara); the movements of the hands (Kara-Karana); the actions of the hands (Kara-Karma); the places for the hands (Hastha-kshetra);

:- The descriptions of the two-fold Karanas , the Marga and the Desi Nrtta karanas,  those accompanied by jumps (Utpluti); the Angaharas along with their Recakas ; the Caris , with their Marga and Desi variants; the Sthanakas; the Vrttis; the Nyayas , with their Pravicaras , the Mandalas of all kinds;

: – The descriptions of the Lasyangas; the Rcakas;

: – The procedures for practice (Srama) of Dance ; the definition of a person fit for Dancing (Patra); the qualifications of a Nartaki, the qualifications of the Dance-teacher; the merits and de-merits of the Dance troupe;

: – The descriptions of the Acharya, the Nata, the Nartaka, Vaitalika, Carana, and Kolhatika;

: – Particulars of the rules relating to Gundali; the correct description of Peranin and his style;

: – The descriptions of the assembled spectators, the leader of the assembly, and the location of the assembly; and,

: – The descriptions of the Nava Rasa-s and Bhava-s;

Sarangadeva , generally, follows the descriptions provided in the Natyashastra and the  Manasollasa , while enumerating the different  positions and movements of the various elements and components of the body; the Caris, Sthanas,  Karanas and the Angaharas of both the Marga and the Desi types; the Lasyangas; qualities of the Dancers; qualities of the Dance teacher; the Desi Nrtta and its various forms ; and , discussions on the Rasas , Bhavas etc.

**

Sarangadeva’s description of Caris, Sthanas, Karanas and Angaharas of the Marga type are as per the Natyashastra.

[Sarangadeva explains Cari as the combination of the beautiful movements of the feet, shanks, thigh and the hips, performed in coordination. The term Cari, he says, is derived from root Car ( to move); and, by adding the suffix i (n) and ni , at the end.]

But, the Desi styles of Bhumi (36 types) and Akashi Caris (19 types); six Sthanas for men, seven Sthanas for women and twenty-three Desi Sthanas; nine sitting and six reclining Sthanas (altogether fifty-one Sthanas); the four types of Vrittis; the Bhumi and Akashi Mandalas; the Desi Lasyangas; and the 36 Utpluti-karanas from regional traditions, which demand strenuous physical exertion and perfect control of the limbs, are the same as those in the Manasollasa of Someshvara.

Some of the thirty-six Utpluti-karanas in the Sangita-ratnakara are also the same as in the Manasollasa, which lists eighteen karanas of the Desi variety (Manas. 16. 4. 1384-99).

*

As regards Bhramaris, in the Natyashastra, the Bhramari was the name of a Cari; and, it was not a particularly complicated revolving movement.

In the later times, many types of Bhramaris were developed; all of them being variations of the whirling movements. Gradually, as these diversified into more elaborate movements, they came to be recognized as constituting a distinct class. The earliest text to do so was Parsvadeva’s Sangita-samayasara (7.193) a treatise on Desi music and dance prevalent in 13th century; and, it describes eleven Desi karanas; along with five Bhramaris.  

The Abhinaya-Darpana (289- 98) also regards the Bhramaris as a distinct group.

Here, Sarangadeva was following Parsvadeva, who had described Utpluti-karanas needed for the Desi Nrtta along with eleven Desi Karanas with different Desi Sthanas; and, five Bhramaris.

These Bhramaris are included among Utpluti-karanas by Sarangadeva, also. And, it indicates that by his time, the Bhramaris were so developed and so important as to be regarded as a form of Karanas.

karanas_dribbble

After the description of the Sthanas which include sitting and lying postures that are appropriate to drama, the author discusses the four types of vrttis (caturdha Vrtti) , the modes of depiction and styles of presentation : Kaisiki; Sattvati; Arabhati; and, Bharati. Bharata regarded the Vrttis or the Styles as one among the most important constituent elements of the play. In fact, he considered the Vrttis as the mother of all poetic works – sarveāmeva kāvyānāṃ-mātkā vttaya smḥ (NS.18.4).

This is followed by a description of Mandala (combination of Caris); and then of ten Lasyangas of the Desi variety.

Jaya Senapati (Nrtta-ratnavali), who was a contemporary of Sarangadeva, gives a list of forty-six Lasyangas; and, Parsvadeva, who preceded both, had listed twenty Desi Angas.

But it is Sarangadeva’s list of ten Lasyangas that was cited by the  later authors.

**

Next, Sarangadeva describes the Gaundali and the Perani, the two dances commonly performed in the Desi tradition.  Here, Sarangadeva follows Sangita-Samayasara of Parsvadeva.

Parsvadeva, had mentioned Perana, Pekkhana, Gundali and Dandarasa, as forms of the Desi-Nrtya. He had also discussed the Sthanas and Caris needed for these Desi types of dances; and, in particular, the five elements or components (Angas) of Perana Dance: Nrtta, Kaivara, Ghargara, Vagada and Gita.

Parsvadeva had described Nrtta as consisting Lasya and Tandava aspects , which are based rhythm and tempo; Kaivara as praising the king through praising his ancestors; Gharghara as rhythmic stamping of feet , with bells tied to the ankles; Vagada as miming of ludicrous characters; and, Gita as a song sung according to the rules of a pure or mixed raga, complete with Alapa.

In that context, he had given the details of the instrumental music, drumming in particular, needed for four kinds of Desi dances, namely, Perana, Pekkhana, Gundali and Dandarasa. Parsvadeva had also indicated the requirements of a good dancer, her physical appearance; and, the way she should be dressed etc.

Sarangadeva, following Parsvadeva, also talks of the qualities and appearance of the Peranin a male dancer; and, says that the Peranin should : have his body covered with white coloured ash ; have his head shaved, leaving a small tuft of hair (Shikha); wear number of shining anklet-bells (Ghargharika); have a good voice ; be clever; be an expert in Tala and Laya; and, should be an attractive dancer (Verses 1301-3, Pages 384-85)

He also explains the sequential process of a performance, including the musical accompaniment, in the pure mode or Shuddha-paddhati, and the Gaundali of the Desi tradition (Verses 1316-25, Page 389). Here, Sarangadeva follows Manasollasa, entirely

The Gaundali and the Perani  seemed to have been the most common Dance-items in Desi tradition; because, they are mentioned in all the texts from the Sangita-samayasara in the twelfth/thirteenth century down to the Siva-tattva-ratnakara of Basavabhupala of Keladi (1684 A.D.-1710 A.D.)

And, Perani was popular, particularly in the Andhra region. And, Jaya Senapati had discussed it in fair detail. Its popularity is attributed to its fast movements; and, to the use of ankle bells.

Pekkhana or Preksana, a Desi Dance with Lasya and Gaundali are described with accompanying vocal and instrumental music. The Gaundali dance certainly survived till the eighteenth century; but,  later, it seemed to have faded away.

*

After describing these two dance pieces, Sarangadeva enumerates the qualifications of the Acharya (the teacher); the Nata (the actor); the Nartaka (the dancer); the Vaitalika (a common entertainer); the Charana (an expert in understanding Gharghara, a distinctive feature of the Desi dances of the Dravida region); and, the Kolatika (a performer who specializes in Bhramari, rope-walking and dancing with a dagger). Next, he describes the audience and the sitting arrangements.

Then, after describing the Lasyangas, Sarangadeva explains the importance of aesthetic beauty; and,  lays down the rules of exercise, and describes the qualities and faults of a performer (including a description of her make-up and costume), and those of the teacher and the group of supporting performers. Then he describes the sequential process of a performance, including the musical accompaniment, in the pure mode or Shuddha Paddhati.

The Chapter offers guidelines for dance practice; dancer’s merits, credentials and shortcomings; and, the description of the music/performance hall. In doing so he combines the material from the Natyashastra with that from later works; and , presents a coherent view not found in previous works.

rasas

In the second part of this Chapter, the author describes Rasas , the Nine Rasas (Nava-rasa), thirty-three Sthayi-bhavas, eight Sattvika-bhavas , thirty-three Vyabichari  Bhavas; and the definition of Sattva. Sarangadeva largely follows the explanations offered by Abhinavagupta on the theories of Rasa.

Sarangadeva mentions that all the eight kinds of states or Sattvika-bhavas (temperamental states) can appear in any of the Rasas. And, in a Drama one Rasa must be made prominent; and, other Rasas should be supplementary.

**

The Seventh and the Final Chapter concludes with the Verse wherein Sarangadeva avers that he did not compile this work out of pride of his learning or knowledge; but, as a means to reach out and to seek a place in the hearts and minds of the learned.

Na vidya-darpato grantha pravrttirmam kim tvidam / Vidvan manasa –vasaya gantu patheyam asthitam // SR.7.1678 , Page 476 //

sangita-ratnakara-.jpg

lotus333

In the Next Part, we shall move on to another text.

Continued

In

The Next Part

 

References and Sources

  1. Movement and Mimesis: The Idea of Dance in the Sanskritic Tradition by Dr Mandakranta Bose
  2. Sangita ratnakara  https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-
  3. Sangita ratnaj -kars : https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt- https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-
  4. All images are from Internet

 

 
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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Fifteen

Continued From Part Fourteen

Lakshana Granthas – continued

10.  The Nrttaratnavali of Jaya Senapati

 

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Evolution of Dance During the medieval period

The medieval period spanning the Twelfth to the Fifteenth century was a very significant period in the history of Indian Dancing. And, the developments that took place during this period cast their influence on the future course of Indian Dancing. And, they were also instrumental for the emergence of numerous Dance forms, in the different regions of the country.

To start with; it was during this period that Dance along with Music (which were both clubbed under the term Samgita)  emerged out of the shadows of the Drama; and, began to be recognized and discussed in their own right , as independent Art-forms rather than as adjuncts to Drama.

Dance, in the Natyashastra, was an ancillary part (Anga) or one of the ingredients that lent elegance and grace to theatrical performance; and, it was not yet an independent art-form, by itself.  Further, Bharata had discussed Dance, mainly, in terms of Nrtta, pure, abstract and beautiful dance, performed in tune with the rhythm and tempo, to the accompaniment of vocal and instrumental music.

The Nrtta was described in terms of the motion of the limbs (Anga-vikshepa), the graceful composition of the limbs – gatram vilasena kshepaha ; the beauty of its form; the balanced geometrical structure; creative use of space; and rhythm (time). And, therefore, Nrtta was meant to be a beautiful visual presentation, as an auxiliary to Natya (Drama), pleasing the eye (Shobha hetuvena). But, it was not intended to give expression to thoughts, emotions or even to indicate objects.

Bharata, at that stage, is credited with devising a more creative Dance-form, which was adorned with elegant, evocative and graceful body-movements of the Nrtta; performed in unison with attractive rhythm and enthralling music; in order to effectively interpret and illustrate the lyrics of a theatrical song; and, also to depict the emotional content of a dramatic sequence. Thus, Bharata, in effect, fused the rhythm and fluidity of Nrtta with the evocative grace and expressions of the Abhinaya. 

But, Bharata had not assigned a name to that resultant new Art-form. It was only after the Eleventh-Twelfth century that this delightful and the most enjoyable of all Art-forms created by Bharata (Bhartopajanaka) came to be celebrated as Nrtya.

Bharata had not also classified what later came to be known as Nrtya into Tandava and Lasya types.  Therefore, the terms Nrtya and Lasya do not appear either in the Natyashastra or in its early commentaries. Even Abhinavagupta (11th century) avoids using the term Nrtya.  It was only during the later times (that is, during the period about which we are talking now) that Nrtya gained an independent recognition as an expressive, eloquent representational Art, which projects human experiences, with amazing fluidity and grace.

 It was beginning with this period that Nrtya, a blend of two well studied, well developed and well codified Art forms – the dance of Nrtta and Abhinayas of Natya –advanced  vibrantly, imbibing on its way, numerous novel features; and, soon became hugely popular among all classes of the society. It gained recognition as the most delightful Art-form; and in particular, as the most admired phrase or form of Dance.

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It was also during this period that the element of Lasya came into prominence; and, it also developed in different regions assuming varied forms (Desi-Lasyanga).  

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By this time (say, the 12th century) the influence of the Natyashastra was getting distant and weaker; and, most writers of this period followed the interpretations of Abhinavagupta (11th century).

Further, Natya, the Sanskrit Drama, by then, was beginning to lose its appeal among the common people. 

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The tradition, techniques and definitions as prescribed and codified in the Natyashastra came to be classified as the Marga, the classic or the pristine form of Dance, as distinct from the innovative regional styles called Desi.

At the same time, those dance forms which adhered to the established regulations and conventions of the Marga; and, which had a definite structure were termed and classified as Nibaddha. And, those free-flowing dance forms, which were spontaneous, unregulated, unstructured and not bound by any rules, were treated as Anibaddha

Anibaddha also meant allowing the dancer considerable latitude in devising body movements that best suited the aesthetic and emotional content of the theme. And, it also made room for enterprise to come up with fresh idioms of expressions.

And, because such spontaneous Desi Dances , unique to each region, were  practiced enthusiastically by the common people ; and, were gaining ascendency,  the writers and commentators of this period, in their texts,   assigned greater importance to the descriptions of the postures, feet positions and movements (Sthanaka, Cari and Karanas) of the regional and popular  Desi styles.

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Commencing with this period, there began the practice of composing texts and treatise, which were wholly devoted to the discussions on the theory, practice and techniques of Dance, as relevant to the contemporary methods of training, learning and performance. Until then, most of the texts and treatise which dealt with Music, primarily, also talked about dance, in comparatively briefly manner, towards the end.

Such specialized  texts of this period covered not only the well regulated dance forms (Margi), but also  the individual Desi Dances (Desi-Nrtta) and   the group dances (Pindibandhas) of the Desi types like Rasaka, Perani, Carcari, DaṇḍarasRaslīlā , and other folk dances of similar nature, some of which have survived as dramatic group presentations.

Though the texts usually commenced with descriptions of the Marga features, the contemporary Desi dance-forms were given a more detailed treatment, while illustrating various postures and movements.

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By about the twelfth century, the differences as also the relationship between the Nrtta (pure dance) and Nrtya (Nrtta with Abhinaya) were clearly established. And, those dance formats, in combination with music, were suitably applied and integrated into the performance of the Dance Dramas.

That marked the emergence of dance-dramas of the Uparupaka class, as a credible format of Dancing. Here, Dance was not a mere ornament as in the age of Bharata; but, it permeated the entire body of presentation. This was an altogether new genre of Dance oriented Dramas.

Such forms of Uparupakas, composed in very attractive and entertaining formats, with the predominance of the elements of the music and dance, accompanied by soulful songs, interpreting the emotional contents of the song through Abhinaya or gestures, soon gained immense popularity.

Such Uparupakas, of the dance-drama type, began to develop in many regional popular styles.  And, each of its derivative forms such as Kathak, Odissi, Manipuri, and Kuchipudi and so on, formulated its own tradition, ethos and idioms of expressions , anchored  in its own regional and cultural background; and rooted  in its own philosophy  and outlook.

The features that were  common to all those diverse types of regional dance forms (Desi Nrtta) could , in short, said to be : the prominence assigned to the narration of the theme;  the dominance of Natya-dharmi mode of presentation;  more space and time given to  dances  depicting Srngara aspects performed to  appropriate music, Laya (tempo) and Taala (time-units, beats); employment of all the four Abhinayas in varying degrees; making a distinction between the Nrtta and the Nrtya, and maintaining  their distinctive features while executing  the respective elements in the performance; taking care to see that the Nrtta aspect, particularly the individual dance movements and postures, are  governed by the special techniques developed by each school of Desi-Dance; and, recognition of both the  Ekaharya (solo-where a single dancer enacts the role of several characters) and Anekaharya (where several actors participate  to enact their respective role)  modes of presentation.

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And, since then, such dance and music oriented Uparupakas have come to stay and flourish both in the solo and in the group dance forms; and, even have come to occupy a central position within the contemporary world of Art. They have also successfully retained their regional and cultural identity, while carrying forward their tradition to the present time.

[The early twentieth century witnessed the revival of the Marga tradition, thanks to the efforts of a group of artists, scholars and art-lovers. That regenerated Art-form, is celebrated by the name of Bharatanatya; and, its scope and content extends beyond Bharata’s concepts and techniques. It has brought within its ambit the formats of NrttaNrtya and Natya, in addition to the Uparupaka class of Dance Dramas. Further, though it is, essentially, rooted in the principles of Natyashastra, it has adopted many features and techniques from the regional dance traditions (Desi Nrtta) ; and, has thus enlarged its repertoire;  and, acquired many dimensions.

Though its teachers  and the learners , alike,  emphasize  the importance of adhering  to and preserving the purity of the Marga tradition; and, its continuation, Bharatanatya, in its practice, has brought within its fold some innovative techniques and refreshing modes of expression, in tune with the advancing times. These could be called as ‘context-sensitive interactions’.]

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The Nrttaratnavali

The Nrttaratnavali of Jaya Senapati (13th century) epitomizes the characteristic features of the Indian Dance tradition of the medieval period.

The Nrttaratnavali is the first text (perhaps the only text) of this period that is entirely devoted to the discussion on the subject of Dance. All the Eight Chapters of the text discuss Dance in its varied forms; and, the aspects of vocal or instrumental music is mentioned only in the context of Dance.

Though it commences with the discussion on the Angika-Abhinaya as per the norms specified in the Natyashastra (but, actually, as per Abhinavagupta), Nrtta- ratnavali later covers, in detail, the aspects of the Desi Nrtta, on which it lays greater emphasis.  In the process, the focus of the work is more on the Desi Nrtta, than on Nrtya with its Abhinaya aspects. And, that, perhaps, is the reason why the text was named as Nrtta- ratnavali.

It would be fair to say; the Nrttaratnavali went beyond the Natyashastra in its descriptions of the Karanas of the Marga Class. The Nrttaratnavali is perhaps, one of the few texts of its period, which presents graphic details for execution of a Karana along with its associated Caris (feet position), Hasthas (hand-gestures) and Pada-bedha (feet movements) , by following which a Karana could be reproduced successfully.

Apart from that; Jaya Senapati quotes the views of earlier writers on the treatment of Karanas, providing a broader view on the subject of evolution of the Karanas.

Thus, the Nrttaratnavali, apart from its theoretical merit, is also of great practical value.

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The King Someshvara, (12th century), in his Manasollasa, was the first writer to recognize and to describe the Desi Sthanas, Caris and Karanas.  He was followed by Sarangadeva (first half of 13th century), who in his Sangita-ratnakara, gave the Desi Nrtta a more detailed treatment.  And, Parsvadeva (a Jain Acharya of 12th or early 13thcentury) in his Sangita-samarasya also recorded some Desi Dances. But, it was Jaya Senapati (second-half of thirteenth century), who in his Nrttaratnavali, accorded a systematic and an elaborate treatment to all aspects of Desi Nrtta.

His work covers, in main, the Nrtta type of Dance forms and their movements as prevalent during the time of the King Ganapati Deva (13th century). Jaya Sena was the first author and commentator to write, in detail, about the dances prevalent in AndhraPradesh.

He enumerates verities of new forms and techniques of Desi Nrtta; the entire sequence of Desi Sthanakas, Caris and Karanas; how to perform the entire form of dance; and, clarifies the major points of dance and artistic techniques. One could say that the Nrttaratnavali covers all areas of the art of Desi-Dance, its techniques, composition, and aesthetics and so on.

The Nrttaratnavali is one of the early manuals on dancing to describe Lasya, in detail. It makes Lasyanga the very heart of the Upaarupakas, the minor type of Dance-dramas, narrating an incident or a segment of a theme, usually, related to the sports of Krishna (Krishna Lila). These Rasaka types of dances depict the graceful, delicate and love-laden-playful (Lalitha) dance movements associated with Srngara Rasa.

Though the text initially enumerates the Lasya elements of Marga Class, as they appear in the Natyashastra, it then goes to elaborate on the Desi-Lasya, listing as many as forty-six regional variations (please check page 17)  of such Lasya type. These Desi Lasyas are presented, mainly, through the Angika (dance movements), with hardly any Vachika Abhinaya (speech). The Nrttaratnavali describes Lasya the graceful delicate dance performed by women; as also the Perani, a form of Tandava the vigorous forceful dance of men.

The Desi-Lasyangas enumerated in the Nrttaratnavali became the core of the Lasya dance tradition of Andhra Pradesh. Many of such Lasyangas can be seen in the performance of Padams, Javalis etc., of Kuchipudi dance form.

Therefore, Nrttaratnavali is said to mark a significant stage in the development of the dance-literature. The Dance-manuals of the later period, following the lead given by Jaya Senapati, accorded greater importance to Desi Dance sequences that were in practice during the contemporary times, instead merely  reiterating the norms  of the Natyashastra.

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Jaya Senapati

Jaya Senapati / Jaya Senani / Jaya Sena / Jaya Senadi-natha /Jayana / Jayappa Nayaka / Jaya-charya / Jayappa Nayadu , the author of Nrttaratnavali, was a Commander of the Elephant Forces (Gaja-Sena-pathi) as also a Elephant-trainer (Gaja-sadhanika) in the service of the Kakatiya King Ganapati Deva (1199-1262), considered as the greatest among the Kakatiya Kings,  who ruled from Warangal (Andhra-Maha-Nagara). Jaya Senapati, later served the legendary Queen Maharani Rudrama Devi (ruled 1262-1289), the daughter and the successor of Ganapati Deva.

It is said; Jayana hailed from a family of Chieftains (Ayya-kula sanjata) who, at one time, were in charge of the Velanadu region, under the Telugu Cholas who ruled from Chandavolu. And, later, Jayana’s father Pinna-Choda Nayaka was in charge of Divi Island (Divi-seema) in the Krishna Delta, under Kakatiya King Ganapati Deva.

The King Ganapati Deva an, enlightened ruler and a patron of Arts,  having noticed  the intelligence , politeness and studiousness  of Jayana, as also  his desire to learn ,  took the boy Jayana under his care; and supervised his education. He arranged for Jayana’s Dance –education under the Natyacharya Gundamatya.

The King Ganapati Deva later appointed Jaya as the Nayaka of the Tamrapuri (said to be in Guntur District); and honoured him with the title ’Vairigodhuma Gharatta’

Jayana though an army commander by profession, was at heart a true Artist; and, was a well qualified Nartaka. He grew to become a Natyacharya, a Master who imparted training to the aspirants desirous of learning Dance. He was also a qualified musician and a composer. He has to his credit the Geeta-ratnavali, a treatise on Music, as a companion volume to his Nrtta- ratnavali, a manual on Dance.

Jaya Sena mentions that the text of the Nrtta-ratnavali was completed during – Vaivasvata Manvantara, Kaliyuga, Prathama Pada, after 4355 years during this period, and in the year named Ananda-nama-Samvathsara – which equates to the year 1253 -54 AD. It is said; by then Jaya Sena had grown into a wise and erudite scholar of about sixty years of age.

He reveals that it was not easy for him to compose Nrtta- ratnavali, a work of a highly technical nature, in Sanskrit verses. He had to study much, work hard and had to consult many experts in various fields.

Jaya Sena mentions that he studied the Natyashastra of Bharta Muni , diligently , spending hours upon hours poring over its tedious text; delving deep into the depths of its numerous commentaries; debating endlessly with the well disposed scholars, each adhering to his tradition; learning from many Gurus the secrets of the Shastra; and, above everything else he had the faith he could successfully accomplish his task, blessed with the infinite mercy and Grace of Lord Shiva , the Supreme Natyacharya. (Nr. Rv. 1.12).

[Abhyasate Bhartokti-bhanghisu, bahau-vyakya patesu sramath, samvadath Guru sampradaya suhrudam, Shambho prasadadapi, jnathava shastra rahasyam,  nirmitamidam maharthanvitam, nasyath kasya hitaya shasvata yashasam rakshanam lakshanam – Nr.Rv. 1.12]

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He also studied the Dance sculptures of the Ramappa Devalaya, dedicated to Lord Shiva, as Ramalingeswara, at Warangal, depicting various KaranasIt was built during 1213 AD by a General Recherla Rudra, during the reign of the Kakatiya ruler Ganapati Deva, under whom Jaya Sena served.

The temple is known for its elaborate carvings that adorn  the walls, pillars and the ceilings of its marvelous edifice. In addition, there are images of Shiva in his various forms; the sculptures of Naginis, musicians; and, the bracket-figures of dancers executing various Karanas.

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Apart from the study of the traditional texts, Jaya Sena mentions that he learnt much from the practicing Devadasis, the temple-dancers.  And, he put that practical- learning to good use. He cites as many as three hundred dances performed by the Devadasis at the Natya Mantapas of various temples, as illustrations in his text Nrtta- ratnavali.

And, in return, Jaya Sena trained many young Devadasis, along with the Raja-Nartakis who danced at the King’s Court.

The Nrtta-ratnavali is thus the fruit of Jaya Sena’s dedication to his Art, earnestness and long years of learning from various sources. He remarks: Lord Shiva, verily, is formless (amurta); but, since he loved Dancing, he, in his boundless compassion (karunya) and love for the beings, assumed the form (murta) of Nrtta, in order to be accessible to the aspirants. For my humble-self, the Nrtta, indeed, is Shiva incarnated (Shiva-svarupam). 

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Structure of the Nrtta-ratnavali

The Nrtta-ratnavali is a comprehensive study of dance, structured into Eight Chapters (Asta-adhyayi). It has, in all, about 1700 verses (Slokas).

All the Eight Chapters of the text deal with dance exclusively. The first Four Chapters describe the Angika Abhinaya, generally following the Natyashastra of Bharata (which is the Marga tradition). And, the Four Chapters, in the latter half of the text, are devoted to the Desi Nrtta, keeping in view the contemporary practices.

In short:

The Chapter one , which serves as assort of introduction, provides  the definition of terms such as Nrtta, Nrtya, Marga, Desi, Tandava and Lasya, as also their different aspects ; and, gives  explanations of  the four types of Abhinayas. The Chapter Two deals with Angika-Abhinaya, giving details of the different body-parts classified under:  Anga, Upanga and Pratyanga. The Chapter Three explains the Dance-elements: Caris, Mandala, Sthanaks, Asana and Shayana; and the importance of physical fitness (Anga saustava). The Chapter Four enumerates the 108 Karanas, the Angaharas and the Recakas. As mentioned; the first four chapters contain material as per the Marga tradition.

In the latter half of the text; the Chapter Five deals with the Desi varieties of Sthanakas, Uupulika-karanas, Caris and Bhramaris. The Chapter Six describes Desi varieties of Pada-bedha, Caris, Lasyangas and Gati-bedha. The Chapter Seven discusses general topics related to dance; and, in main, the fifteen Desi-Nrttas, (Nrtta-bedha), including the Perani type of dance. It also discusses the theatre and its types, training methods, various types of artists involved in the production and presentation of Dance etc. The last Chapter Eight describes the general aspects of presenting dance; and, the administration of the theater. The Chapters Five to Eight are devoted to Desi Nrtta, in the light of the then current practices.

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 Brief Summary of the Contents of the Nrtta-ratnavali – Chapter-wise

As regards the Chapter-wise details:

Chapter One

1.The First Chapter (74 verses) of Nrtta-ratnavali begins with the customary benediction, praising dance as an Art-form par excellence, and, defining Nrtta, Nrtya and Natya. And, it also explains the four modes of Abhinaya, i.e., Angika, Vacika, Aharya and Sattvika; and, describing , in detail , the six forms of Dancing- Nrtta, Nrtya, Marga, Desi, Tandava and Lasya .

Jaya Sena explains, the verbal root ‘Nata’ represents the pulsations that occur when the innermost feelings of a being are stirred, awakened and move up (Uccara) towards awareness

Spandana artha taya dhootornateh Satvika puritam ; Rasa-ashrayam ca jneyam vakhyarta abhinayam atmakamNr.Rv.1.26  

As regards Abhinaya, Jaya Sena says, when the prefix ‘Abhi’ is added to the verbal root ’ni’; and, when it ends in ‘an’, the term Abhinaya is formed. Its purpose is to bring forth and to express thoughts and emotions, as also to indicate objects. Abhinaya, he explains, is the act of experiencing a feeling and expressing its meaning variously  , with clarity, through the postures, gestures and movements  of the parts of the body  , the major and minor limbs (Shakha, Anga and Upangas).

Shakha, Angair Upangai ca prayogena vibhavayan, artan bahau vidhan prapyena va Abhinaya mathah –Nr.Rv.1.28

Jaya Sena defines Nrtta as the movements of the limbs (Anga-vikshepam), in harmony with the rhythm (Laya), the music of the instruments and the song. It is pure Dance, devoid of Abhinaya etc.

Gita-vadyadi militam, laya-matra samashrayam, Anga-vikshepam Nrttam, Bhaved –AbhinayojjitamNr.rv.1.53

And, Nrtta and Nrtya, he says, are of two kinds each: Lasya, the delicate (sukumaram) and graceful; and, Tandava the vigorous (uaddatam).  

Lasyam- Tandava bhedena dvaya metat dvidha punaha, sukumaram, tayo -radhyam bhaved para uaddatam-Nr.rv.1.56

The mutual attraction and love between man and woman, he says, is Laasa. And, that which is meant to express such Laasa is Lasya. The Lasya comprises those delicate and graceful movements of the body, which arouse a pleasant euphoric feeling (manasija ullasa) and erotic desire.  The Lasya is to be performed only be women.

Bhavah Stri-Pumsayor Laasam, tad artam tatra sadhu va Lasyam manasija ullasa hetu mrudvanga horavat Devyai Devo upadistatvat prayaha Stribhi prayujyate –Nr.rv.1.57

Then, Jaya Sena enumerates ten forms of Lasyanga (Lasyangani): Geyapada; Sthitapāhya; Āsīna; Pupagaṇḍikā; Pracchedaka; Trimūhaka; Saindhavaka; Dvimūhaka, Uttamottamaka; and Uktapratyukta (Nr.rv.1.58-59)

 These ten Lasyangas, of Marga Class, mentioned by Jaya Senani are the same as in NatyashastraLāsye daśa-vidha hyetad-aganirdeśa-lakaam.

Geyapadam, Sthitapāhyam, Asīna PupagaṇḍikāPracchedaka Trimūha ca Saindhavākhya Dvimūhakam 119 Uttamottamaka caivam Uktapratyuktam eva ca NS.19. 120

[The Lasyangas, according to Jaya Sena, are the elements of the traditional forms of Dance (Marga). In the first part of his work, Jaya Sena presents the Lasyanga as per Bharata, whose emphasis was on the dramatic nature of Lasya. In the Second half of the work, Jaya Sena deals with the Desi –Lasya, the regional variations of the Lasya. He lists as many as forty-six (on page 17) such Desi-Lasyas, which are entirely rooted in Angika movements, with very little of speech element, the Vacika.]

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Jaya Sena remarks; some authorities include two more types of Lasyangas – Vicitrapada and Bhavika – but, he would not accept them; and, would adhere to the ten, as enumerated by Bharata Muni – Angani Dasa caiveti Munina yat prakirthitam (Nr.rv.1.72).

1 . Geyapada :  The Lasya opens with Geyapada; and, it is accompanied by instrumental music; and, by the singing of the Sushka Aksharas, the rhythmic syllables (Svaras) by the musicians.  Then the heroine enters, in dance-like movements; takes her seat; and, sings a song praising the virtues and merits of her Lover.

2. Sthitapāhya: The love-stricken Nati or heroine (still seated) renders a song composed in a Prakrit language, pining for her lover; and, pouring out her pain and pangs of separation.

3. Āsīna : The heroine continues to sit in a depressed mood, ruminating over her forlorn condition. She expresses her sorrow and misery through her doleful eyes and facial expressions.

4. Pupagaṇḍikā: The sad looking heroine enters the further phase of her love-pangs; and, with her friends by her side, she imitates her Lover, his gestures and his speech. And, the Nati-Nayika, assuming the role of a man dances and sings a song, as her Lover would do.

5. Pracchedaka: This stage depicts the overpowering influence of moonlit-nights over the beloveds. They, still separated, forget and forgive each other’s mistakes; and, long to be together again.

6. Trimūhaka: This is similar to the fourth stage of Lasyanga. Here, the pains of separation experienced by the Lover (male) is conveyed through a song composed in Sanskrit, in which the metre is even, employing words that are neither harsh nor severe; but , is natural. The accompanying Dance too is gentle.

7. Saindhavaka: Here, the heroine is depicted as of a Vipra-labdha, waiting for her Lover who fails to turn up on time at the place of tryst. She is sad, disappointed and restless; and, she sings a plaintive song in Prakrit of the Sindhu region (Saindhavi), arousing pity. Her dance follows her mood.

8. Dvimūhaka: This is a happier dance, celebrating the heroine’s joy. In her Abhinaya, there is a clear portrayal of her Bhava and Rasa. She , in her playful exuberance, makes pretentious gestures, dances delightfully; turning and swinging merrily in circular movements. The accompanying melodious vocal and instrumental music reflect her happiness.

9. Uttamottamaka: This takes the heroine through a more joyous mood. She celebrates her Love through playful, seemingly mischievous and cheerful movements. The songs she sings are composed in verses of striking beauty. And, the instrumental music is lively and uplifting.

10. Uktapratyukta: The two lovers finally meet and come face-to-face. The Lady-Love, in mock anger, blames the erring Lover for the misery he caused her; and, brisk words are exchanged (Uktapratyukta). After due explanations, the two beloveds forgive each other; assert their Love for each other; and, promise never to be apart. The songs depict the moods and the theme of their exchanges. Then, the heroine dances around her Hero, sublimely.

[ Jaya Sena, in the latter part of the text, lists forty-six Desi- Lasyangas.]

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Chapter Two

2.The Chapter Two (437 verses) , which is the longest , having the most number of verses, deals with Angika Abhinaya, the movements of body-parts, which are most relevant to dance. Jaya Sena describes, in detail, the movements of the major and minor limbs – Angikani – (Anga, Pratyanga and Upanga).

He mentions six Angas (head, hands, chest, waist and feet) – Shiro, hastha, Purah, Parshva, Kati, Padau, sat-kramath (Nr.rv.2.1)

The six Pratyangas listed are: the neck, shoulders, stomach, spine, thighs and shanks (Griva, Bhuja, Kushiro, Prusta, Uru, Jamha, Prtyangani sat – Nr.rv.2.2)

And, the six Upangas are: the eyes, eyebrows, nose, lips cheeks, and chin (Vilocana, Bhru, Nasika, Oustya, Kapola, Chabukani, sat UpanganiNr.rv. 2.2.)

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Then he goes on to describe

: – thirteen types of head – movements (Shiro-lakshanam- verses 3 to 29);

:- thirty-six type of eye movements or glances  (Dristi-lakshanam) ; of which eight types of glances are based  in eight Rasas (Rasa-dristi);  eight glances expressing Sthayi-Bhavas (Sthayi-dristi) ; and those expressing the Sancari-Bhavas being twenty – (verses 30 to 72 )

: – Jaya Sena also describes the applications or uses of the glances enumerated by him (Dristinam Viniyogah) – (Verses 73 to 83)

: – Thereafter he moves on to describe nine kinds of the movements of the eyeballs (Tara karma) and its uses (Tara karma Viniyogah) – (verses 84 to 91)

: – Next, eight types of eye-expressions (Darsha Prakara) are described (Verses 92 to 96)

: – The nine types of the movements of the eyelids (Puta Karma) are described next (Verses 97 to 104)

: – The seven types of the movements of the eyebrows (Bru-karma) are described next – (verses 105 to 115)

: – Thereafter, Jaya Sena moves on to Nasika -lakshanam, the six types of movements of the nose (Nasa-karma) – (Verses 116 to 122)

: -The movements of the lips (Oustya or Adhara-lakshanam) are six – (verses 123 to 131)

: – The movements of the cheeks (Kapola-lakshanam) are also six – (Verses 131 to135)

: – The movements of the chin (Chibuka-lakshanam) are seven; these are coordinated with those of the tongue, teeth, lips. These are mentioned as Hanu-lakshanam, Jihva-lakshanam, and Danta-kama (Verses 136 to 151)

: – The movements of the neck (Griva-lakshanam) are of nine types – (verses 152 to 157)

: And, the facial colors (Mukha-ragam) are three- (Verses 158 to 163)

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Hastha –lakshanam

Jaya Sena deals with the gestures and movements of hands (Hastha-lakshanani) in fair detail. Here again, he, generally, follows the enumerations and the descriptions as provided in the Natyashastra. He also explains why he is adhering to the enumerations made by Bharata Muni; and, is not accepting the changes and modifications made by Someshvara and other commentators.

Jaya Sena describes 14 types of the movements of the single hand (Asamyukta-hasta) – (Verses 165-167); 13 types of the movements generated by the combination of both the hands (Samyukta-hastha) – (Verses 168-169); and, 29 types of the Nrtta hastha- (Verses 170 to 175)  . Thus, the Hasthas, in all, add up to sixty-six representations.

Jaya Sena describes each of the elements of the Asamyukta-hasta (Verses 187-263); the Samyukta-hastha (Verses 264-286); and, the Nrtta-hastha (Verses- 326-375), along with their Viniyogas (applications). During the course of presenting his explanations, Jaya Sena quotes the views of other authors, such as Abhinavagupta, Klrtidhara and others.

At the commencement of the discussion on the Hastha-lakshanam, Jaya Sena makes a very interesting observation. He compares the movements and gestures of the hands and fingers to a vast ocean.  He says, the subject is very vast; and is indeed, endless. Just as the ocean contains in itself, varieties of animals, creatures, vegetation etc., the Hasthas have varied and almost countless varieties of expressions.

Vast is indeed the subject of the gestures of the hands, just as the ocean. The waters of the ocean, in their depth, house the wily animals like crocodiles; on its surface are the lovely flowers like lotuses; and, over its surface fly the swarm of bees in graceful abandon. The waters are dotted and decorated by the beautiful wings of the swans; and, by the dancing petals of the lotus. The ocean, of course, is also the home of creatures like crabs etc.

Chatura Makaradi prollasat-padma-kosam, Bhramara-Lalita-Lilam, Hamsa paksha-abhiramam, pravicalad-alapadmam, karkata-dirupetam , jaladi jalami vedam, brumahe hastha-lakshanam (Nr.rv.2.164)

The terms that are cleverly used by Jaya Sena in this verse, also stand for the various types of hand-gestures (Hastha-bedha): Chatura; Macara; Padma-kosa; Bhramara; Lalitha; Hamsa-paksha; Ala-padma; and Karkata.  He has woven these terms, ingeniously, into the descriptive verse.

Referring to the limitless potential of the hand-gestures (Hasthanam ananthathvam) to express various suggestions, thoughts, emotions and objects; Jaya Sena remarks:  the whole universe can be expressed through these gestures. Their ways are truly endless. There are might be many Hasthas that are applicable in a particular context; but, there could be several more such. The skill of the performer lies in exploring; and, in choosing from the vast resources, the one that is most appropriate. The use (Viniyoga) of the Hasthas is, indeed,  infinite –ananta.

Abhijneyam jagat –sarvam ananto abhinayo pyayam, yo eva yujyate hastho tesam api anantataNr.rv. 2.287

Jaya Sena counsels: the truly wise must study deep, exercise their discretion to choose the most suitable Hastha, taking into consideration the context of place, time , performance and its purpose. Its expressions of the Sthayi and Sancari Bhavas must be adequately supported by the suitable meaningful eye- movements.

Desa, Kala, prayogartha vedi, netradi dristi cestitai, anukulai prayanjita sthayi-sancari-suchacaihi – (Nr.rv.2.290)

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Thereafter, Jaya Sena moves on to describe the movements of the other limbs (Pratyangas), such as the arms, shoulders, stomach, spine, thighs and shanks, with particular attention to the feet movement : Bahu Prakara (310-325); Paksha-lakshanam (376-382); Parshva-lakshanam (383-388);  Jatara-lakshanam (389-390); Kati-lakshanam (391-395); Uru-lakshanam (396-400); Janu-karmani (401-404); Jampa-karmani (405-411); Pada-lakshanam (412-426); and, Padanguli-lakshanam (427- 437 ).

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Chapter Three

3. The Chapter Three (198 Verses) is mainly about Caris (movements of one leg), Sthanas (postures); Nyaya (stance to be assumed while wielding a weapon in a fight); Vyayama (exercise); Sausthava (physical fitness); and, more Sthanas and Mandalas (combinations of Caris).

Here, Jaya Sena broadly follows the enumerations and definitions as per Bharata; but, makes certain variations.

He describes 16 types of Bhu Caris – both feet in contact with the ground (Verses 14 to 40) and 16 types of Akasha Caris – one foot in the air or a leap (Verses 41 to 69). Jaya Sena remarks, though for the purposes of the text the Caris are counted as 32 in number; its varieties are truly endless.

He also describes ten earthly (Bhu) Mandalas and ten aerial (Akasha) Mandalas.

As regards the Sthanas, standing-postures, Jaya Sena makes a distinction between the Sthanas meant for men (Purusha-Sthana) and those for women (Stri-Sthana). He reckons the following six Sthanas as being suitable for men: Vaishnava, Sampada, Vaisakha, Mandala, Alidha and Pratya-alida.

He describes, in fair detail, the Nyayas or the positions and postures to be assumed while fighting and wielding weapons.

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Chapter Four

4. The Chapter Four (377 Verses) describes Karanas (dance-units) and Angaharas (sequences of dance-units); and, ends with Recakas (extending movements of the neck, the hands, the waist and the feet), mainly, on the lines of the Natyashastra. In general, Jaya Sena’s treatment of the Marga tradition is faithful to Bharata and Abhinavagupta.

The groups of Karanas as listed in the text are : Valitoru (encircling); Aksipta (embrace); Kranta (anklet movement); Harinapluta (leaping like a deer); Bhujanga-ancita (curving-like-a-snake); Parsva-kranta (moving sideways); Apavidda (entertaining); Vrshabha-krida (like a bull); and, Urdhva-janu (lifting up the knee).

He then provides various combinations of the Stanakas, Nrtta-hasthas and Caris in order to compose varieties of Karanas. He describes several aspects of Angaharas; and, remarks, that by altering the sequence in the combinations of the Karanas, infinite variations of the Angaharas can be produced.

Here, while commenting on the Angaharas, Jaya Sena observes: Generally, a combination of three or four Karanas could be said to compose an Angahara.  But, there is no such strict rule in that regard. Bharata had used the prefix ‘va’ to indicate that there could be more options.  A combination of two Karanas is named Matraka; of three as Kalapa; of four as Khanda; and, of five Karanas as Sanghata. Therefore, the Karanas can be made into sets of six, seven, eight and even nine to form an Angahara. And there is no strict rule; it is left to the imagination and skill of the performer.

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Chapter Five  

5. The Chapter Five (109 Verses) marks the commencement of the Second-half of Nrttaratnavali; and, this latter-half is devoted to discussion on the Desi Nrtta.

The term ‘Desi’ has been in use since the time of Matanga’s Brhad-Desi; and , later it was extensively used by  other authors , such as : King Someshvara (Manasollasa) , Srangadeva (Sangita-ratnakara) and Parsvadeva (Sangita-samaya-sara). All these commentators described the various types of Desi dance-postures, movements and Dances.

As mentioned earlier, Jaya Sena in his Nrttaratnavali deals with the Desi Dances and their elements in Four Chapters (from Chapter 5to 8).  Here again, he discusses  the Desi tradition in two parts: in the First Part (Chapters 5 and 6) he describes the Desi types of Sthanakas, Utpluti-karanas, Bhramaris, Pada, Pata, Cari, Lasyanga and Gati-bhedas as being derivatives or supplements  to the Marga -bhedas.

And, in the second Part (particularly the Chapter 7), Jaya Senani focuses on the various types of Desi Dances that were prevalent during the time of his King Ganapati Deva; and, these include Dances forms that were peculiar to the Andhra region  (Desi Nrtta) such as : Perini, Rasakam, Carchari, Bahurumpam, Kanduka , Bhandika , Kollatamu , Chindu and Gondali.

Tandava

Jaya Sena commences the Chapter Five by defining the term ‘Desi’ as that which is innovative, depicting new subjects, in newer forms of Dance movements (Nava Nrttam), that are peculiar to the culture (Desanusara) of each region (Desi); and, that which are devised for the delight of the Kings, who are always interested in newer forms of entertainment; as also for gladdening the hearts of common people of.

Bhavanti Dharanipalah prayena Abhinaya-priyah, atah triptiyedyapi yad utpadyate navam Nrttam tatah smrutam Desi tat Desanusaraha (Nr.rv. 5.3)

He then goes on to describe twenty-three types of Desi Sthanas (Verses to 38); Fourteen types of Utpluti-karanas (Desi Karanas with leaping movements)- (Verses 39- 46) and their thirty-two types of applications (Verses 47 to 81); and, thirteen types  of Bhramaris  (pirouettes, spins and turns) – (Verses 82 10 109)

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Chapter Six

6. The Chapter Six (187 Verses) deals with the movements of the feet. These are described here as Desi-Padas, which are also called as Desi Caris by other authors. But, in the tradition of Bharata, the Caris and Padas are treated as being distinct.

Jaya Senani, following Bharata, treats these separately. He has a separate section for dealing with his Desi-Caris, some of which are not found in the earlier texts. Similarly, the descriptions of the Desi-Patamanis are his own.

Here, the Desi Pada implies merely contact of the feet with the ground; and, Desi -Patamani involves stamping or striking the ground with the feet (Pada-tadana); and, Desi-Caris involve movements of one extended leg.

Matanga, in his Brhad-Desi, had described sixteen verities of foot-positions (Sodasa-DesiPada-bedhah) that add beauty to the Desi Nrtta. Jaya Sena after describing these Desi-Padas (Verses 1 to 12) extends them to twenty-eight foot-movements – Astavimsati-patah (verses 13 to 53).

Jaya Sena recalls the statement made by Matanga that with some enterprise and imagination, one can devise more number of Desi Padas; and, Jaya Sena avers that he would be following Matanga’s advice. Accordingly, Jaya Sena describes forty-two verities of Desi-Caris, of which twenty-six are Bhumi-Caris (with feet in contact with the ground)- (Verses 63 to 88); and, sixteen are Akashi Caris (with at least one leg in the air) – (Verses 89 to 105).

Jaya Sena, in addition, describes four mixed varieties of Caris (Sankirna-Cari) : Talasarpanika (chain-like movements on foot soles), Hamsarutham (swan-like movements gliding back and forth), Tittiri-gati (simulating butterfly movements perched on toes) and Antarapadmasam (squatting in Padmasana and moving up) (verses 106 to 112).

Then Jaya Sena takes up Desi-Lasyanga, describing its forty-six varieties, following, in main, Srangadeva and Parsvadeva- (Verses 118 to 169).

Jaya Senani defines Lasya and Tandava as the two varieties of Nrtta and Nrtya. The Lasya, he says, is a feminine dance style, which arouses the Srngara Rasa with its delicate and graceful movements. Shiva taught this dance style to his consort Parvati.

In contrast, Tandava, a pure Nrtta with no element of Abhinaya, is a vigorous type of dance, performed in various Talas to invigorating music, in brisk and aggressive movements, exuding Veera and Bhayanaka Rasas. In the Desi Nrtta, Tandava is basically the dance of the warriors performed only by men. 

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The Chapter Six concludes with description of the Gatis (gaits), in slow (vilambita), medium (madhyama) and fast tempos (druta) – (Verses 170 to 187). During the sequence of taking such steps, the pace of gaits could vary from slow to fast or medium etc., or the other way; it would then be a Sankirna –Gati. Jaya Sena also indicates the Talas (the time units) that are appropriate for the Gatis of each tempo (Kala). For instance; if the performer takes two, three or more steps within a Time-unit (Tala), then that could be called Druta-Gati (Verse 172).

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Chapter Seven

7. The Seventh Chapter discusses varied subjects such as : auspicious dates for beginning dance lessons (the term that Jaya Sena uses here is Nrtya); the characteristics of the stage and some general discussion on presentation; the time and location of dance performances; the worship of Ganesha; the methods of training and practice; the qualifications desirable in a dancer; the dance costume; the hand-gestures for practice; and, the accompanying vocal and instrumental music. The Chapter then focuses its attention on describing individual dance pieces, calling them Desi Nrtta.

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There is an elaborate description of Perani. It is said; the term Perani was derived from ‘Prerana’ meaning inspiration. And, Perani is one who is inspired by Lord Shiva; or a dance form that invokes (Prerana) and is dedicated to the Supreme Dancer Shiva.

The text carries an elaborate description of Perani, lauding him in choosiest words of praise and attributing to him all the noble virtues.

A Perani , a dancer,  is one who is capable of taking the spectators to the heights of aesthetic delight; an attractive person of great reputation; descending from commendable linage; a sentient connoisseur; and adept in rhythm; expert in music; master of several instruments; devoid of aberrations; learned in several, branches of knowledge ; proficient in many languages; a dancer of great quality, who is well versed in both the Lasya and Tandava Dance forms; one who can execute the Karanas involving leaps , turns and spins; and, an adept in all the Dance techniques.( Nr.rv. 7. 34 to 37)

The text mentions; the Prerana dance has five aspects: Nrttam; Kaivaram; Ghargaram; Vikatam; and, Geetam.

Prerar-angani panchasya Nrtta, kaivarah, Vikatam, Geetam ityesham karma laksham pracakshapa (Nr.rv.7.43)

It is believed that this dance form invokes ‘Prerana‘ (inspiration) and is dedicated to supreme dancer Shiva.

Chhau-Dance

Jaya Sena describes the five parts of the Prerana Dance. And says :

 : –  The Nrtta is that which has both the aspects of Lasya and Tandava- tan Nrttam yat dvidataktam Lasya Tandava bhedah  (Verse 44).

:- The Kaivara is the dance which adulates and celebrates the virtues and valour of the Great kings of the past; and, through the metaphors used for such a great person , the King who is on the throne is lavishly praised (Verse 45).

:- The Gharghara is that war-dance which is enthused by vigorous and rousing beats of the thundering Gargara war-drums; dancing furiously, employing six of the ten Pada-bhedas (other than Parsva, Gattitama, Suci and Anguliprusta) – (Verse 55).

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 :- The Vikata is the grotesque dance  where the dancers wearing the ghastly make up and costumes of the demons and ghouls (Pisaca), covering their faces with masks of ugly faces, frightening eyes and repelling lips ; even turning their shoulders, stomachs and legs into ghastly proportions (Vikruta) , scream , shout most annoyingly ; and, jump, twist, turn in ugly ways. Some call this Dance as Vagada. (Verses 56 and 57)

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: – And, Geetam is that where the performers dance to the melodious and tuneful singing of the songs from the traditional Shuddha Chayalaga Prabandha Music format. (Verse 58).

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The Perani Paddati the ways of performing the Perani Dance are described in Verses 59 to 68. Here, Jaya Sena specifies the types of music, songs and instruments, as also the stage preparations suitable for performing all the five aspects of the Prerana Dances, in their sequence.

[The Perini Tandava is a vigorous Nrtta, usually, performed by warriors (Veerulu) before they leave for to the battlefield. It is therefore called ‘Dance of Warriors’. The Perini Tandava, done to the resounding beats of drums, is indeed believed to be the most invigorating and intoxicating male dance form. While dancing, the warrior invokes Shiva to come into him ; and, to dance through him.  Dancers drive themselves to a state of frenzy, where they feel the power of Siva in their body.

The dance form, Perini, reached its pinnacle during the rule of the Kakatiya Kings, who established their dynasty at Warangal and ruled for almost two centuries. The Perini dance form almost disappeared after the decline of the Kakatiya dynasty.]

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Jaya Sena outlines the Desi Paddathi of presenting a Dance performance.

The performance begins with the auspicious instrumental music; that is followed by Yati-Praharana; and Pushpajali is performed without song or musical accompaniment. Then follow the Jhenkara; Rigavani; Tundaka; and, Camatkara. Thereafter come the Geetanga, the orchestral music, the auspicious songs and finally the Praharana- (Verses 69-70) . Further details are provided in Verses 71 to 77.

[Pardon me; I am not very clear about some of the terms used here to indicate the ingredients of the Desi-Paddathi.]

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Jaya Sena, following the explanations provided by Matanga for classifying the Prabandhas, says that Nartana can also be classified into two classes: Shuddha Suda and Salaga Suda.

According to Jaya Sena, Nartana that follow the  Shudda Suda type of Prabandha  has nine forms : Ela; Karana; Varnasara; Kaivara; Jhombada; Tribanghi; Vartani, Rasaka; and Ekatali.( Verses 80 and 81)

And, the Salaga Suda has seven types: Dhruva, Mantha, Prati-mantha, Nihsaru, Addatala, Rasaka and Ekatali. (Verse 88)

The following twelve types of Desi Nrttas are described in the Nrttaratnavali:

1. Rasakam; 2. Carcari; 3. Natya-Rasaka; 4. Danda-Rasaka; 5. Sivapriyam; 6. Cinthu-Nrtta; 7. Kanduka-Nrtta; 8. Bhandika-Nrtta; 9. Ghatisani-Nrtta; 10. Carana-Nrtta; 11. Bahurupa-Nrtta; and, 12. Kollata- Nartana.

Rasaka

Jaya Sena, then, takes up the description of the Rasaka, which is a Pindibandha class of Group Dances. The Pindibandhas, or group dances, a form Nrtta, are performed by six, eight, twelve or more pairs of men and women. The Pindibandhas are classified into four types: Pindi (Gulma-lump-like formation); Latha (entwined like creeper or net like formation, where dancers put their arms around each other); Srinkhalika (chain like formation by holding each other’s hands); and, Bhedyaka (where the dancers occasionally break away from the group and perform individual numbers).

Of these four types of Pindibandhas, the Rasaka is treated as a Pindibandha of the Latha variety of  Lasya, which is related to Srngara-rasa, portraying love and other softer, graceful aspects.

Jaya Sena describes the Rasaka type of Desi Nrtta in Verses 84 to 99.

According to Jaya Senapati, Rasaka is to be performed by experienced, young, dancers in pairs of 8,12 or 16 , dressed appropriately, exhibiting various Caris , entering from either sides of the stage , in tune with the musical instruments, the Sangita Vadya.  He describes the beauty, youth and alluring qualities of the dancers; and, their flashing movements, comparing them to lightning.

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Carcari

Carcari is described as a springtime-dance performed by a group of female dancers, celebrating the Vasantotsava festival, singing sweet songs in Raga Vasantha; weaving various patterns and designs as they dance; clapping hands; snapping the fingers or striking each other’s palms while they dance around in circles; and form manifold patterns while performing Khanda, mandala, Cari etc., as in the Pindibandhas. Carcari is a kind of ensemble dance, resembling the Rasa-Lila of the Gopis.

Carcari is a jubilant Dance, a festive sport of merriment , singing songs  of Srngara Rasa, where the cheerful women, as they dance, move around in circles,  and sing praise the virtues of the Nayaka , the presiding King (Verses 98 and 99) .

It is said; the Carcari Prabandha is known as Jajara in some Telugu texts. And, Raja Bhoja, in his Srngara Prakasa, uses the term Carcari as an alternate name for Natya-Rasaka.

Maidens Performing The Ecstatic Dance

Natya-Rasaka

Jaya Sena explains Natya-Rasaka as a Dance performed in the spring season (Vasantha) by the women of the Court singing Desi Songs in Hindola Raga, praising the virtues and merits of the King ; and, interpreting the words of the song through Abhinaya (Padartha-abhinaya)- (Verse 100)

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Danda Rasaka

The Danda-Rasaka is Nrtta, a Pindibandha or group dance performed by eight or more pairs of men women, playing with coloured sticks. There is much singing and dancing in rhythmic steps; but, not much speech and Abhinaya. It is similar to the Rasaka. This type is also known as the Krida-Rasaka of the Gopis, where the Gopis play the Rasa with Sri Krishna.

Jaya Sena explains the Danda Rasaka as a form of group performance during spring season. It is performed by even number of pair of dancers, usually in multiples of 4 to 24, with sticks held in both the hands. In some variations, fly-whisks, daggers are held by the dancers in one hand and sticks in the other. The instrumentalists play melodious music to which dancers perform choreographic patterns including Lasyangas, Brahmaris, Caris and Utplavanas (leaps), in circling movements, to the accompaniment of rhythmic striking of sticks. Khandas or dance segments must be continued along with elegant leaps to the left and right hand sides as well as executing the circular movements. Specific strokes of the sticks must create the required beats.

Regarding the mode of the entry of the dancers, Jaya Sena said:  Eight of them may enter first, gradually by addition of batches of four, the number may go up to sixty-four, forming two rows.

Jaya Sena says that the songs are composed in praise of the Kings virtues. Dances are to be performed by experienced dancers. (Verses 101 to 107)

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Shiva Priya

Shiva Priya, is again, a group dance performed by men and women to the accompaniment of the beats of the various types of drums, cymbals, trumpets (Kahala). The participating men and women each holds in his/her left hand a replica of a snake made of brass or copper; and, a sword in the right hand. They all rhythmically make sounds ‘Kirikiti’.

They all wear garlands made of Rudraksha beads; three stripe of Vibuthi across their forehead; and, reverently sing songs in praise of Shiva (Shiva stuti).

The Shiva Priya dance consists in the performers dancing in rhythmic  steps, displaying Lasyanga, singing songs ; and, sometimes facing each other in rows of two ; and, then breaking to form circles in various patterns . This Dance is said to be particularly dear to Shiva (Shiva Priya) – (Verses 108 t0 118)

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Cintu Nrtta

According to Jaya Sena, Chitu is a type of Desi Nrtta that originated in the Dravida Desa; and, it (Cindu) is very dear to the people of Tamil Nadu. Groups of well dressed young women dance swaying their arms and bodies, rhythmically, to the accompaniment of instrumental music. As they clap their hands and dance in playful steps, displaying the Padas, Caris and Gatis of Lasyanga, they sing songs composed in Dvipadi. The dancers interpret the meaning of the words of the song with predominance of Lasyanga, through Pada-artha-abhinaya.

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Kanduka-Nrtta

Kanduka is a peculiar kind of a Desi Nrtta and a ball-game as well, played by wide-eyed, young and beautiful women, in the prime of their youth, in a jubilant mood (Vibhrama). As these playful and joyous lovely women play and dance, the songs selected from the Prabahdhas relating to the Desi Nrtta; or the songs meant for the depiction of Bhandas (patterns) such as: Padma, Gomurtica, Naga, and Chakra, are sung and played on musical instruments.

The ball, these women play with, is made either of gold, silver or brass; and, is hallow inside. The ball holds within it number of beads, which rattle and make sounds, as the dancing women jump in the air, run around throwing and catching the ball.

As these beautiful women with mischievous flickering eyes, jump in the air, and, perform various types of Caris, Gatis, Padas of Lasyanga, while they create patterns resembling fish, lotus filled ponds etc. (Verses 118 to 125)

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Bhandika Nrtta

The Bhandika Nrtta is comical dance performed by clowns. As they dance around in irregular and difficult steps , mimicking Adavus, the instrumentalists pretend as though they are playing the pipe or beating the drums. The dancing jesters create their own rhythms  by clap of hands; and imitate the movements of hunchbacks, dwarfs and the maimed  and , they also make varieties of sounds of birds and animals such as : peacock, parrot, monkey, donkey, dog, camel etc. While making the sounds of each bird or animal they imitate its movements in exaggerated, funny and mischievous manners. These hilarious dances blow away the sorrows and anxieties of the spectators; and, make them laugh till their sides ache. (Verses 126to 129)

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Ghatisani-Nrtta

The Ghatisani-Nrtta is a dance that is oriented towards rendering a song with action, in the company of her friends. Here, a beautiful Candala women, dressed in light and modest costume; and, gifted with melodious voice and clear diction; sings songs, while playing on the Panduka Vadya (a kind of hand-held musical instrument). The songs she sings are variously selected from the Desi Suda Prabandha and Carya-Prandha, describing the playful actions of Shiva in his Kirata (hunter) aspect, holding bow and arrows.

As she sings and dances along with other male and female dancers, to accompaniment of the sounds of the drums , cymbals , trumpets (Kahala) and Karata Vadya (?); and to the rendering of Tala-Prabandha, Yati , Praharana etc., she moves along delightfully, in delicate (Sukumara) dance-steps, spreading cheer and happiness. (Jaya Sena mentions that even a male who is endowed with the requisite virtues can perform Ghatisani-Nrtta.)- (Verses 130   to 134)

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Carana-Nrtta

According to Jaya Sena, the Carana-Nrtta is the dance of the professional nomadic dancers and singers who come from the Saurastra region in the Western India. They travel (Carana) from place to place displaying their artistry.   Their songs composed in Dohas (couplets) or Dohaka, derived from Dohaka metre, laden with Rasas, set to attractive beats, are sung in melodious Ragas, with playful Desi-Kakus (intonations). They sing along merrily, clapping their hands, twisting, spinning (Bhramari) and tumbling somersaults (laghava); moving in swift but not with very aggressive (Lalita-uddhata) footwork (Pada-vinyasa) ;  they , in between, shout in booming voice ‘Bhi- Bhoo’ imitating the sound of instruments. Jaya Sena observes, the Carana women-dancers cover their heads with a part of the sari they are wearing (Pallu). – (Verses 135-138)

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Bahurupa Nrtta

The Bahurupa Nrtta is the display of varied forms of dresses, behaviors, speech etc., of persons coming from different regions and cultural groups.

Describing the qualities of a competent Bahurupa Nrtta performer, Jaya Sena mentions that such a dancer must be: young, agile, learned, clever, witty, fluent in his expressions, proficient in Sanskrit and regional languages; and, should induce happiness. In addition, such a Bahurupi should be a well trained, experienced dancer having a pleasant voice; he should be quick in changing the costumes and make up; he should, preferably have shaved off the beard and the hair on his head. A woman endowed with these qualities can also perform as a Bahurupi.

As regards the performance of the Bahurupi, Jaya Sena mentions, the dancer should adopt the Natyadharmi mode of presentation. And, in his versatility , he should be able to credibly represent the two-footed , the four-footed and even the feet-less living beings . He should, following the instrumental music and the songs, dance according to the situation. And, in between, he should also sing. More importantly, he should never cross the limits of decency.  A Bahurupi would do well to enact the roles of a King or of a renowned person in the history. (Verses 145 to 148)

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Kollata- Nartana

The Kollata – Nartana that Jaya Sena describes is , in fact, the dance of the acrobats who perform at  the street corners. They are also called ‘Dombigas’ or ‘Domburu’.  

Initially the acrobats perform Desi Caris, Karanas and other dance movements. And, then, as the drums, cymbals, bells, blow-horns (Bheri) play vigorously; and with the spectators clapping and cheering loudly, the tempo of the Dance increases. Thereafter, the acrobat climbs on the tripod supporting the leather strap or the rope that stretches across. He then begins to walk along the rope in careful steps. And, while on the rope he does dance movements with a remarkable sense of balance. Then, after reaching the other end of the rope , standing on the tripod, he executes dexterous and risky Bhramaris (Turns), wielding dangerous weapons like swords.

Then, after jumping down from the rope, the Kollatiga, dances around carrying incredibly heavy objects, twirling swords etc. The acrobat performs many types of skillful, swift and attractive dances; leaping, spinning, twisting, turning, tumbling, cart-wheeling etc.- (verses 149-152)

 **

Thereafter, Jaya Sena concludes the Chapter Seven by describing in great detail  the qualities of the female dancer (Nartaki), the male dancer (Nartaka) , the main singer (Mukhya-gayaka),the instrumentalist who plays the pipe (Mukhari) , the orchestra (Vadya-brunda) ; and the stage-manager (Sabhapati) . He also describes the theater (Nrtta-mandala)- (Verses 153 to 288)

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Chapter Eight

8. The Eighth and the Final chapter (84 verses) is the shortest. And, in general, it provides more information regarding presentation; the recital; the appropriate time for its presentation; the arrival of the chief guest ; and, the welcome to be accorded to the king and other important members of the audience; the qualities required in a dancer; her costume and make up; the orchestra; the seating arrangements; the entrance of a dancer; the use of three curtains on the stage and their removal etc.

The chapter also talks about honoring the dancer, the musicians and the poet

*

Jaya Senapati remarks that the spectators are very much a part of the Art-experience; and, even a very good performance would be of no avail unless the spectators are cultured, refined and truly capable of appreciating and enjoying the presentation.

Jaya Sena concludes his work with the Verse, which says: This garland named as Nrttaratnavali was knitted by Jaya Sena-natha, with the aid of Nrtta-angas composed of Sucimukha, Gati, Guna and Shikhara.

Here, he was playing on the words, by comparing the Nrttaratnavali to a garland ; and the various elements of  Nrttanga to sharp needle (Suci), thread(Gati); knitting (Guna) and the successful completion (Shikara).

Sucimukha, Gatisuchya, Guna, Shikara-shobini, Jaya-Senadi-nathena Nrttaratnavali krtah (Verse 81)

Eti Sriman Maharajadhi Raja Ganapathi Deva Gaja-sadhanica Jaya Senapati virachitam Nrtta-ratnavali Sampurnam

lotus-flower-and-bud

In the Next Part, we shall move on to another text.

Continued

In

The Next Part

References and Sources

  1. Nrttaratnavali (Translated into Telugu) by Prof. Rallapalli Ananata Sharma – published by Andhra Pradesh Sangita Nataka Academy –1969
  2. Movement and Mimesis: The Idea of Dance in the Sanskritic Tradition by Dr Mandakranta Bose
  3. http://www.andhraportal.org/literature-nrtta-ratnavali/
  4. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/25592/9/09_chapter%201.pdf
  5. Bharatanatya: a paper presented by Dr.V Raghavan at the Dance Seminar held Sangita Natak Academy
  6. All PICTURES ARE FROM INTERNET

 

 

 

 
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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Thirteen

Continued From Part Twelve

 Lakshana Granthas – continued

8. Srngaraprakasa of Raja Bhoja

rajabhoj

The Srngaraprakasa of Raja Bhoja (10-11th century) is a work; spread over thirty-six chapters, which deal principally with poetics (Alamkara shastra) and dramaturgy. Insofar as Dance is concerned, it is relevant for the discussions carried out in its Eleventh Chapter dealing with various types of minor plays (Uparupakas) or musical Dance-dramas.

Raja Bhoja or Raja Bhoja-deva Paramara was a king from the Paramara dynasty, who ruled between 1010–1055 CE. His kingdom comprised the Malwa region in Central India and parts of Gujarat. His capital was located at Dhara-nagara (modern Dhar, in the Malwa region of western MadhyaPradesh). It is said; the city of Bhopal is named after Raja Bhoja.

Bhoja was a warrior, a capable military commander; and, was also politically very active. He had a vast kingdom in the Central/ Western India. He had a strong alliance with the powerful King of South – Rajendra Chola; and, had even helped the Shahi Kings to resist the attacks of Mohammad of Ghazni. Bhoja fought many battles, with varying degrees of success.

Though Raja Bhoja reigned gloriously for more than forty years; the battles he fought are mostly forgotten. But, his fame as the greatest scholar-king of medieval India; an enlightened patron of learning; and, an accomplished erudite author remains undimmed.

As a ruler, he is said to have emphasised the importance of education in ones’ life; and, in his capital city Dhara-nagari, he set up a center for learning Sanskrit at Sarasvatisadana or Bhartibhavana, over which he presided.

Raja Bhoja is credited with the authorship of numerous books, covering an enormous range of topics. But, literary criticism, poetics, aesthetics; and particularly the Rasa doctrine in its various forms seemed to be his favourite subjects. And his fame as an author with refined tastes rests mainly on his two major works: Sriranga-prakasa and Sarasvathi-kanta-abharana.

The Sarasvathi-kanta-abharana (ornament in the neck of goddess Sarasvathi), is a treatise on Sanskrit grammar and Alankara-shastra (Poetics); an elaborate text of 643 verses, enriched by as many as 1,563 examples (or illustrations), spread over five chapters.

[The Sarasvathi-kanta-abharana edited by KN Sharma and VL Pansikar (1934); and Sarasvatikanthabharana of Bhojadeva: With the commentary Hrdayaharini of Narayana Dandanatha; edited by V.A. Ramaswami Śastri; Trivandrum Government Press 1948.]

And, Raja Bhoja’s other work Sriranga-prakasa, a treatise in 36 chapters dealing with both poetics and dramaturgy, is more widely known. The noted scholar Dr. V. Raghavan, who edited Raja Bhoja’s monumental work ‘ भोज गश्रांगार प्रकाश (1962)’, described it as the largest known work in the field of literary criticism and aesthetics  in the whole range of classical Sanskrit literature. While illustrating the encyclopaedic nature of the text, Dr. Raghavan called it as the richest Indian text in Sanskrit poetics; and remarked; ‘Whatever is found in Srngara Prakasa is found elsewhere; and, that which is not found in this work cannot be found elsewhere.’ 

[Despite all its stated virtues, Bhoja’s Srngara Prakasa did not , for a long-time, receive  the attention it deserved ; mainly because of its inordinate length (more than twice that of Bharata’s Natyashastra); and, its manuscript was  recovered late and published only  in 1955  by Sri C. R. Josyer  of  Mysore. It was brought to the attention of the scholars worldwide in 1963 , by Dr. V. Raghavan; and, later published by Harvard University, under its Oriental Series.

The renowned scholar Sheldon Pollock observes:

History has been unfair to Srngara Prakasa.. Despite the fact that it is the most comprehensive and sustained body of literary analysis in pre-modern India, in some ways the most germane – in view of the range of issues treated that are pertinent to reading actually existing Sanskrit literature – and, in its organization, style and plethora of citations and analysis perhaps the most fascinating.

Bhoja’s discourse on Rasa is the most detailed and provocative we have; and the most unusual, often differing from Bharata and those who follow him]

radha_krishna

The main topic of the Srngara Prakasa is Rasa, the aesthetic delight, a pleasurable sensation; and, its manifestation (Rasanispatti) in varied forms. And, the text is, therefore, regarded as an important watershed in the evolution of Rasa-theory (Rasa-siddantha). Bhoja Deva’s work is particularly focused on Srngara-rasa. He accorded a very elaborate and exhaustive treatment to the subject of Srngara-rasa; devoting as many as twenty-two Chapters, discussing sixty-four stages of Srngara, each divided into eight categories; and, each of that again subdivided into eight types. He also quoted hundreds of verses and passages from literary works in Sanskrit as also in Prakrit languages.

The Srngara, one of the eight Rasas categorized by Bharata, is ordinarily taken to mean a state of erotic or love. But, Raja Bhoja elevated Srngara to a sublime level, as the King of all Rasas (Rasa-raja); the Rasa of all Rasas; the Rasa in which myriads of other Rasas reside ;and the mother of all Rasas , giving scope for a countless other emotions including jealousy, fear, anger, compassion, and of course for the expression of physical intimacy.

‘Krishna and the Gopis on the Bank of the Yamuna River’; miniature painting from the ‘Tehri Garwhal’ <i>Gita Govinda</i>, circa 1775–1780

No other Rasa has a vast scope; and, Srngara, he said, towers over all the other feelings and sensations, as it is the most important emotion in human beings. It is very endearing; and, it appeals to human mind; present in every segment of life, since life is a never ending quest for love and affection. It is the sweetest of all (Madhu-rati madhura). The enchanting Srngara is portrayed through rich imagery and there are different aspects (Bhavas) of Srngara e.g. love between a mother and a child; love between siblings; love between friends; love between a man and a woman; love between the Almighty and devotee; and, so on.

In regards to Poetics (Alankara Shastra), Raja Bhoja assigned highest importance to Srngara-rasa, placing it on the throne as the king of Rasas. Srngara, according to him, denotes the supreme phase of bliss; and, it is the highest aesthetic principle. He said, the Srngara assumes the form of Rasa when it is enjoyed by the Sahrudaya the cultured, well-informed spectator/ reader, gifted with empathy. Such a Sahrudaya, who is blessed with a refined sense of Srngara, is indeed the Rasika (the connoisseur); and, one lacking that virtue is Nirasa. According to Bhoja, the Kavya-rasa is universal, enjoyed by all in the world; and, it makes is no sense in calling at Alaukika (otherworldly).

krishna dance

Srngara Prakasa and Dance

The Srngara Prakasa is of relevance to Dance, because of the discussions it carries out regarding the minor types of plays, the Upa-rupakas.

The types of Uparupakas that Raja Bhoja was particularly interested were the Dance-dramas, which are adorned with rich music, melodious songs, as also with graceful and delicate dance movements. These, technically, could be called Nrtya-bhedas, the minor dramatic presentations. But, such musical plays were fondly addressed by varieties of names.

Abhinavagupta, in his commentary, had called such Uparupakas as Nrtta-kavya (dance-drama); Raga-kavya (musical-play); Raga-darshaniya (musical presentation to be viewed with delight); Geyam-anurupakam (a sort of play that is sung); and; Nrtta-prabandha-raga-kavya (musical play presented mainly through dance). And, Raja Bhoja gave these musical plays a rather grandiose name: Pada-arth-aabhinaya-atmaka preksya-prabandhas (the visual presentation of literary works, where the meanings of the words are illustrated with expressive gestures).

In short; such type of Uparupakas could be said to be minor dramatic works that were of the nature of Dance-drama, which are rendered through song, dance; and, interpreted through Abhinaya. And, in such presentations, the elements of song, music and dance (Gita-Geya-Nrtya) are dominant.  

*

It may be mentioned here; Bharata, in his Natyashastra, had discussed, in main, the Rupakas, the major forms of the Drama. His concern seemed to be, primarily, with those types of plays that had the potential to display various modes of representations; and, to evoke verity of Rasas. For him, the aspect of Rasa was central to the Drama. He had remarked: no sense proceeds without Rasa – Na hi rasadrte kascid-arthah pravartate.

In the process, Bharata had not discussed the minor forms of the drama, the Uparupakas or Natyabhedas, a minor class of dramatic works, distinct from the major works; and, which did not satisfy all the classic, dramatic requirements prescribed for a Rupaka or Nataka proper. Such minor class of plays (Uparupakas) handled only a segment of a theme or an event in a story (Vastu); and, not its full extent. It did not also, perhaps, employ all the eight Rasas and all the four Abhinayas, in their entirety.

By the time of Abhinavagupta (Ca.11th century), the Dance had diversified into many more forms than were known during the time of Bharata. Commencing with the 11th -12th century, the minor or one-act plays, Uparupakas, the forms of dance-dramas, with a major input of dance and songs; but, with just an adequate stress on Abhinaya (acting) and Sahitya (script) became increasingly popular.  During the time of Abhinavagupta, those minor classes of plays – Uparupakas, par excellence, had grown into becoming the main stay of the contemporary dance- scene.

Nayaka ko prakasa biyoga sringara

Raja Bhoja in the Eleventh Chapter of his Srngara Prakasa discusses twenty-four types of drama and their structure. He terms these as Preksya-prabandhas, visual or the poetic compositions to be seen; and, divides them into two categories: one, requiring Vakya-artha-abhinaya and the other Pada-artha-abhinaya.

These terms relate to the acting techniques employed by the performer  in a play or in a dance,  for portraying  various states of emotion (Bhavas) with the help of speech (Vachika); gestures (Hastha-abhinaya)  and actions (Angika), and costumes (Aharya) etc.

The Āngika-abhinaya (facial expressions, gestures / movement of the limbs) is of great importance, particularly in the dance and drama.  There are two types of basic Abhinayas:  Padārtha-abhinaya (when the artist delineates each word of the lyrics with gestures and expressions); and, the Vākyārtha-abhinaya (where the dancer acts out an entire stanza or sentence). In either case, though the hands (hastha) play an important part, the Āngika-abhinaya involves other body-parts, as well, to express meaning of the lyrics, in full.

Dhananjaya in his Dasarupa had earlier mentioned two broad categories of Dance-forms as: the Marga (the pure or pristine); and, the Desi (the regional or improvised) – ādya padārthā-abhinayo Margo Deśo tathā param // DhDaś_1.9 //

According to Dhananjaya, the Nrtya, which principally, is the display of various emotional states (bhava-asrayam Nrtyam), is a representation of the traditional Marga class.  While, the Nrtta, with emphasis on limb-movements, in tune with rhythm and timing (nrttam tala-laya-asrayam), belongs to the popular Desi style (Desi-nrtta).

According to Abhinavagupta, the depiction of Srngara essentially requires Nrtta; as it provides ValanaVartana and other movements or stances.

Raja Bhoja does not name the class of drama that requires Padartha-abhinaya; however, he lists and describes the twelve varieties within that class. These, it is said, belong to the Nrtya class which require delicate and meaningful expressions, along with limb movements. Bhoja called them Padartha-abhinayatmaka Preksya-prabandhas.

*

As mentioned earlier; the types of such minor dramas, Nrtya-bhedas which provide visual delight (Preksya-prabandhas) with the use of Padartha-abhinaya were categorized as Uparupakas.

Such a Uparupaka is more concerned with Angika Abhinaya, with larger elements of dance, song and music; and, is more connected with the performing and stage arts; whereas the Rupaka makes use of all four kinds of Abhinaya, with a greater emphasis on dialogues.

And between Nrtta, Nrtya and Uparupaka: the Nrtta is abstract, beautiful and attractive body movements; the Nrtya, in addition to that, has elements of Abhinaya, but no speech. And the Uparupaka (also named as Nrtya-bheda) uses the body movements of Nrtta, the Abhinaya of the Nrtya; and, speech as in drama proper (Natya), but to a limited extent.

An Uparupaka, thus, was a happy invention, structured as a narrative dance-drama, depicting a theme or a segment of a theme, with abundant use of music, songs and dance (Nrtta and Nrtya); but, with just the required quantity of speech.

*

Many scholars have written in detail about the Uparupakas. The more prominent ones among these are : Abhinavagupta (Abhinavabharati); Dhananjaya (Dasrupaka);  Saradatanaya (Bhavaprakasana); Raja Bhoja (Srngara Prakasa);  Hemachandra (Kavyanusasana); Sagaranandin (Nataka-laksana-ratna-kosa);  Bhavamisra (Bhavaprakasa); and Vishwanatha (Sahitya Darpana). Here, in this post, for a limited purpose, we shall discuss mainly about Raja Bhoja’s treatment of the Uparupakas.

Among the authors who succeeded Abhinavagupta, Raja Bhoja in his Srngara Prakasa was one of the few who dealt with the subject of Uparupakas, at length. Bhoja was also the first to include and describe twelve varieties of such Uparupaka, the minor dramas, giving details; and, later he was followed by Ramacandra and Gunacandra in their Natyadarpana.

Krishna Adorns Radha with a Tilak

Since these types of Uparupakas predominantly portray various phases of Srngara Rasa, the Kaisiki Vrtti, which is the graceful style of depiction, is considered most appropriate for the enactment of such Uparupakas. The Kaisiki-Vrtti, the gentle, graceful style, which characterizes the tender Lasyanga associated with expressions of love, dance, and song as also with charming costumes and delicate actions portrayed with care, mostly by women,   is most suited to Srngara-rasa (tatra kaisiki gita-nrtya-vilasadyair mrduh srngara- cestitaih). And, as said, the Srngara Rasa permeates the theme of the Uparupakas, Dance-dramas, which are largely composed of dance (Nrtta and the Nrtya) and songs. It increasingly resorts to the stylized Natyadharmi mode of presentation.

Kaisiki has four varieties (Bhedas): Narma (good-natured-small-talk); Narma-spinja (the pleasure blooms at the first meeting of lovers); Narma-sphota (the lovers delighting in each other company); and, Narma-garbha (covert pleasure; incognito). The prefix Narma indicates cheer or laughter.  Kaisiki is the most charming and delightful combination of Srngara and Hasya, playful expressions, one’s affection or longing for union with the lover.

krishna-radha

The twelve varieties of Uparupakas that Raja Bhoja discussed in his Srngara Prakasa were: Srigadita; Durmalika (or Burmilita); Prasthana; Kavya (Chitrakavya), Bhana (Suddha, Citra and Samkirna); Bhanika; Gosthi; Hallisaka; Martanaka; Preksanaka; Rasaka; and, Natyarasaka (also called Carcari).

Many scholars have written extensively describing as many as thirty forms Uparupakas, their themes and the modes of depiction. But, here, we shall just take a glimpse of those twelve Uparupakas that were listed by Raja Bhoja in his text

vishnu lakshmi

  1. Srigadita

The Srigadita depicts Vipralambha type Srngara. It is the Geya (song) rendered by a virtuous woman (Kulangana), describing to her friend, the virtues of her Lover. Bhoja explains that it is called Srigadita; because the heroine here describes (gadita) her Lord’s qualities, just as the Goddess Sri describes her Lord Narayana. Bhoja states that it is through such songs and recitations, the state of separation in love is depicted in this form.

[There is a variation of this mode; and, is called Vipralabdha, where the Lady Love feels deceived and is deeply hurt (vipralabdha) when her lover fails to show up on-time at the rendezvous agreed upon; and, finds fault with him.]

kulangana

  1. Durmallika (Durmilita)

In contrast to Srigadita, the Durmallika involves a ‘stolen love’ or a love-intrigue, where a deceitful female messenger (Ceti) , in an aside, takes the audience into her confidence; and, reveals  all the details of secret love between the two Lovers . The Ceti then sets forth, in mock villainy, her plans to make demands, bordering on extortion. Durmallika, according to Dr. Raghavan is a sort of blackmail. This is depicted in Kaisiki-Vrtti, laced with humour (Hasya). According to Raghavan this is a vulgar performance. No author has cited any example. The reason, he says, might be that this kind of performance did not attract scholarly attention.

  1. Prasthanaka

This type is characterized by descriptive gestures. Prasthana depicts all the phases of love in separation, including occasions when the Lover is away journeying to distant places (Pravasa Vipralambha). It also, at times, includes other aspects of Srngara; such as: the first meeting in the earlier stages of love (prathama-anuraga); misunderstanding (Anumana); and, the course of development of love through spring and winter. The descriptions of these seasons also form the theme of Prasthana.

The performance enlivens itself towards the end through the introduction of the heroic sentiment (Vira- rasa), on the triumphant return of the hero and the description of his exploits.

Thus, the Prasthanaka has two Acts, divided into four scenes. It mainly uses delicate movements, with occasional vigorous passages, such as the gait of an elephant, which stands for the idea of journeying abroad.

The exit after each scene is named as an Apasara. Raja Bhoja explanation is marked by four Apasaras.

*Ragini Patamanjari

  1. Kavya

The Uparupakas are also described as Raga-kavya or Kavya, the narrative depictions with predominance of Music; and, are thus, distinguished from other minor plays. Apart from that, it should also have a well constructed plot, which exemplifies a brilliant hero and a young heroine, employing joyful speeches.

Raja Bhoja refers to an Uparupaka set to a single Raga as Kavya; and, the one which is set to several Ragas as Chitra-kavya, employing varieties of Tala and Laya. He also provides the technical details regarding Matra (notes) of the Ragas that are involved, as also of the Tala and Laya (time units, rhythm). The Raga-Kavyas, which essentially depict various modes and phases of Srngara, Hasya and Lasya, adopt the Kaisiki Vrtti in their presentation.

Raga Deepak

  1. Bhana (Suddha, Citra and Samkirna

There is much confusion about the term Bhana. It might mean a major type of Drama (Rupaka), which is a sort of satirical monologue; else, it might be a minor type of drama (Uparupaka) that employs bold, vigorous body movements and loud instrumental music, with irregular beats.

The Uparupaka Bhana is not a purely musical composition; and, not a pure Nrtya-prabandha (dance sequence), either. Raja Bhoja observes that it is chiefly characterised by a feature borrowed from the Bhana of the Dasarupaka class viz. Akasa-bhasita, where the sole actor on the stage assumes the roles of many characters; and, carries on conversation with himself, as if he is talking to the air.  It is a type of monologue; an imaginary conversation. It has also elements of song and music; but the person who sings mixes the songs with speech (gayana-saha-uktika). And, he also dances.

Thus, the Uparupaka Bhana is a mixture dance and speech. Raja Bhoja regards the Bhana- Uparupaka as a difficult type of Dance; and, classifies it into three categories: Shuddha (pure); Sankirna (mixed); and, Chitra.

 It is Shuddha when the language used in the Bhana is Sanskrit; it is Sankirna when Sanskrit is mixed with Prakrit; and, it is Chitra when many languages are used.

A Shuddha Bhana is interspersed by seven Visramas, interludes; and, each Visrama has a distinct type of music.

There are other three varieties of Bhana: It is Uddhata when the plot deals with violence and the depiction is noisy, and dance is vigorous (uddhata-karana-prayah). It is Lalita when the plot is charming; and, Lalito-ddhata when the plot shows action mixed with elements of Srngara.

  1. Bhanika

After the time of Bharata, there developed two minor dramatic types, Bhana and Bhanika. The latter was distinguished with style of rendering in Kaisiki Vrtti, associated with Srngara Rasa.

Raja Bhoja also says that the Uparupaka Bhanika is similar to Bhana; but, its movements are delicate, with Lasyanga, rendered in eloquent Bharati Vrtti and in graceful Kaisiki Vrtti. Here the swift movements like jumps, twists and swaying of limbs above the knee level (Divya-caris) are not to be used. Only the Lalita-Karanas, the gentle, delicate and graceful movements are to be used. Unlike in the Bhana, the women can participate, sing and dance in the Bhanika. And, sometimes, the musicians speak and sing alternatively (gayana-saha-vacana).

Regarding the plot of the Bhanika, it is concerned mostly with the pious Hari-charitra (the Krishna lore), set to traditional meters (Varna, Matra etc). Its heroine is noble; and, the hero is calm and collected (Manda). The plot is structured as having an introductory part (Mukha), interludes (Sandhi) and conclusion (Nirvaha). And, its rendering style is Bharati and Kaisiki Vrttis.

goshti

  1. Gosthi

Raja Bhoja was the first writer to include Gosthi in his list of Uparupakas. According to him, the purpose of Gosthi is to show the young Krishna sporting with cowherds and milkmaids. The Gosthi, therefore, involves a number of performers, both male and female; and, is full of songs and dances. It is performed in the Kaisiki Vrtti, with a predominance of Srngara.

The theme or story is imaginatively conceived and developed. It is a small story, structured in three segments: Mukha (opening); Pratimukha (follow up); and Nirvaha (conclusion).

*

  1. Hallisaka

The Uparupakas were broadly classified according to the dance-situations that were involved; and, the Rasas, the emotions, they projected. Among the Uparupakas, the RasakaHallisakaNarttanaka, Chalika and Samyalasya gave importance to Nrtta, the pure dance movements, in their performance. And, Natika, Sattaka, Prakaranika and Trotaka (Totaka) gave prominence to emotional aspects and to Abhinaya.

Accordingly, the Hallisaka is a type of group dance with rhythmic movements; and, it seems to be the earlier form of the Maharas or Rasa-Lila, which the Srimamad Bhagavatha celebrates with love and divine ecstasy, in five Chapters from 29 to 33 of its Tenth Canto (Dashama-skanda) titled as ‘Rasa-panca-adhyayi’. The Natyashastra classifies such group dances under the Pindibandhas,

Hallisaka is basically, an Nrtta, in which eight or sixteen dancers participate. There is rhythmic movement with Dance-like steps, performed to the tune and beats of a song. There is not much scope for Abhinaya in such type of dances.

Vatsyayana (earlier to second century BCE), motions Hallisaka as one of the Uparupakas which, which were watched by men and women of taste.

Abhinavagupta describes Hallisaka as a dance; and, places it under the category of minor musical or dance dramas, characterized by Vachica-bhinaya (verbal acting) that mainly employs singing and dancing.

During the later times, the Hallisaka came to be regarded not merely as a dance-form, but also as a Uparupaka, a minor type of dance Drama, with emphasis on rhythm and music.

Bhavaprakasana treats Hallisaka as a play of one or two acts, which employs Geya-Lasya (charming songs) in Kaisiki Vrtti rhythm; and, also using some of the technical features of drama.

Hallisaka is said to be similar to Rasaka. And, Raja Bhoja mentions that Hallisaka becomes Rasaka, when danced to a definite Tala, which implies that Rasaka was primarily a type of pure Dance (Nrtta).   The Nataka-lakshana-kosa of Sagaranandin also describes Rasaka as a one-act play, using a variety of languages and five characters. It calls for delicate movements and forceful emotions (masrno-udatta-bhava-bhusitam).

Raja Bhoja equates Hallisaka with Rasa-Lila dance performed by Gopis to different Talas – the Krida-rasaka of the Gopis. He mentions Pindibandhas or group dances as a necessary feature of this type.

Bhoja seems to take Hallisaka primarily as a dance; although he places it under Padartha-abhinaya-atmaka-preksya-prabandhas, the Uparupaka as dance presentations, where the meanings of the words are illustrated with expressive gestures.

Maidens Performing The Ecstatic Dance

  1. Nartananka

Nartananka is an Uparupaka which uses delicate and graceful movements to express Bhava (emotions); and, in which the dancer articulates the meaning of the words of the lyrics of the song through expressive gestures. The Nartananka is said to have four varieties: Samya, Lasya, Chalika and Dvipadi.

Raja Bhoja mentions: where in an assembly, a female dancer performs in a relaxed graceful tempo to act out the meaning of the word, it is Nartananka , which comprises Samya, Lasya, Chalika and Dvipadi .

Samya is understood as Lasya-Nrtta, a delightful dance; and also as Tala (time-unit)- Sangita-samya, that is central to dance of the semi-divine beings, the Kinnaras and Gandharvas.

Lasya is the gentle and lovely graceful aspect. And, as per Bhoja, the graceful quality of Lasya is inherent in Srngara Rasa.

Chalika or Chalita is described as a dance form, which creates Vira (Heroic) and Srngara Rasas, through the use of Tandava and Lasya movements

Dvipadi is taken as a musical composition; and, also as metre or tempo (Laya) of a character’s gait (Gati).  

*

  1. Preksanaka, Prenkhanaka:

Preksanaka, literally ‘a play to be seen’, refers to an Uparupaka or a one-act play. Preksanaka is mainly of the Padartha-abhinaya variety, with predominance of vigorous display through gestures and movements Angika-abhinaya (Nrtta).

 Bhoja says that spectacles such as the Kama-dahana (immolation of Kama, the Eros) are characteristic of the Preksanaka presentations. And, he illustrates the Preksanaka by giving example of Kama-dahana. The language used in this variety of Uparupaka would usually be Prakrit, preferably the Suraseni.

Kama_Shiva

  1. Rasaka

Rasaka is mentioned in almost every early text. It is treated both as a Dance- drama; and, also as a mere Dance. Raja Bhoja treats it, primarily, as a form of Dance of the Nrtta type, presenting attractive brisk rhythmic limb movements (Padartha-abhinayatmaka-Preksya-prabandha).

The Pindibandhas, or group dances performed by eight or more pairs of men women, playing with colored sticks (Danda-rasaka) are said a feature of this type of Uparupakas. There is much sing and dancing in rhythmic steps; but not much speech and Abhinaya. This type is also known as the Krida-rasaka of the Gopis, where the Gopis play the Rasa with Sri Krishna.

Technically, Rasaka is treated as a Pindibandha of the Latha variety of Lasya, which is related to Srngara-rasa, portraying love and other softer, graceful aspects; and, is divided into three classes: Danda-rasaka; Mandala-rasaka; and, Natya-rasaka. It is predominated by rhythmic limb movements to the beat of drums (Tala-vadya) and songs. Here, Danda-rasaka is said to a type of group dance performed with coloured sticks (as in the Dandiaras of the present-day); the Mandala-rasaka, involves formation of clusters or patterns; and, the Natya-rasaka is pure dance performed to a song.

[The term Pindibandha is no longer in use either in dance literature or in dance performances. And, Sukumara-prayoga (for Lasya) is not a category of dance but merely a mode of presentation]

 All the three are described as Desi Nrttas, the dances of regional type, that are free flowing and spontaneous; not regulated by strict set of rules (Anibaddha) .

*rasa mandal

  1. Natya-rasaka

Natya-rasaka, to which Raja Bhoja gives Carcari as its alternative name, is described as a springtime-dance performed by a group of female dancers, singing sweet songs in Raga Vasantha, weaving various patterns and designs, clapping hands,  while they dance around in circles, as in the Pindibandhas.  It is a kind of ensemble dance, resembling the Rasa-Lila of the Gopis. 

[The Sanskrit dictionary describes the term Carcari as festive sports, merriment with singing.]

Natya-rasaka employs number of graceful, fluid and charming movements, the Lasyanga (according to some as many as ten), and a variety of rhythms and tempo (Laya).

The term Natyarasaka suggests some kind of dramatic content; but, the description shows it as a dance form. In a similar manner, Rasaka and Hallisaka, which are actually dance types of the Nrtta class, are described as dramas.

Vasant raga

 In the Next Part , we shall move on to another text.

vishnu with lakshmi

Continued

In

The Next Part

References and Sources

ALL IMAGES ARE FROM INTERNET

 
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Concerning the Dasarupa of Dhananjaya – Part Eight

Continued from Part Seven

Dasarupa of Dhananjaya

Book Four

Rasa and Bhava

kalakshetra-737x425

Introduction

The Book Four of the Dasarupa is devoted to the discussion on Rasa. Here, Dhananjaya broadly follows the concepts and definitions as provided in the Natyashastra, except in minor details such as where he creates additional divisions in the Srngara, Adbhuta and Bhibhatsa Rasas.

The Fourth Book on Rasa (Rasadhyaya), in its 87 verses, describes, in fair detail, the eight types of Rasas; the Bhavas along with their causes (Vibhāva), manifestations (Anubhāva), their transitory states (Vyabhicāri-bhāva) and the involuntary reactions (Sāttvika-bhāva),  all combining effectively to picturesquely  portray  and give expression to the intended dominant Bhava (Sthāyi-bhāva).  Dhananjaya accepts the eight Sthāyi-bhāvas and the eight Rasas described by Bharata; though he does not catalogue the Rasas.  Of the eight Rasas enumerated by Bharata, Dhananjaya discusses the Srngara Rasa and its subdivisions in much detail. The Hasya Rasa is described in two passages; while the rest are covered in one verse each.

Dhananjaya also discusses the definitions, the details, the divisions and sub-divisions of the various elements of each of the Bhavas that harmoniously unite in order to give expression to the principal emotion (Sthayin) that the performer is attempting to project. And, the resultant (Rasavant) delectable joy (Rasa) is experienced with relish by the cultured aesthete (Rasika).

*

Dhananjaya commences his exposition by stating that Rasa, a pleasurable sensation, is produced by the combination of the various the elements of the Bhavas, when it’s dominant mood or sentiment (Sthayin) harmonizes within itself its cause (Vibhava), its consequents (Anubhava), the associated transitory states (Vyabhicharin) stirring up varied sorts of involuntary bodily reactions (Sattavika).

Vibhavair anubhavais ca sattvikair vyabhicaribhih aniyamanah svadyatvam sthayi bhavo rasah smrtah//

Then, Dhananjaya straightaway proceeds to define and explain various technical terms involved in the process of bringing about (Bhavitam) the Bhavas in order to convey (abhi-vyākhyātā) it’s Rasa.  It is said; these sections were meant to serve as a prelude or an introduction to the ensuing discussions elucidating the principles and practices that are related to the subject of Rasa. After this section, Dhananjaya moves on to the descriptions of Rasas and their subdivisions.

But, in this post let’s commence with Rasa and Bhava; and, then take a look at the subdivisions of each of the elements, as enumerated by Dhananjaya; and, at the end let’s come back to Rasa.

Let’s briefly go over the concepts related to Bhavas and Rasa, as described in the Natyashastra and as presented in the Dasarupa.

lotus-flower-and-bud

Rasa

In the Sixth Chapter of Natyashastra , Bharata, introduces the subject of Rasa after discussing the five kinds of the Dhruva songs that are sung during the course of a play  i.e.,  while entering (praveśa), casual (ākepa), going out (niskrama), pleasing (prāsādika) and intermediate (āntara).

He then remarks, “No sense proceeds without Rasa – Na hi rasadrte kascid-arthah pravartate.” He was implying that the entire object of a well rendered Dramatic performances, poetry, music or art is to provide delight, which is enjoyed by the spectator (Rasika). And, without providing that experience of beauty, anything said or done is a futile exercise.  And, that gratification of pleasure or delight is called Rasa. Such a wonder (Camatkara) and rare delight (lokottara-ananda), which we love to enjoy, is indeed the essence and also the purpose of any work of art.

Bharata had introduced the concept of Rasa in the context of Drama. He meant Rasa as an aesthetic appreciation or joy that the spectator experiences.  As Bharata says, Rasa should be relished as an emotional or intellectual experience: na rasanāvyāpāra āsvādanam, api tu mānasa eva (NS.6.31) .The yashāstra states that the goal of any art form is to invoke such Rasa.

Bharata does not, however, put forward any theories about the Rasa concept. He does not also give a direct definition of Rasa or its essence. But, he straight away delves into explanations of how a well structured combination of certain objective factors produce subjective reactions in the spectators.

He comes up with the statement that Rasa is produced (rasa nispattih) by the combination (samyogād) of the VibhāvaAnubhāva and Sanchari (Vyabhicāri) Bhāvas. : Vibhāva anubhāva vyabbhicāri samyogāt rasa nispattih. This statement later, gained fame as the Rasa Sutra, the formula to invoke Rasa.

Here, briefly, the term Vibhāva represents the causes, while Anubhāva is the manifestation or the performance of its effect as communicated through the abhinaya, and the vyabbhicāri Bhava, the transitory states.

Then, while explaining the concept of Rasa, Bharata attempts to illustrate it through an analogy.  Bharata poses the question: What is an example, one may ask? In reply, he describes Rasa in terms of taste, with the analogy of cooking a tasty meal. He states, just as the taste emerges from the mixing of various seasonings, herbs and other components, so also does the Rasa emerges from a combination of the various Bhāvas. As the six tastes (shad-rasa) are produced by ingredients such as, raw sugar or spices or vegetables, so also the Sthāyibhāva, the dominant mood, combining in itself the other Bhavas, puts forth its characteristic Rasa. Bharata, eventually, says that which can be relished – like the taste of food – is Rasa –Rasyate anena iti rasaha (asvadayatva).  Thus, Rasa is an experience which is relished.

The Natyashastra does not directly equate Rasa to taste. It merely, employs the taste as analogy or a parallel to explain the process involved in the generation of Rasa, since it had no precise definitions for the essence of Rasa.That might be because, Rasa is a subjective experience; and , it can only be enjoyed experientially. It can , at best, only be obliquely suggested through explanations.

Tatra vibhāvā-anubhāva-vyabhicāri-sayogād-rasa-nipatti ko dṛṣṭānta atrāha – yathā hi, nānā-vyañjana-uadhi-dravya-sayogād-rasanipatti tathā, nānā-bhāvo-pagamād-rasa-nipatti yathā hi -guādi-bhirdravyair-vyañjanair-auadhibhiśca āavādayo rasā, nirvartyante, tathā nānā-bhāvopagatā api sthāyino bhāvā rasatvamā-apnuvantīti atrāha – rasa iti ka padārtha ucyate – āsvādyatvāt

*

The next question that arises is, how is Rasa relished? The reply is — just as well-disposed persons, while eating food cooked with many kinds of spices , relish (āsvādayanti)  its tastes and derive pleasure, similarly the cultured spectators with refined outlook relish and derive pleasure from the Sthāyibhāva  expressed through various Bhavas aided by words, gestures and other pleasant feelings (Sattva) .

How is rasa produced?

The terms Samyoga and Nispatti, which occur in the Rasa Sutra, are at the centre of all discussions concerning Rasa. Bharata used the term Samyoga in his Rasa sutra (tatra vibhāvā-anubhāva vyabhicāri sayogād rasa nipatti), to point out the need to combine these Bhavas properly. It is explained; what is meant here is not the combination of the Bhavas among themselves; but, it is their alignment with the Sthayibhava, the dominant emotion at that juncture. It is only when the Vibhava (cause or Hetu), Anubhava (manifestation or expressionand Sancharibhava (transitory moods) as also the Sattvas (reflexes)   meaningfully unite with the Sthayibhava, that the right, pleasurable, Rasa is projected (Rasapurna). 

[Bharata omitted to mention Sthayin, the dominant Bhava, in his Rasa-sutra. But, he asserted that only the Sthayins attain the state of Rasa. He made a distinction between Rasa and Sthayin. And in the discussion on the Sthayins, Bharata elaborated how these durable mental states attain Rasatva. He discussed eight Rasas and eight Sthayins separately in his text.]

The Sthayi bhava and Sanchari bhava cannot be realized without a credible cause i.e., Vibhava, and its due representations i.e., Anubhava. The Vibhavas and Anubhavas as also the Sattva, on their own, have no relevance unless they are properly combined with the dominant Sthayibhava and the transient Sanchari bhava. The analogy that is given in this context is that spices, sugar etc., are not related to each other. But, when they are properly mixed and cooked with the main dish, they combine well and give forth a delicious flavour.

That is to say; undoubtedly the partaking or savouring of Rasa gives pleasure; but, such pleasure is not derived directly. It is only when the Sthayi bhava combines all the other related Bhavas  (Vibhavair anubhavais ca sattvikair vyabhicaribhih) and transforms them through natural Abhinaya that the Rasa is eventually produced, gladdening the hearts of the spectators.   Bharata uses the term Nispatthi (rendering) for realization of the Rasa in the heart and mind (manas) of the Sahardya.

Vibhavair anubhavais ca sattvikair vyabhicaribhih aniyamanah svadyatvam sthayi bhavo rasah smrtah//

Dhananjaya also defines Rasa in exactly the same words as Bharata did. And, in addition, he explains Rasa as the pleasure (svada) given forth (prakhyatam)  by the Sthayi Bhava, which is produced from a poem having elements (padartha) in the form of (svarupa) moonlight (indu) , disinterest (nirveda) , excitement (romacha) etc., which serve as  Vibhava (cause), Sanchari (transitory mood) and  Anubhava (consequent expression).

Padarthair indu-nirveda-romancadi-svarupakaih kavyad vibhava-sarmcary anubhava prakhyatam gataih bhavitah svadate sthayi rasah sa parikirtitah

Bharata envisages absolute continuity of the artistic process, beginning with the creative experience of the artist through his performance or his poetry, to the aesthetic experience of the spectator or the reader.Along with that, he also explains the relationship between Rasa and Bhava.

He illustrates this process with the seed-tree-flower-fruit analogy (Bija-shakthi). Just as a tree grows from a seed ;and, just as the tree puts forth  flowers and fruits, so also the emotional experiences (Rasa) are the source (root) of all the modes of expressions (bhava). The Bhavas, in turn, are transformed to Rasa.”(Natya-Shastra: 6-38)

yathā bījād-bhaved-vko vkāt-pupa phala yathā tathā mūla rasā sarvete bhyo bhāvā vyavasthitā 38

lotus-flower-and-bud

Bhava-s

As regards the Bhavas, Bharata explains they are called  Bhavas , because they effectively bring out the dominant sentiment of the play – that is the Sthāyibhāvā – with the aid of various supporting expressions , such as words (Vachika),  gestures (Angika), costumes (Aharya) and bodily reflexes (Sattva) – for the enjoyment of the good-hearted spectator (sumanasa prekakā) . Then it is called the Rasa of the scene (tasmān nāya rasā ity abhivyākhyātā).

It is also explained; they are called Bhavas because they happen (Bhavanti), they cause or bring about (Bhavitam); and, are felt (bhava-vanti). Bhava is the cause, the hetu; this and the other terms such as bhavitam, vasitam, krtam are synonyms. The term suggests the meaning of ‘to cause or to pervade’. The Bhavas help to bring about (Bhavayanti) the Rasas to the state of enjoyment. That is to say : the Bhavas manifest  or give expression  to the states of emotions – such as pain or pleasure- being experienced by the character – Sukha duhkha dikair bhavalr bhavas tad bhava bhavanam //4.5//

Thus, Bhava could be understood as a process through which the import or the inner idea of a dramatic situation is expressed and transformed, with the aid of four-fold Abhinaya,  into Natya-rasa for the delight of the discerning spectators.

Nānā bhāvā abhinaya vyañjitān vāg aga sattopetān / Sthāyibhāvān āsvādayanti sumanasa prekakā / harādīś cā adhigacchanti  tasmān nāya rasā ity abhivyākhyātā //6.31//

***

It is said; the eight Sthāyi-bhavās, thirty-three Vyabhicāri-bhāvās together with eight Sātvika-bhāvas, amount to forty-nine psychological states, excluding Vibhava   and Anubhava.

Within this format; and , in  the context of the Drama and Poetry, the terms Vibhava, Anubhava, Sanchari, Sattvika and Sthayi are explained thus:

Vibhava

Vibhava, Vibhavah, Nimittam, and Hetu all are synonyms; they provide a cause to manifest the intent (vibhava-yante); and, the term Vibhavitam also stands for Vijnatam – to know vividly. The Vibhavas are said to be of two kinds: Alambana, the primary cause (kaarana) or the stimulant for the dominant emotion; and, Uddipana that which inflames and enhances the emotion caused by that stimulant.

jnayamanataya tatra vibhavo bhavaposakrt alambana-uddipanatva prabhedena sa ca dvidha.

Anubhava

Anu’ is that which follows; and, Anubhava is the representation, manifestation or the effect giving expression (bhava-sam-suchanatmakah) to the internal state (vikara) caused by the Vibhava. It is Anubhava because it makes the spectators feel (anubhavyate) or experience the effect of the acting (Abhinaya) brought forth by means of words, gestures, representations and the Sattva. Thus, the psychological states (Bhavas) combined with Vibhavas (cause) and  Anubhavas  (portrayal or manifestations) have been stated – Anubhavo vikaras tu bhava sam-sucanat-makah

Dhanika, the commentator, explains these Anubhavas as follows-:

These Bhavas are expressed by the performer with the help of speech (Vachika); gestures and actions (Angika), and costumes etc., (Aharya). The Āngika-abhinaya (facial expressions, gestures/movement of the limbs) is of great importance, particularly in the dance. There are two types of basic Abhinayas:  Padārtha-abhinaya (when the artist delineates each word of the lyrics with gestures and expressions); and, the Vākyārtha-abhinaya (where the dancer acts out an entire stanza or sentence). In either case, though the hands (hastha) play an important part, the Āngika-abhinaya involves other body-parts, as well, to express meaning of the lyrics, in full.

Here, the body is divided into three major parts – the Anga, Pratyanga and Upānga

The six Angās -: Siras (head); Hasta (hand); Vakshas (chest); Pārshva (sides); Kati-tata (hips); and, Pāda (foot). Some consider Grivā (neck) to be the seventh

2) The six Pratyangās -: Skandha (shoulders);  Bāhu (arms);  Prusta  (back); Udara (stomach); Uru (thighs); Janghā (shanks).Some consider Manibandha   (wrist);  Kurpara (elbows) ; and, Jānu (knees) also as  Pratyanga

3) The twelve Upāngās or minor parts of the head or face which are important for facial expression.-: Druṣṭi (eyes) ; Bhrū (eye-brows);  Puta (pupil); Kapota (cheek); Nāsikā (nose); Adhara (lower-lip); Ostya (upper lip); Danta (teeth); Jihva (tongue) etc.

bhava

Source : Laws practice Sanskrit drama by Prof. S N Shastri

 

Vybhichari bhava 

Vybhichari-bhava or Sanchari-Bhavas are the complimentary or transitory psychological states. Bharata mentions as many as thirty-three transitory psychological states that accompany the Sthayi Bhava, the dominant Bhava, which causes Rasa.

Dhananjaya explains that the transitory states (vyabhicharin) are those that especially accompany the Permanent State (Sthayin) emerging from it and again receding back into it, like the waves in the ocean.

visesad abhimukhyena caranto vyabhicarinah sthayiny unmagna-nirmagnah kallola iva varidhau

The Sanchari-bhavas or Vybhichari-bhavas are enumerated as thirty in numbers; but, there is scope a few more. They are Nirveda (indifference); Glani (weakness or confusion); Shanka (apprehension or doubt) ; Asuya (envy or jealousy);  Mada  (haughtiness, pride); Shrama  (fatigue); Alasya (tiredness or indolence),  Dainya  (meek, submissive); Chinta (worry, anxiety); Moha (excessive attachment, delusion); Smriti (awareness, recollection); Dhrti (steadfast); Vrida (shame); Chapalata (Greed , inconsistency); Harsha (joy); Avega (thoughtless response, flurry); Garva (arrogance, haughtiness); Jadata (stupor, inaction); Vishada (sorrow, despair);  Autsuka   (longing); Nidra (sleepiness); Apsamra (Epilepsy); Supta (dreaming); Vibodh (awakening); Amasara (indignation); Avahitta(dissimulation);  Ugrata (ferocity); Mati (resolve); Vyadhi (sickness); Unmada (insanity); Marana (death); Trasa (terror); and, Vitarka (trepidation)

 **

Thus, Vibhāva indicates the cause, while Anubhāva is the performance of the bhāva as communicated through the Abhinaya. The more important Vibhāva and Anubhāva are those that invoke the Sthāyi bhāva, or the principle emotion at the moment. Thus, the Rasa-sutra states that the Vibhāva, Anubhāva, and Vyabhicāri bhāva together produce Rasa.

A complete understanding of the Vibhava (Hetu, cause) and Anubhava (karya, effect) can be had only experience of dealing (vyavahara-atah) with them – Hetu-karyat-manoh siddhis tayoh sam-vyavahara-atah

**

Sattvika Bhavas 

The Sattvika Bhavas are reflex actions or involuntary bodily reactions to strong feelings or agitations that take place in one’s mind. Sattvas are of eight kinds.

The Eight Sattivika-bhavas are; Stambhana (stunned into inaction);  Sveda (sweating);  Romancha (hair-standing on end in excitement); Svara-bheda (change of the voice or breaking of the voice); Vepathu (trembling); Vairarnya (change of colour, pallor); Ashru (shedding tears); and, Pralaya  (fainting) . These do help to enhance the effect of the intended expression or state of mind (Bhava). 

stambha svedo’tha romāñca svarabhedo’tha vepathu vaivaryam-aśru pralaya ityaṣṭau sātvikā sm 6.22

Dhananjaya explains the Sattvika Bhavas, the involuntary states (bhava sattvika = sattva- bhava) though they also are the effects, they are altogether separate from the other Bhavas, because they arise by themselves as the reflex actions or reactions to the emotional state of the person.

prthag bhava bhavanty anye anubhavatve api sattvikah sattvad eva samutpattes tac ca tadbhavabhavanam

**

Sthayi Bhavas

The Sthayi Bhavas, the dominant Bhavas, which are most commonly found in all humans, are said to be eight. Bharata lists these eight  Sthayibhavas  as:  Rati (love); Hasaa (mirth); Shoka (grief);  Krodha  (anger); Utsaha (enthusiasm or exuberance); Bhaya  (fear);  Jigupsa  (disgust)   ; and Vismaya (astonishment ).

rati-hāsaśca śokaśca krodho-utsāhau bhaya tathā jugupsā vismayaśceti sthāyibhāvā prakīrtitā  6. 17

Dhananjaya deviates from Bharata in defining Sthayibhava. In his view Sthayin (a permanent state), the source of delight, is one which is not interfered with by other psychological states whether consistent with it or inconsistent, but which brings the others into harmony with itself.

viruddhair aviruddhair va bhavair vicchidyate na yah atmabhavam nayaty anyan sa sthayi lavanakarah

Dhananjaya also lists Rati (Love); Uthsasa (exuberance); Jigupsa (disgust) ;Krodha (anger); Haasa (mirth); Vismaya (astonishment) ; Bhaya (fear) ; and, Shoka (sorrow) as the eight permanent states (Sthayi Bhavas)-Rati-utsaha-jugupsah-krodho-hasah-smayo-bhayam-sokah

And then he adds a line saying that some authorities include in this list Sama or Shanata (tranquillity); but, it cannot be developed in the Drama- Samam api ke cit prahuh pustir natyesu naitasya

Explaining the importance of Sthayi Bhava, Dhananjaya states that just as a  verb (Kriya)  when combined with a noun (Karaka)  is an essential part of a sentence, so also Sthayi Bhava, combined with other Bhavas, is indeed the essence of the play.

Vacya prakaranadibhyo buddhistha va yatha kriya vakyarthah karakair yukta sthSyi bhavas tathetaraih

The same idea is vividly expressed in the Natyashastra (7.8). Just as the king is superior to other mortals; and just as the Guru is superior to the students, so also the Sthayi, which is the shelter of others,  is superior to all other Bhavas in this world.

yatha naranatn nrpatih, sisyanam ca yaths guruh, evam hi sarvabhuvanam bhavah sthiyi mahan iha

Dhananjaya further explains: this very Sthayin becomes Rasa as the spectator (Rasika) views and absorbs it – rasah sa eva svadyatvad rasikasyaiva vartanat.

And, each of these Sthayibhavas gives rise to a RasaRati  to Srngara Rasa; Haasa – Hasya; ShokhaKaruna; KrodhaRaudra ; Utsaha – Vira; Bhaya– Bhayanaka; Jigupsa  – Bhibhatsa; and, Vismaya Adbhuta. Thus, the eight Sthāyi-bhāvas closely correspond to the eight Rasas.

śṛṅgāra-hāsya-karuṇā-raudra-vīra-bhayānakāḥ।bībhatsā-adbhuta saṃjñau cetyaṣṭau nāṭye rasāḥ smṛtāḥ ॥ 6.15

Dhananjaya remarks that responsive spectators, fired by enthusiasm and imagination, contribute to the success of the play in the manner of ‘children playing with clay elephants ‘. ” When children play with clay-elephants, etc., the source of their joy is their own utsaha (enthusiasm). The same is true of spectators watching and almost sharing the heroic deeds of characters, say like, Arjuna and other heroes on the stage.”

Kridatam mrnrnayair yadvad balanam dviradadibhih / svotsahah svadate tadvac chrotrnam Arjunadibhih.

The Sthayins are transformed into Rasa. And, it is called Rasa when their Vibhava, Anubhava and Vyabhicarins combine harmoniously with the Sthayin.  And, the Rasa is enjoyed by the spectators, who are cultured and aesthete. Such Rasa is not manufactured from concrete objects. But, it is the bliss of one’s own consciousness. In the enjoyment of the Rasa, both the subject (the spectator) and the object (Vibhava, Anubhava etc.,) are generalized (sadharanikarana). Our aesthetic identification (tanmayībhavana) with the character is a generalized experience (sadharanikarana), freed from the individual’s own identifications. And, in their universalised form, the Rasas evoked, are beyond the limitations of time and place disappear.

That is to say; while enjoying the aesthetic experience, the mind of the spectator is liberated from the obstacles caused by the ego and other disturbances. Thus transported from the limited to the realm of the general and universal, the spectators are capable of experiencing Nirvada, or blissfulness. In such aesthetic process, they are transported to a trans-personal level. This is a process of de-individual or universalization – the Sadharanikarana.

lotus-flower-and-bud

In regard to the Rasas, Bharata, initially, names four Rasas (Srngara, Raudra, Vira and Bhibhatsa) as primary; and, the other four as being dependent upon them. That is to say ; the primary Rasas, which represent the dominant mental states of humans, are the cause or the source for the production of the other four Rasas.

Bharata had explained that Hasya (mirth) arises from Srngara (delightful); Karuna (pathos) from Raudra (furious); Adbhuta (wonder or marvel) from the Vira (heroic); and, Bhayanaka (fearsome or terrible) from Bhibhatsa (odious).

śṛṅgārādhi bhaved hāsyo raudrā cca karuo rasa vīrā ccaivā adbhuto utpattir bībhatsā cca bhayānaka  6.39

Bharata , however, does not offer  theoretical explanations to say why he chose to highlight this particular set of eight Rasas. It likely that he was following a tradition that he inherited from his predecessors. Some scholars have , however, tried to explain Bhara’s scheme as representations of the basic instincts, tendencies  or genetic memories (Vasana) inherent in all human beings, as Sthayi-bhavas or Chitta vrttis

The other explanation is that Bharata’s scheme reflects the basic instinct in all living beings, which  is to seek pleasure and to move away from pain. The instincts of pleasure , in short, could be identified as the need for Love, laughter, enthusiasm, vigour  and amazement . And, one is , ordinarily, repelled by rather painful and tense emotions , such as anger, disgust, sorrow and fear.  These instincts and their related responses seem to be embedded in the consciousness of all beings.

And, when this reality of the inner working of the human experiences is organized systematically following a  design or a scheme of the Bhava -Rasas,  and presented through the medium of the technically perfect  Abhinaya of the stimuli (cause), responses ( effects) and the complimentary transitory states , the performance comes alive reaching forth to the minds and hearts of the spectators.

*

Dhananjaya, in his Dasarupa, followed the concepts and definitions provided by Bharata in the Natyashastra, with regard to the Bhavas, such as: the cause (Vibhava); consequents (Anubhava); and the transitory states (Vyabhicharibhava). He also agrees that the Rasa is produced through the integration of these Bhavas into the Sthayibhava.

Further, Dhananjaya accepts the four primary Rasas that Bharata identified i.e. śṛṅgāra (erotic); raudra (furious); vīra (heroic); and bibhatsa (odious). He also accepts the four other Rasas as being dependent on them. That is to say; the primary Rasas, which represent the dominant mental states of humans, are the cause or the source for the production of the other four Rasas.

According to Dhananjaya, as the Sthayin and other Bhavas pervade the mind of the spectator, the innate joy in him (atmananda) manifests as the Svada or the aesthetic enjoyment. And again, Dhananjaya says, the same kinds of charm (Svada) are also related to Hasya, Adbhuta, Bhayanaka and Karuna Rasas.

And therefore, Dhananjaya concludes that it could be said the four (Hasya, Adbhuta, Bhayanaka and Karuna) arise from the other four (Srngara, Vira, Bhibhatsa and Raudra) Rasas, respectively

Thus, Dhananjaya recognizes the eight forms of Rasas that Bharata had mentioned; but, he does not enumerate them again.  He merely sums up saying that the charm (Svada) in a poetic composition (Kavya), which one enjoys greatly (atmananda) is of four kinds (caturvidhah).  These give rise in the mind of the reader: Vikasa (cheerfulness); Vistara (exaltation); Kshoba (agitation); and, Vikshepa (perturbation). These four, in turn, are related to Srngara, Vira, Bhibhatsa and Raudra Rasas, respectively (kramat).

svadah kavyartha-sambhedad atmananda-samudbhavah vikasa-vistara-ksobha-viksepaih sa caturvidhah srhgara-vira-bibhatsa-raudresu manasah kramat – hasya-adbhuta-bhaya-utkarsa – karunanam ta eva hi atas tajjanyata tesam ata eva va adharanam.

krishnaradha-3

The Eight Rasas

As mentioned earlier, Dhananjaya discusses the Srngara rasa in fair detail;  and the rest in a comparatively brief manner.

Srngara rasa

Love (Rati) is essentially the delight marked by desire for lovely places, arts, occasions, garments, pleasures, and the like. That feeling on the part of two young persons, smitten with love, immersed in its sheer joy, when it is   manifested by tender gestures, constitutes the Srngara.

Ramya-desa-kala-kalavesa-bhogadi-sevanaih pramodatma ratih saiva yunor anyonya-raktayoh prahrsyamana srngaro madhura-anga-vicestitaih

However, the natures and functions of the Srngara Rasa are explained differently, by Bharata and Dhanañjaya. For instance; Bharata had said that the states like indolence (ālasya), cruelty (craurya) and disgust (jigupsā) are not applicable (bhāvaistu varjitā) to the erotic (śṛṅgāra) Rasa (NŚ.7.109).  But, Dhanañjaya mentions that though the states like indolence (ālasya), cruelty (ugrata), death (maraa) and disgust (jigupsā) are not independently applicable to the śṛṅgāra; yet, they are related to it indirectly, in one way or the other.

Referring to these tendencies of Alasya etc., Dhananjaya says that with skilful management of the eight Sattivika-bhavas, eight Sthayins and thirty-three Sancharins (a total of forty-nine states), these can be brought out in the Srangara rasa also.

Ye sattvajah sthayina eva castau triansat trayo ye vyabhicarinas ca, ekonapanc?§ad ami hi bhava yuktya nibaddhah pariposayanti alasyam augryam maranam jugupsa tasyasrayadvaitaviruddham istam.

Bharata had divided the Sṛṅgāra-rasa into two categories, i.e. Sambhoga (union) and vipralambha (separation). But, Dhanañjaya classifies the Srngara-rasa under three types, i.e. pain of separation before the union(Ayoga), separation after the union (Viprayoga) and union (Sambhoga)- Ayogo viprayogas ca sambhogas ceti sa tridha.

Of these three, Dhananjaya explains the Ayoga as the pain or the suffering that the lovers have to endure when they realize that there is hardly any prospect of being united, because of the intervention of others or by fate. 

tatrayogo ‘nurage ‘pi navayor ekacittayoh paratantryena daivad va viprakarsad asarrigamah

Viprayoga, is the forcible separation or asunder of the lovers, between whom a close intimacy has developed – Viprayogas tu visleso rudha-visram-ubhayor.

And, Sambhoga, the union, is that blissful state when the two playful lovers, in complete agreement come together, enjoy seeing each other, touching each other, and the like

anukulau nisevete yatranyonyam vilasinau darsanasparsanadini sa sambhogo mudanvitah

Under this section, Dhananjaya lists the subdivisions of the Ayoga, Viprayoga and Sambhoga.

: – The Ayoga, the separation, has ten stages. At first, there occurs in it longing (abhilasa); then anxiety (cintana); recollection (smrti); enumeration of the loved one’s merits (gunakatha); distress (udvega); raving (pralapa); insanity (unmada); fever (samjvara); stupor (jadata); and death (marana) .  These are its unfortunate stages, in due order. Then Dhananjaya gives the explanations for each of these ten stages of Ayoga.

: – The Viprayoga, the other kind of separation, is of two varieties: one brought about by resentment; and, the other by absence of the Lover.

The resentment between the two can take place because of fondness, when the lovers determine to be angry with each other. And, resentment can also take place because of jealousy, when the Lady Love is angry as she finds out that her lover is involved with another woman. Dhananjaya lists three possibilities for arousal of jealousy.

As regards the separation caused by the absence of the Lover, it could be because he is travelling (pravasa) on business; or because of misunderstanding or a curse. In such a case there is weeping, sighing, emaciation, letting the hair hang down, and the like.

: – The Sambhoga is the most delightful union of the lovers.It is said; although the two can create countless ways of enjoyment , those modes can be classified according to their degree. For instance ; (1) Sankshipta or brief: when the lovers meet at the end of purva-raga the mode of enjoyment is brief and tinged with initial reserve; (2) Sankirna or mixed: when they meet to reconcile their differences , it is an amalgam of sorrow, regret , great oy and immense  relief; (3) Sampurna or rich or full: when the lovers come together after being seperated for some time or being apart in distant places; and (4) Samruddha or exuberant : it is the joy when the come together after going through harrowing experiences or when when the lover returns safe and sound from a hard fought battle. All such pleasures are real (murta) as compared to the ones in dreams or in imagination (gauna-somboga).

Dhananjaya describes ten playful (Lila) and other actions of the Lady Love, according to her kindness, gentleness, and devotion to her lover.

Prabhas Milan

Vira Rasa

The Vira Rasa is induced by  power (pratapa), good conduct (vinaya), determination (dhyavasaya), courage, (sattva) infatuation (moha), cheerfulness (avisada), polity (naya), astonishment (vismaya), might (vikrama), and the like (as Vibhava, the cause), and is based on the Sthayi Bhava of  enthusiasm (Uthsaha).

Vira, the heroic Rasa is of three kinds, having benevolence, fighting, or liberality – Daya-ranad-anayogat tredha kilatra (as Anubhava). In it, there occur assurance, arrogance, contentment, and Joy (as Sanchari Bhava) – mati garva-dhrti-praharsah.

Virah pratapa-vinaya-dhyavasaya – sattva –moha-avisada-naya-vismaya-vikrama-dyaih  utsaha – bhuh sa ca daya –rana-danayogat tredha kilatra mati garva-dhrti-praharsah.

The Vira is broadly classified into four types : (1) Dana-vira ( generosity in giving away or bequeathing   gifts) ; (2) Daya -vira ( having boundless compassion to other beings); (3) Yuddha – vira (heroism or valour in the battle) ; and, (4) Dharma -vira (righteousness  and adherence to Dharma  and truthfulness (Satya)  , or  fulfilling ones word or promise , even while under great stress ).

But, this fourfold classification is considered rather arbitrary ; and, it can be extended to any number, to include Kshama ( forgiveness) , Prema (love ), Dhrti   ( courage) , Mati (reasoning ) and such other virtues.

**

Bibhatsa

The Bibhatsa Rasa, the odious, has the Sthayi Bhava of disgust (jugupsa) as its sole basis; it causes distress (udvega) chiefly by means of worms, stinking matter, and nausea. it causes horror by means of blood, entrails, bones, marrow, flesh, and the like. And, it causes unmixed aversion in the case of the hips, breasts, and so forth of women. It is accompanied by contraction of the nose, mouth, and so on as Anubhava. In it there occur agitation, sickness, apprehension, and the like (as Sanchari Bhava).

bibhatsah krmi-putigandhi-vamath-uprayair jugupsaikabhur udvega rudhira-antraki-kasavasa –mamsa-dibhih ksobhanah vairagyaj jaghana-stana-disu ghrna-suddho anubhavair vrto nasavaktra-vikunanadibhir ihavega -rtisank-adayah

According to Dhananjaya , Bibhatsa could be of three kinds : Kshobana (related to blood, intestines,marrow and such other ghastly substances); Udvegi (related to loathsome , repulsive scenes, putrid sights) ; and, Ghrna-suddha  (disgust, revulsion caused by anything ugly and horrific).

**

Raudra

The Sthayi Bhava of Anger (krodha) is caused by feelings such as: indignation and aversion to an enemy (as Vibhava); its Alambana is is the unforgivable wrong or treachery ; its Uddipana is the arrogance of the wrong-doer .  And , the resulting development of it is the Furious Raudra Rasa, a state of agitation accompanied by biting one’s lip, trembling, frowning, sweating, redness of the face, and also by drawing of weapons, holding the shoulders boastfully, striking the earth, vowing, and imprisonment (as Anubhava). In it , there occur the Sanchari Bhavas , such as: indignation, intoxication, recollection, inconstancy, envy, cruelty, agitation, and the like.

krodho matsara-  vairi-vaikrta-mayaih poso asya raudro anujah ksobhah svadharadamsa-kampa-bhrukuti-sveda-syarlgair yutah sastrollasa-  vikatthanamsadharanlghatapratijnagrahair atrama-rsamadau smrtis capala-tasuyaugrya-vegadayah   

   **

Hasya rasa

Mirth (haasa) is caused by one’s own  or another’s  strange actions, words, or attire; the development of this is said to be the Hasya rasa, which is of threefold origin.

vikrtakrtivagvesair atmano ‘tha parasya va hasah syat pariposo ‘sya hasyas triprakrtih smrtah

Mirth is of two kinds, since it may be provoked by some characteristic of the person amused (atmasta) or of another person (paratha) ; in either case , the mirthful individual may be one of the higher, middling, or lower characters in the play (hence the ‘threefold origin’ mentioned in the text). There are consequently six possible varieties of the Hasya Rasa.

The Sanchari Bhavas related to Hasya rasa are sleeping, indolence, weariness, weakness, and stupor –nidra –alasya-sramaglani-murchas ca sahacarinah.

In this connection, different kinds of smiles and laughter are described.

A gentle smile (smita) is opening the eyes wide; a smile (hasita) is showing the teeth to some extent; laughing (vihasita) is making a soft sound; laughter (upahasita) is the same, accompanied by shaking of the head; uproarious laughter (apahasita) is laughter accompanied by tears; and convulsive laughter (atlhasita—atihasita) is laughter with shaking of the body. Two of these varieties of laughter are characteristic of the higher; two of the middling; and, two of the lower characters, in the order named.

smitam iha vikasi-nayanam kirn cil laksya-dvijam tu hasitam syat madhura-svaram vihasitam sasirah-kampam idam upahasitam

apahasitarn sasraksarn vikasiptangam bhavaty atihasitam dve dve hasite caisam jyesthe madhye ‘dhame kraraasah.

**

Adbhuta

The Adbhuta rasa whose essence is the Sthayi Bhava of Vismaya (astonishment) is  the marvel , wonder and joy caused by supernatural things (as Vibhavas) ; it has as its result (karma) [i. e. As Anubhava] exclamations of surprise, weeping, trembling, sweating, and stammering; the Sanchari Bhavas , occurring in connection with it,  are generally joy, agitation, and contentment.

Atilokaih padarthaih syad vismayatma raso adbhutah karmasya sadhu-vad asru-vepathusveda-gadgadah harsa-avega-dhrtipraya bhavanti vyabhicarinah

**

Bhayanaka

The Bhayanaka, with fear, (bhaya) as its [Sthayi Bhava results  from change of voice, loss of courage, and the like (as Vibhava) ; it is characterized by trembling of all the limbs, sweating, being parched, and fainting [as Anubhava] ; its associated transitory states, the Sanchari Bhavas are:  depression, agitation, distraction, fright, and the like.

Vikrta-svara-sattvader bhaya-bhavo bhayanakah sarvanga-vepa-thus vedasosa-vaicittya-laksanah dainya –sambhrama-sammoha-trasadis tatsahodarah.

**

Karuna

The Karuna Rasa, the pathos, with the Sthayi Bhava of Sorrow (soka) as its essence, results from loss of something cherished ; or loss of a friend  or a dear one ; and when slapped with something undesired. In consequence of it there occur heaving of sighs, drawing of sighs, weeping, paralysis, lamentation, and the like (as Anubhava) ; the Sanchari Bhava , occurring in connection with it, are sleeping, epilepsy, depression, sickness, death, indolence, agitation, despair, stupor, insanity, anxiety, and so forth

istanliad anistapteh sokatma karuno anu tam nihsvas-ucchvasa-rudita- stambha     -pralapita-dayah sva-papa-smara-dainya-dhi-marana-alasya-sambhramah visada-jada-tonmada-cintadya -vyabhicarinah

Rasa according to Bharata

Shanta rasa

Bharata had not mentioned Shanta or Sama or Nirveda (tranquillity) as one among the eight Rasas. But, later, the commentators such as Abhinavagupta and Ānandavardhana have accepted the Shanta as a Rasa.

Dhananjaya also accepts the Sama as a Rasa (Sama-prakarsa, Shanta-rasa) , which arises from happiness and the like; and, it  is to be defined as a state having happiness (mudita) as its essential nature – samaprakarso nirvacyo muditades tadatmata. But, he does not discuss it in detail.

Dhanañjaya, however, remarks that though some have accepted the Sama (tranquillity) as an independent Rasa, it can be applied only in the poetry (Sravya kāvya); but, it cannot be developed in the drama (śamamapi kecitprāhu puṣṭir nāyeu na tasya –4.35).

In this respect, Dhananjaya differs from his predecessors like Ānandavardhana and Abhinavagupta. Jagannatha also believed that scenic art could inspire Shanta Rasa.

lotus-flower-and-bud

Conclusion

Dhananjaya concludes Book Four with a very well balanced comprehensive statement:

Whether one takes a subject that is delightful or disgusting; exalted or lowly; cruel or kindly; obscure  or adapted ; or whether one take a subject created by the imagination of a poet, there is no subject that cannot succeed in conveying the Rasa among mankind.

ramyam jugupsitam udaram athapi ntcam ugram prasadi gahanam vikrtam ca vastu yad va apya vastu kavi-bhavaka-bhavya-manam tan nasti yan na Rasabhavam upaiti loke

ashtalakshmi2 (1)

Sources and References

The Dasarupa a treatise on Hindu dramaturgy by George C. O. Haas, Columbia University press / 1912

 A Study of Abhinavabharati on Bharata’s Natyasastra and Avaloka on Dhananjaya’s Dasarupaka – by Manjul Gupta

Sahityadarpanah of Viswanathakavirajah

The Theory of the Samdhis and the Samdhyangas in Natya Shastra by T.G. Mainkar

Sanskrit Dramaturgy

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/48454/21/21_chapter%2021.pdf

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/106901

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/122/18/09_chapter1.pdf

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/22886/6/06_chapter%202.pdf

http://www.jstor.org/stable/25220898?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/29228/11/11_chapter%202.pdf

All images are from Internet

 

                                                                                                                  

 

 
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Concerning the Dasarupa of Dhananjaya – Part Seven

Continued from Part Six

Dasarupa of Dhananjaya

BOOK THREE – continued

Dima, Vyayoga, Samavakara , Ihamrga and Utsrstikanka

Battle-of-Kurukshetra-Manuscript-Illustration

In the earlier parts we have discussed about the two major forms of Rupakas – Nataka and Prakarana – which assimilated into their own features many elements taken from the other forms; and, emerged as genre of authentic works of theatrical art.

Following that, we also talked about three other forms of Rupaka, which perhaps belonged to pre-classical times, viz., Bhana, Vithi and Prahasana, depicted in the eloquent Bharati Vritti and the pleasing Kaisiki Vrtti; and , having shades of Srngara , Hasya and Vira Rasas. These are, generally, characterized by their gentler (Sukumara) mode of presentation, which is closer to the popular theatre.

The remaining categories are shorter and more narrowly focused.  The Samavakara and Ihamrga, for instance, use fewer than five Acts; and, are exclusively about divine characters.  Furthermore, in the Ihamrga type of plays, the overwhelming concern and contest is for, somehow, winning a woman’s love.

The Vyayoga and Utsrstikanka are one-Act plays, depicting only the events that take place within the course of a single day.  The Anka or Utsrstikanka is soaked in tears, sorrow and lamentation of women over their men slain in the battle.

All these five types of plays also seem to be related to one other, in some ways. Abhinavagupta says that Vyayoga is a sort of an extension of the Dima, since both have certain similar features.  And, Ihamrga follows Samavakara, because like the latter, the characters in it are also divine beings. The Rupakas that follow Ihamrga, all have, in the main, male celestial characters.

The Samavakara, the Dima, the Ihamrga and the Vyayoga are very similar to each other. Bharata refers to the other two while describing each of this. Further, he treats the Ihamrga as similar to the Vyayoga; and, the Vyayoga as similar to Samavakara.

 Further, while all those types of Rupakas depict conflict, battle and violence, the Anka vividly demonstrates the dismay and the disastrous consequences that war and cruelty brings upon women in particular and the society , in general.

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In the present post, we shall, mainly, look at four kinds of plays – Dima, Vyayoga, Samavakara and Ihamrga – involving aggressive and violent actions; and, therefore classified as Aviddha (aggressive) types. And, in the end , we shall also touch upon the Anka.

According to Bharata: ‘the plays which require energetic, aggressive (Sattava-viddha) gestures (Angahara) and vigorous dance movements (Tandava), do involve such violent representations as: challenging, cutting, piercing, wounding and smashing etc. At times, the elements of magic, sorcery etc may also be introduced to heighten the effects of mystery, supernatural and revulsion. In order to provide a suitable setting for such dark actions, the props, the background (pusta), the costumes and make-up (Aharya) may also be devised and modified, as required.

The plays of the Aviddha type which are built around themes depicting duels, combats, fights etc., are, naturally, dominated by male characters that portray heroic gods or kings and their foes. Both the rivals need to be haughty and strong, as also be endowed with courage and vitality.  The heroes (Nayaka), usually, are the gods or noble humans; and, the anti-heroes (Prathi-nayaka) are the Asuras, Danavas and Rakshasas.   And, there are very few female characters in such action-oriented plays. Further, women do not get involved in the fights; although, the fight, in most cases, is about ’who gets her’.  But, in end, it is the women who have to bear and suffer the consequences of such hostility and violence.

The battles that were fought were usually  between gods and demons. And, the battle scenes occupied most of the Aviddha type of plays.

Another notable feature of the Aviddha type of plays is their style of presentation and dialogue-delivery (Vrtti), which, it could be said, is the blend of Sattavati and Arabhatti.

The Sattvati Vrtti is described as a rather flamboyant style of expressing ones agitated emotions with excessive body-movement; exuberant expressions of joy; and, underplaying mellow or sorrow moods.  It is associated with the ViraAdbhuta and Rauidra Rasas (vire sattvaty), where the contestants rise up to the conflict with excitement (Uttpatha) passionately hurling torrent of abuses and challenge at each other (Samlapaka) with contempt.

And, the battle proper was fought in the Arabhati-vrtti, which is described as a loud, rather noisy and energetic spectacular style. It is a powerful exhibition of one’s anger, valour, bordering on false-pride, by screaming, shouting, particularly, in tumultuous scenes with overwhelming tension, disturbance and violence. It is associated with Raudra (furious) and Bhibhatsa (odious) Rasas (arabhati punah rase raudre ca bibhatse). The Arabhati is also attended with feats of jugglery, conjunction and conflicting situations, where bodily actions are prominent.

  DFRMOHEPIYA1

***

Now, from the general characteristics of the Aviddha performances, let’s move on to their  particular varieties. And, let’s commence with the Dima.

6 The Dima

Dime vastu prasiddham syad vrttayah kaisikim vina / netaro deva gandharva yaksa rakso mahoragah / bhuta preta pisacadyah sodasa-tyantam uddhatah /  rasair ahasya-srngaraih sadbhir diptaih samanvitah / rnaye indrajala sarngrama krodho-dbhrantadi cestitaih / candra suryo-paragais ca nyayye raudra rase angini / caturahkas catuhsa rndhir  nirvimarso dimah smrtah

destroyer of cities of Asuras

The Dima along with Samavakara, Ihamrga and Vyayoga belongs to the variety of the vigorous style of plays (action-oriented), which are connected with themes of battles. The Dima too involves causing injury (samghata). It is related to battles and violent actions , where the hero inflicts injury on his foes. Bharata refers to the episode of the  Burning of the Tripura (Tripura Dahana) – where Shiva as Tripurantaka burns down three cities – as being a suitable subject for a  Dima kind of play (idam Tripura ; tatas  Tripura) . The Dima, perhaps, belonged to an earlier stage in the development of the Sanskrit Drama.

The theme of the Dima is based (kāvyayoni) on any mythological event or a celebrated historical person. The hero is well-known; and, is noble. The story is complex. There are sixteen heroes and subsidiary heroes; and, they are shown at different stages of the play. The heroic Nayaka is the leading character in the play. But, such types as gods, serpent kings, angels, Yaksha etc., also figure in the play.

Dhananjaya says: ‘In the Dima, the subject must be well-known (vastu prasiddham); all the Vrttis (styles) may be employed in it; but, not the Kaisiki Vrtti (graceful).  Its exalted (Udatta) Heroes who fight for justice (Dharma), six-teen in number, should be gods, Gandharvas, Yaksas, Raksasas, Mahoragas, Bhutas, Pretas, Pisacas, and the like. All of such are of the violent type known as Raudra.

The Dima contains the six exciting Rasas (sentiments); but, not the Hasya (comic) and the Srngara (erotic). The principal exciting (dīpta) Rasa of the Dima is Raudra (the furious).

Abhinavagupta says that the Dima has all elements that are in the Nataka; the difference being that in the Dima, the Samdhis and Rasas are incomplete, having neither the introduction nor the pause. A Dima cannot have graceful and pleasing Rasas like Srngara and Hasya (though there might be a possibility of Shanta at the end) … (Some texts mention of the presence of Dipta-rasa a combination of love and humour, in the Dima plays,)

The theme of the Dima would be about dissention (bheda) among the contestants, battles, angry conflicts and furious personal combats. There is much shouting, screaming and hurling curses (Arabhati and Sattavati vrttis) in great pride and anger.

The Dima abounds in such the elements as magic, sorcery, deceit, jugglery, wrath, excitement and the like. There may also be occurrences of the earthquakes, eclipses of the sun and moon. The Dima is structured in four Acts and four Samdhis (junctures); and, there would be no introductory scene (Pravesika), and no pause (Amavarsa) between the junctures.

Abhinavagupta treats the terms Dima, Dimba and Vidrava (intense agitation) as synonyms; because they all are related to conflict, combat and violence. He observes that the Dima type of plays which provide , in plenty, the excitement of furious action; passionately screaming and shouting; and, strong determination to vanquish the foe , are truly fascinating in their own manner. Many, particularly the young, would love watching such powerful, spectacular scenes of furious energetic activity.  Further, the Dima kind of plays lends ample scope for display of wide range of psychological states (Bhavas).

And yet, the ima did not seem to have been a popular type of drama, in ancient times or in medieval period.

Tripura Dahana by Vatsaraja is cited as a good example of the Dima. Further, Kṛṣṇavijaya and Manmathon-mathanam by Veṅkaṭavarada and Rāma are also cited as examples of the Dima.

For more on Dima, please click here.

Tripurasura samharam

  1. The Vyayoga

Khyateti-vrtto vyayogah khyato-uddhata-narairayah / hino garbha-vimarsabhyarn diptah syur dirnavad rasah / astri-nimitta-samgramo jamadagnyajaye yatha / ekaha-caritaika-anko vyayogo bahubhir naraih //

Madhyama Vyayogam”

This kind of drama is called Vyāyoga because many men disagree with one another (Vyayujyante); and, fight among themselves. The battle, personal combat, duel, challenge and angry conflict etc., form the theme of a Vyayoga.  The Vyayoga is a martial spectacle in which the hero is a well-known sage-like king, Rajarsi (but not a god), or army chiefs or ministers. And, they are not Udattas (exalted); but, are proud and haughty (uddhata) men fighting, wrestling, quarrelling, pushing and pulling to defeat the foe. The main part of the plot must relate to a battle or a duel or a challenge thrown by a warrior to another, to prove his excellence. And, the entire action should have taken place within the course of a day.

As in the case of the Victory of Parasurama (Jamadagnya) – an example for this category – the battle that is fought is neither for a woman, nor was it caused by a woman (astri-nimitta-samgramo). The Vyayoga features many men (as many as twelve); but, has very few women characters. The intervention of women in the battle is also ruled out.

Dhananjaya mentions that a Vyayoga should have a well-known subject (Khyateti-vrtto); and, its principal characters, taken from the epics, should be heroic men, well-known and vehement (khyato-uddhata-narairayah). Dhananjaya deviates from Bharata in mentioning its characters to be vehement.

A Vyayoga should be composed with a plot having exciting events exuding the combination (diptarasas) of the exciting heroic (Vira) and the furious (Raudra) sentiments. There is no place here for the tender and mirthful Rasas like Srngara and Hasya. And, in a similar manner, there is no scope here for the graceful Kaisiki Vrtti. The two Vrttis employed in the Vyayoga are the Sattvati Vrtti (flamboyant style) and the Arabhati-vrtti (loud, rather noisy and energetic style).

As regards the structure of a Vyayoga, the single incident of strife and struggle depicted in it should take place within the duration of only one day. It is a one-Act play. A Vyayoga is constructed with three Samdhis (junctures): the first two (Mukha-the opening; and Pratimukha- the progression) and the last one (Upasamhrti-the conclusion). It does not have the other two Samdhis: the Garbha (Development) and Avamarsa (pause).

The Madhyama-vyayoga by Bhasa is cited as the best example of a Vyayoga, along with Duta Ghatotkacha and Duta Vakyam.

 [For more on Vyayoga, please click here.]

***

  1. The Samavakara

karyam samavakare api amukham natakadivat / khyatam devasuram vastu nirvimarsas tu samdhayah / vrttayo mandakaisikyo netaro devadanavah / dvadasodattavikhyatah phalam tesam prthak prthak / bahuvirarasah sarve yadvad ambhodhimanthane/ankais tribhis trikapatas trisrngaras trividravah/dvisamdhif arikah prathamah karyo dvadasanalikah / caturdvinalikav antyau nalika ghatikadvayam / vastusvabhavadaivarikrtah syuh kapatas trayah / nagaroparodhayuddhe vatagnyadikavidravah / dharmarthakamaih srngaro natra bindupravesakau / vlthyangani yathalabham kuryat prahasane yatha //

deva asura

This kind of drama is called Samavakara because , various themes are scattered about (samavakiryante) in it. Abhinavagupta explains Samavakara (sam-ava-kra) as a play where the various themes are scattered and loosely connected (samavakīryante’-asminnarthā iti samavakāra). But, its Acts are not well interrelated to each other. It is a unique type of drama.

The theme of the Samavakara is concerned with the means of obtaining the desired objective, worthy of gods and Asuras. It portrays one famous (Prakhyata) and noble (Udatta) hero of the exalted (dhīrodātta) type amongst the twelve subsidiary heroes (Pathaka Nayaka), including gods, demons, and the like. The ends attained by these are separate and quite distinct; as, for example, in the episode of Churning of the Ocean (Samudra- manthana), Vishnu gets Lakshmi, while other gods get different things; and, the Asuras get, virtually, nothing. Bharata mentions Amrta-manthana, as an example of Samavakara.

The subject of Samavakara is partly derived from mythical lore, and partly created by the poet’s imagination (kalpita-vastu). The events that caused (Bija) discord and brewed distress between the clans of the Devas and Asuras, leading to their strives, quarrel and battles, form the part of the story. The Samavakara falls under the category of vigorous action-oriented plays (Aviddha prayoga), because it is a variety of supernatural Drama abounding in fights, combats , disturbances  and excitement etc., along with depiction of floods, storm, fire or siege of a city.

It is believed that the well-known tales narrating the battles among gods, demons and humans that might have taken place in the bygone Vedic era served as inspiration for Samavakara type of Dramas. The first Drama staged by Bharata and his sons depicting the battles between Devas and the Asuras bears a striking resemblance to the Samavakara type of play (NS.1.59). The next play of Bharata titled as Samudra-manthana was, in fact, specifically cited as a Samavakara. And, Bharata mentions that he preformed that Drama in the interest of attaining Dharma, Kama and Artha (NS.4.3)., the three  primary pursuits of human life – Trivarga. That suggests, this genre was among the earliest forms of Drama.

yo’ya samavakārastu dharma-kāmā-artha-sādhaka mayā prāggrathito vidvansa prayoga prayujyatām 4.3

The characters in a Samavakara are highly charged and are of haughty temperament. The dominant Rasa is the combination (dipta) of Vira and Raudra; although, at times, the shades of Srngara Rasa may be touched upon, as, for instance, Srngara of Dharma, of Artha and of Kama. The contestants fight bitterly with valour and hostility. Tempests, combats, and the storming of towns, are also represented; and, all the pride and pomp of war, horses, elephants, and chariots also add to the spectacle of Samavakara

The Samavakara, featuring a well-known story shows (apart from the exploits of gods and Asuras) the means to attain the three goals of life, namely Dharma (merit), Artha (material prosperity) and Kama (pleasure)-(trivarga-updya- pradartanat). It is constructed in three Acts; with four Samdhis (junctures) – Mukha, Pratimukha, Garbha and Nirvahana; but, does not have the pause (Amavarsa). It employs all the Vrittis (styles), but with just a passing shade of the gentle Kaisiki Vritti, because there is no scope here for songs, dances etc. The Samavakara do not have either the introductory scene ((Bija) or its expansion (Bindu). Therefore, one may employ the subdivisions of the Vithi type (street-play) in it, according to one’s requirements. As regards its Rasa, the heroic (Vira) and the furious (Raudra) are the dominant Rasas, with just a suggestion of Srngara. It is said; in the Samavakāra, the playwright should make proper use of metres (Chhandas) other than Uṣṇik and Gāyatrī etc., which are complex.

A significant feature of the Samavakara type is that its plot in the three Acts need not be a connected whole.  All three acts have specific order; but, are not strictly related to each other. The different Acts have different topics. They are, practically, three isolated parts of a whole. Each Act has its own theme; and, each could be an independent Drama. The Samavakara, in each of its three Acts, works at three different levels.

The Samavakara could also be viewed as a trilogy of one-Act plays united by being enacted one after another. But, the uniqueness of this multi-act Drama is that though its plot is divided into three distinct parts, as it evolves, it manages to retain unity of action throughout the play. Samavakara, is therefore, is explained as such a kind of a play where many scattered themes, finally, connects to each other (sagatair avakīraiśca arthai kriyate iti samavakāra). That appears to be the reason why the Samavakara is considered as a three-Act play.

The whole of Samavakara is structured in triads. It has three Acts. In its three Acts, it presents three kinds of deception, three kinds of love, and three kinds of excitement. Each of those three elements, in turn, gives rise to three sets of events, causes, and effects. The Samavakara also speaks of Trivarga, the three major concerns of human existence (Dharma, Artha and Kama). Perhaps, such triple composition of the Samavakara had some symbolism built into it. I am not sure.

Another interesting feature of the Samavakara is that the total duration of the play and each of its Acts is specified in Natyashastra. It is said; the three Acts of a Samavakara, played in succession, should take about 18 units of Nadikas. And, a Nadika is half of a Mahurta; and a Mahurta equates to a 48-minute-period. Thus, a Nadika would be 24 minutes long. And, the total duration of a Samavakara play would be 432 minutes or 7 hours and 20 minutes.

The Act One, which is the longest, with twelve Nadikas, takes about five hours. The Act two, with four, Nadikas, takes slightly over an hour and a half. And, that leaves less than an hour to the Act Three which has two Nadikas, to conclude the play. The Samavakara is, thus, structured to resemble a cow’s tail (Gau-puccha) growing narrower and pointed towards the end.

**

According to Natyashastra, the Samavakara shall be composed of the events which served as the seed (bija) of discontent between Devas and Asuras. It shall be glorious , sublime and devoid of sadness (prakhyatodattanka); and, shall comprise three parts for presenting three kinds of deception (Kapata), three kinds of agitation or excitements (Vidrava) and three kinds of Love (Srngara) .

Devā-asura-bījakta prakhyātodāttanāyaka-ścaiva tryakas-tathā tri-kapaas-trividrava syāt-tri-śṛṅgāra 18. 63

Further, the Natyashastra prescribes that the First Act of the Samavakāra shall contain three elements: Prahasana (laughter); Vidrava (excitement); and, Kapata (deception) or a Vīthi (the subdivisions of the Vithi type, according to one’s requirements, as in Prahasana).

Then follows the Second Act, containing the same elements as in the first; but, limited to four Nadikas.

And, the Third Act of two Nadikas, shall contain elements according to the requirements of the plot (Vastu)

It should be ensured that the topic of one Act shall differ from the topics of the other two Acts; but in some way be related (prati-sandhana) to the others.

ako’kastvanyārtha kartavya kāvyabandhamāsādya artha hi samavakāre hya pratisambandham-icchanti 18.69

Further, the Natyashastra says that the three elements-Kapata (deception); Vidrava (agitation or excitement); and Srngara (love) – shall each, in turn, consist three parts.

Thus, Vidrava, the disturbances, agitation or excitement may be caused by three types of circumstances due to : (1) battle and water (yuddha jala); (2) wind, fire and big elephant (vayavya-Agni-gajendra-sambhrama); or,(3) the siege of the city (nagaroparodha)  (NS. 18.70)

yuddhajalasambhavo vā vāyvagnigajendrasabhramakto vā nagaroparodhajo vā vijñeyo vidravastrividha 70

The Kapata (deceit) of three kinds may be due to:  (1) one’s own schemes or plans, bad-luck or accident; or (2) divine will (devavasa) ; or (3) stratagem of the enemy causing happiness or misery (NS.20,71)

Vastugata-krama-vihito devavaśādvā paraprayukto vā sukha-dukho utpatti-ktas-trividha kapao ‘tra vijñeya 71

As regards the third, the Srngara, the Love, it could also be of three kinds ,  as prescribed by the sages in three ways , shall have three kinds –  (1) that which is born by virtue , adhering to one’s duty,  desiring for  well-being of all  is  Dharma- Dharma samgraha; (2) indulging in various activities merely for love of  money or acquiring  objects is   ArthaArtha samgraha ; and,  (2) a loveless seduction of a maiden , having an affair with another woman  for mere satisfaction of passion or physical urge  is  KamaKama samgraha (NS.18.72)

trividhaścātra vidhijñai pthakpthakkāryavihitārtha śṛṅgāra kartavyo dharme cārthe ca kāme ca 72

To sum up:  The three kinds of deception could be those caused by (i) the nature of the subject; (ii) supernatural action; and by (iii) enemies;  the three kinds of excitement could be those resulting from  (i) the besieging of a city; (ii) a battle; and (iii) violent winds, fires, and the like ; and,   the three kinds of love could be triggered or motivated by (i) virtue or merit; (ii) greed or the love to gain money and objects; and  (iii)  unrestrained passion.

[Abhinavagupta adds one more dimension to the issue.  While interpreting the three kinds of Vidrava, he says, it could also be taken as tumult caused by the animate (humans, elephants etc); inanimate (wind, fire , water etc); and by both (siege of the city by elephants , chariots and humans) agencies.  He extends similar interpretations to the other two elements: Kapata and Srngara.]

It is explained; performing ones duty with diligence, observing vows and practicing austerities for the purpose of attaining the desired state of well-being is to be known as love in performing ones duty (Dharma-śṛṅgāra).

When one acts with a desire to secure financial benefit , or to gain some material gain or is simulated by  passion for merely seeking pleasure with a woman, it is to be known as ones  love for  possessing or acquiring  (Artha- Srngara).

And, when one seduces a woman or takes advantage of her or enjoys a woman stealthily with unbridled passion, without love or concern for her, it is to be known the desire to quench ones passionate impulses (Kama-Srngara).

**

The Samavakara appears to be an earlier form of Drama. But, over a period it lost its appeal; and, it no longer was popular. After the ancient Amrta-manthana, the play of Vatsarāja (Samudra-manthana) is the most well known Samavakara class of play. No other plays of such class seemed to have been composed in the later times.

Abhinavagupta does not seem to think very highly of the Samavakara. Before concluding his commentary on Samavakara, he says: persons of devout nature; and the devotees of gods get delight out of this type of production; while,   women, children and the ignorant get enraptured by the  exciting  spectacle of deception , tumult, fighting  etc.

Though the Samavakara is not rated as high as the Nataka and the Prakarana, it is still important, not only because it represents a significant phase in the history of the development of Sanskrit Drama ; but also, because of the technique that is involved in its construction.

{For more on Samavakara , please click here.]

***

  1. The Ihāmrga

Misram Ihamrge vrttam caturahkam trisamdhimat / Nara-divyav aniyaman nayaka-pratinayakau/ khyatau dhiroddhatav antyo viparyasad ayukta-krt / divya-striyam anicchantim apaharadin-ecchatah/ srngarabhasam apy asya kimcit pradarsayet samrambham param aniya yuddham vyajan nivarayet vadhapraptasya kurvita vadham naiva mahatmanah //

rukminiharanam

It is said; this kind of a play is called Ihamrga, because in it, the hero relentlessly pursues (Ihate) a woman who is as elusive as a swiftly flying gazelle (mrga); and, it is very difficult to get her.

The Ihāmrga is a play of intrigue in four Acts (caturahkam), having three junctures (trisamdhimat). Its story might partly be based on a well-known episode in mythology; and, partly be made up or created by the playwright (Itivrttam). Its hero (Nayaka) and subsidiary-hero (Prati-nayaka) could either be human (Nara) or Divine (Nara-divyav aniyaman nayaka-pratinayakau). Both should be of the outstanding, prominent (khyatau) vehement (uddhata) persons of the Dhiroddhata type. The adversary is as capable as the hero; but, commits improper acts by mistake or foolishness (viparyasad ayukta-krt).

The heroine is a celestial beauty (divya-stri). The principal male characters in the play fight bitterly over the woman. Either or both the rivals might attempt to secure her, against her will (anicchantim apaharadin-ecchatah), by abducting her or by some such means. Such hostile acts make the heroine get very angry. The verses in the play depict the anger (avega) of women.  The struggles (saphea) that ensues between the rivals gives rise to much confusion, commotion (sakobha) excitement (vidrava) and furious battle.

Though hostile wrath is provoked and there is intense hostility, which reaches up to the point of killing, the playwright should ensure that it does not lead to death of either of the great opponents. Even in case someone dies in the original story, based on which the plot of the play was created, the playwright should avoid showing incidence of  the impending battle and death in the play, on one pretext or the other- yuddham vyajan nivarayet vadhapraptasya kurvita vadham naiva mahatmanah.

Bharata instructs that the play should be constructed with a well-arranged and a convincing plot (Vipratyayakarahah).

Dhananjaya says: “All that are to be made available in the Vyāyoga—its male characters, styles and sentiments—should be brought in the Īhāmga also, except that the latter is to include only the divine female characters”.

The Ihamrga is to be structured in four Acts, with three junctures (Samdhi)- Mukha ( opening), Prathi-mukha ( expansion) and Nirvahana ( conclusion).

Its styles of presentation are the Sattavati and Arabhatti Vrttis, which are the characteristics of the aggressive Aviddha type of plays. The gentle Kaisiki Vrtti should strictly be avoided.

So far as its actions are concerned, the Vira, Raudra and Bhayanaka are prominent Rasas, though there are three other Rasas. And, in Dhananjaya’ s view , only a slight semblance of love  (Srngara) should be shown on the part of one who tries to obtain a woman against her will by carrying her off or some such means.

The Rukmini-haranam by Vatsyaraja is said to be a good example of the Ihamrga type of Rupaka.

 [For a detailed discussion on Ihamrga, please click here.]

***

  1. Utsrstikanka

utsrstikanke prakhyatam vrttam buddhya prapancayet rasas tu karunah sthayi netarah prakrta narah bhanavat samdhivrttyahgair yuktah striparidevitaih vaca yuddham vidhatavyam tatha jayaparajayau.

horrors-of-war

It is said; this type of Rupaka is called Utsrstikanka merely for the purpose of clearly distinguishing it from Anka (or an Act), which term denotes a division in a play.

The Utsrstikanka is a sort of an epilogue which follows the end of a battle. It is a pathetic depiction of the wailing widows and other women weeping over their husbands, lovers and sons who were slain in the battle. Its main theme is lamentation and despondent cries, shrieks and utterances (nirveditabhāṣitaḥ); and, the bewildered movements of the mourners, in shock and grief,   in the aftermath of a violent battle that just ended.

Abhinavagupta says the Utsrstikanka does, in fact, strongly brings home the disastrous consequences of violence and war. And, in that, it should serve as an object lesson for all those who believe that war alone is the means to resolve all disputes.

Abhinavagupta, therefore, says that the Utsṛṣṭikāka should follow, as a sequel to Samavakāra, Ihāmga, ima and Vyāyoga, which depict the horror and violence of battle scenes – (utkramaīyā sṛṣṭirjīvitam prāā yāsām tā utsṛṣṭikā śocantya striyast aābhir-akita iti tathoktā )

A well known (prakhyāta) episode from a mythological source or , as suggested by Dhananjaya, a story-line created (utpādya) by the playwright could be the plot of an Utsṛṣṭikāka type of play. Its principal character should be a male, human or someone other than a divine being (divya), because the Utsṛṣṭikāka it is full of pathos, the Karuna Rasa (karua-rasa-bāhulyā). Therefore, Karuna is the principal Rasa of the Utsṛṣṭikāka. And, according to Abhinavagupta, only in case it has elements of Raudra (furious), Bhibhatsa (odious) or Bhayanaka (fearsome) Rasas, it can have divine characters in the leading roles – (iha ca karua-rasa-bāhulyā-deva devair-viyoga raudra-bībhatsa-bhayānaka sabandho- divyayoge -na bhavatyapi tu karuay-oga ).

Dhananjaya, however, suggests that in the Utsṛṣṭikāka, could even the ordinary men could be the heroes.

The Utsṛṣṭikāka, which is constructed as a one-Act play (ekanka) with two junctures (Samdhi) – the opening (Mukha) and the conclusion (nirvahaa) – , does not depict actions such as battles etc. Its mode of narration is based almost entirely in speech; and, it follows the verbal style (Bhāratī-vtti). Dhanañjaya states that the events like fights, battles or victory or defeat etc., should merely be suggested by means of descriptive speeches.

The treatment of the subject in Utsṛṣṭikāka in natural and realistic (Loka-dharmī), just in the way the common people behave, ordinarily,   in their lives. The speech in the scenes depicting the anxiety, despair, stupor and lamentation of the sobbing women should convey the sense of deep sorrow, disgust and despair.  There is no place in the Utsṛṣṭikāka for the kind of speech such as the aggressive Arabhaī-vtti, the grand Sāttvatī-vtti or for the pleasing Kaiśikī-vtti.

The dominant Bhavas in the Utsṛṣṭikāka are said to be Shoka (sorrow) and Jigupsa (disgust), which, in turn, give rise to Rasas such as the Karuna (pathos) and Bhibhatsa (odium) .

It is explained; the death of valiant men is the main cause of action (Alambana Vibhava); the mourners falling on the ground, weeping, howling  and heaving is the manifestation of that sorrow and despair (Anubhava); the denunciation of fate, cursing the enemy, recalling with fondness the dead heroes etc., are the transitory expressions of their grief (Sanchari Bhava); and , falling sick , shedding tears, swooning, trembling,  going pale  etc., are the involuntary reactions to the misery, anguish and grief they are suffering (Sattvika Bhava).

The Bhibhatsa Rasa of horror or loathing is manifested in disgust; and, its associated states of agitation, sickness, apprehension, and the like.

The Ūrubhaga by Bhāsa, which followed almost all the rules of theyaśāstra, is said to be the best example of the Utsṛṣṭikāka type of Rupaka.

For a detailed study of Utsṛṣṭikāka, please click here

p1140060

Dhananjaya concludes the Third Book with the statement :  if a playwright, having gained the proper understanding or the essence of Natyashastra,  diligently applies to his work the series of definitions of the ten forms of drama (Dasarupa) as prescribed in the Natyashastra; and, if he also studies the works of great poets, he would undoubtedly be able to produce, without effort, a literary work of great merit that is adorned with rhetorical embellishments (Alamkara), sweetness (Madhurya), clarity (Prasada), loveliness (Lavanya) and eloquence (Abhijata) , composed in leisurely paced (Manda-kranta) metres.

Ittham vicintya dasarupaka-laksma-margam / alokya vastu paribhavya kavi-prabandhan / kuryad ayatnavad alamkrtibhih prabandham / vakyair udara madhuraih sphuta manda vrttaih //

***

In the next Part, we shall, at last, move on to the Fourth and the Final Book of the Dasarupa.

Cover_of_a_Shakta_Manuscript_with_Uma-Maheshvara_

Continued

In

The Next Part

Sources and References

The Dasarupa a treatise on Hindu dramaturgy by George C. O. Haas, Columbia University press / 1912

 A Study of Abhinavabharati on Bharata’s Natyasastra and Avaloka on Dhananjaya’s Dasarupaka – by Manjul Gupta

Sahityadarpanah of Viswanathakavirajah

The Theory of the Samdhis and the Samdhyangas in Natya Shastra by T.G. Mainkar

Sanskrit Dramaturgy

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/48454/21/21_chapter%2021.pdf

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/106901

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/122/18/09_chapter1.pdf

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/22886/6/06_chapter%202.pdf

http://www.jstor.org/stable/25220898?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/127505/9/chapter%208.pdf

All images are from Internet

 
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Concerning the Dasarupa of Dhananjaya – Part Six

Continued from Part Five

Dasarupaka of Dhananjaya

BOOK THREE – continued

 Bhana, Vithi and Prahasana

NKN-09

Of the ten forms of Sanskrit Drama (Rupakas), we have in the last two Parts, discussed about Nataka and Prakarana, the two major forms in the group of Dasarupa.

In this Part, let’s briefly talk about – Bhana, Vithi and Prahasana.

***

  1. The Bhana

Bhānavastu dhurta-Càritam sua-anubhutam parena vä/ yathâ-pa Varnayedeko nipunah pandito vitah//

Sambodhana-ukti-prayikti kuryat-ākaša-bhāSitäih/ Sucayet-vira-sringārau saurya-Saubhagya-samstävaih//

Bhuyasa bharati vrttir ekankam vastu kalpitam/ mukha-nirvahane sange lasyangani dasapi ca //

It is said; the term Bhana is derived from the root ‘Bhan‘, which means ‘to speak’. Abhinavagupta explains Bhana as:’Eka mukhenaiva bhahtante ukthi-manthah kriyante apravista api patriyavinesa yatra iti Banah ‘– It is Bhana (lit. speaking) because the characters that do not enter the stage are heard indirectly through the mouth of the actor who is out on the stage’.

ātmānubhūtaśasī parasaśrayavaranāviśeastu vividhāśrayo hi bhāo vijñeyastvekahāryaśca 108

paravacanamātmasastha prativacanairuttamottamagrathitai ākāśapuruakathitairagavikārairabhinayaiścaiva 109

 dhūrtaviasamprayojyo nānāvasthāntarātmakaścaiva ekāko bahuceṣṭa satata kāryo budhairbhāa 110

Bhana, for all purposes, is a single Act presentation (ekankam); though, technically, it has two junctures – the opening (Mukha) and the conclusion (Nirvaha), each preceded by songs of gentle graceful style (Lasya). And during the course of the Bhana, musical effects are provided from the background to enliven the show.

Bharata explains Bhana as a monologue narrated by a single actor; and, yet its theme is full of various characters and situations – vividhā-aśrayo hi bhāo vijñeya stva ekaharya-sca NS.18.108

Abhinavagupta also explained Bhana as a satirical performance put on by a single actor, talking to himself, making conversation with the imaginary persons, imitating the other characters and chastening the high-class by lampooning their licentious ways. He considers that Bhana has affinity (samana-yoga-kshema) with Prahasana

The Bhana type of Rupaka (bhanyate iti bhanah) is described as a monologue enacted by a single actor who plays the role of experienced, clever rouge (dhurta) or a sharp-witted amiable (dakshina) parasite , skilled  in amorous ways (nipunah pandito vitah) who goes on an errand to please a courtesan or the lady-love of his noble friend. He narrates, dramatically, his own roguish exploits or describes that of someone else (ātmā-anubhūtaśasī parasaśraya-varanā-viśeastu). He carries on conversation (Sambodhana-ukti-prayikti kuryat) with imaginary persons (akasha-bhasita), asking questions and replying them himself. He imitates other characters, their voice and their expressions. He acts and narrates employing ingenious techniques of Ekaharya abhinaya (abhinaya, without the aropana of the aharya, i.e., adopting or assuming the roles of various characters, without changing either the costume or the make-up).

Bharata says that the Vita, in a Bhana, need not be a ‘Hero’, as in the other types of Dramas, but as the only character that fills the stage. He says the Bhana, after all, is for the Vita; it is a Dhurta- vita –samprayojya. The Vita as a character is generally neglected in Sanskrit Drama. But, he makes his appearance in Mrcchakatika.

*

The Bhana is altogether different from the elegant Sanskrit court-plays.  It deals with the common place and the trivial. It ridicules and exposes the seamy side of urban life and of the court officials, in particular; and, debunks the hypocrites moving under the guise of the virtuous. The subjects such as love, betrayal, rivalry or battles, mischief, fraud, intrigue and nuisance form the meat of its theme.

In short, Bhana is akin to one-man-stand-up comedy shows, which have become a regular feature on most of the TV channels. In a way of speaking, Bhana which had almost faded away in the middle era, enjoyed a sort of resurrection in the twentieth century.  About Bhana, Sylvain Levi, in his The Theatre of India, writes: the monologue, the Bhana, is most remote from the Drama proper.  It is most popular today as it was in the past. Actors and writers love it. It abounds in descriptions and gives ample scope to poetical ingenuity, while its imaginary dialogues offer to the actor the opportunity to display his virtuosity.

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The theme in a Bhana is improvised (vastu kalpitam); and, is rendered in  Bharati Vrtti, the  eloquent style (bharati-vrtti Pradhana tvad bhanah).  

It is said; the Srngara and Vira are to be its dominant Rasas, depicted by fortune-in love (Saubhagya) and heroism.

[It is rather surprising that Hasya was not considered by the ancients as one among the appropriate Rasas for the Bhana, particularly since it is allied to Prahasana, a farce.  Abhinavagupta also speaks of its character, the Vita as – hasyochita.

Similarly, Bharata had specified the Bharati Vrtti as the suitable Vrtti for the Bhana ( Bhuyasa bharati vrttir ). And at the same time , he had ruled out  Kaisiki Vritti for Bhana.

But later, Visvanatha modified the ancient stipulations set by Bharata; and, said that Srngara and Hasya Rasas as also  the Kaisiki Vrtti could also be treated as suitable for Bhana. He argued that such modification is justified, since there is scope in the Bhana for display of ‘love, gallantry, coquetry, pleasantry (narman) and jesting, along with comic in speech, dress and movement’.

Thereafter, in the later periods, the Srngara-rasa (aesthetic pleasure of the erotic variety), Hasya rasa (of  humour)  and Kaisiki-vrtti (graceful style) which  characterized  the Lasyangas  became the standard parts of the Bhana. ]

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Not many of the ancient Bhana scripts have survived. It is said that in the early years of the 20th century, the scholars Sri M Ramakrishna Kavi and Sri S K Ramanatha Shastri discovered the MSS, edited and published four Bhana plays: Ubhaya-abhisarika of Vararuchi; Padma-prabhrthaka of Sudraka; Dhurta-Vita-samvada of Isvaradatta; and Pada-taditaka of Syamalika. These were published together under the title Caturbhani, during 1922.

The Dhurta- vita-samvada presents an interesting picture of a seemingly clever, experienced, but worn-out Vita, who finding the rainy season too depressing, comes out seeking some amusement. He has no money either for a game of dice or for a drink – even his clothing is reduced to one garment.  He, then, winds his way towards the street where courtesans live, transacting with their clients of various kinds. He, sadly, cannot afford a courtesan, either.  At the end, dragging his feet, he reaches the house of the roguish couple Visvalaka and Sunanda, who were then busily engaged in a discussion on certain awkward problems of sex-act. The Vita gleefully joins the discussion.

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 Prof. S. K. De in his article A Note on the Sanskrit Monologue-Play (Bhana), with Special Reference to the Caturbhani , pulished in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland ; No. 1 (Jan., 1926), pp. 63-90 , gives a detailed review of these four ancient works and  of a few other.

Prof.SK De in his review observes:

Indeed, one of the outstanding features of all the Bhanas is their want of variety; and, the monotonous on the erotic sentiment tends to become cloying. This, combined with their hopeless but vigorous vulgarity, must have been responsible, to some extent, for the comparative oblivion to which they have been confined.

There is no doubt that in the later times they became mere literary exercises and subsided into a conventional and life-less form of art.

There is a monotonous sameness of style and treatment, inevitably suggesting a sense of artificiality. We meet over and over again the same  theme, the same types of characters ,the same elaborate descriptions , the same tricks of expression , the same strings of nouns and adjectives, the same set of situations, the same group of conceits, and the same system of morals or want of morals.

The depressing atmosphere of ‘low’ characters, none of whom rise above the middle-class, is bound to be dull, unless diversified by comic effects or individual traits or variety of incidents and situations.

 It is not, therefore, surprising that the Bhana as literature, though always popular, never made a permanent appeal and was forgotten in the later times.

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However, on the same subject of Chaturbhani, FW Thomson took a totally different view; and wrote:

It will , I think, it will be admitted that the Bhana compositions , in spite of the unedifying character of their general subject and even in spite of the occasional vulgarities, have real literary quality . They display a natural humour and polite, intensely Indian, irony with need not fear comparison with that of Ben Jonson or a Moliere. The language is veritable ambrosia of Sanskrit speech. – [Centenary Supplement of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, October 1924]

Comedy Choodamani

4.Vithi

vithi tu kaisikivrttau samdhyangankais tu bhanavat / rasah sucyas tu srngarah sprsed api rasantaram / yukta prastavanakhyatair ahgair udghatyakadibhih / evam vithi vidhatavya dvyekapatraprayojita  //

The Vīthi is reckoned among the earliest forms of Sanskrit Drama. The episodes culled out of mythologies and popular tales were narrated by use of clever and inventive witty dialogues. It is also said that Vithi which is chiefly of  conversational  style might have originated from the ancient Samvada Suktas of the Rig-veda. 

The term ‘Vithi’ generally stands for ‘marga’- path.  As its name suggests, it is likely that the Vithis were, initially, played at the street-corners. And, in the later times they came to be presented on the stage. The term Vithi is also interpreted as denoting a series,  string of sequences, Maala ( garland). 

It is said; Vithi had two varieties; the earlier one of which was closely related to Bhana where a single actor delivered a monologue. And, in the other, which came later, two actors engaged in varieties of dialogues, impersonating several characters – vīthī syādekākā tathai-ekahāryā dvihāryā vā . The heroine in a Vithi can be a chaste woman (kulapālikā) , a common woman (sāmānyā) or of the other type (parakīyā).

Rasair-bhavaisca sakalaih yukta Vithi prarikrita Ekaharya Dviharya va kartavya kavibhis sada //20.135//

According to Bharata, the Vithi is a single-Act play, to be enacted by one or two persons. It includes characters of the superior (Uttama), middling (Madhyamā) or inferior (Adhama) class. The Vithi is rich in all the Rasas; and consists of thirteen sub-divisions (angas) – Sarva-rasa-lakaā-ahyā yuktā hy agais trayodaśabhi.

Dhananjaya describes Vithi as a one-Act play, which resembles the Bhana, in that it includes frequent speeches in the air; and, has only two junctures (Samdhi) – the beginning (Mukha) and the conclusion (Nirvaha). It may have one or two actors. It has thirteen sub-divisions.

As regards its Vritti, the style of presentation, Bharata had earlier treated it as a class of play, which is akin to Bhana and Prahasana; and, which does not have the graceful Kaisiki Vrtti (kaiśikī-vtti-hīnāni). And, he had, earlier, indicated the Vithi as being related to the eloquent Bharati Vrtti. Abhinavagupta followed Bharata.

Vīthī caiva hi bhāaśca tathā prahasana puna kaiśikī-vtti-hīnāni kāryāi kavibhi sadā 19.48

That might be because the eloquent speech delivery is the major strength of the Vithi. The techniques of ingenious employment of different manners of dialogue delivery and styles of conversations are the characteristic features of the Vithi. Eventually, even after the Vithi type of Rupaka faded away, its style of witty exchange of dialogues walked into the prologue (Prasthavana) of the more evolved varieties of the Rupakas. 

Dhananjaya had initially accepted the Vithi as a part (anga) of the Bharathi Vrtti. But later, he classified it under Kaisiki Vrtti (Vithi tu kaisikivrttau). That was perhaps because; the Vithi, endowed with all the Rasas (Sarva-rasa-lakaāahyā yuktā), with its thirteen subdivisions (agais trayodaśabhi) has the beauty of the monologue (Ekaharya akasha-bhasita, speech in the void) as also the beauty of a amusing conversation (Dviharya).

Sarva-rasa-lakaā-ahyā yuktā hy agais trayodaśabhi Vīthī syādekākā tathai-ekahāryā dvihāryā vā   NS.18. 112

Apart from that, Dhananjaya followed Bharata in regard to other aspects of the Vithi.

As regards the Rasa (sentiment)the Nāṭyaśāstra states that Vīthī can use all the Rasas; and one may just touch the Srngara RasaHowever, the Daśarūpaka states that Vīthī should have erotic (Sṛṅgāra) Rasa  as the main; and,  the others as subordinates.

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Vithyanga

It is said; the term Vithi also stands for ‘pankthi of angas’, series of  elements or the sub-divisions. The enumeration of the thirteen subdivisions of the Vithi, with their elements (Vithyanga), is one of the important features of the Vithi Rupaka. In that context, Dhananjaya had treated the Vithyangas as a division of the Bharathi Vrtti, while he was discussing the Amukha, prologue or introduction to the play.

[The Bharati-vrtti is mainly related to scenes where the speech or dialogue delivery is its prominent feature.  But, even otherwise, the Bharati vrtti, related to eloquence, is of much importance in all the situations (vrttih sarvatra bharati).  It is devoid of Srngara, Karuna and Nirveda   (dispassion).  

The Bharati-Vrtti has four varieties: Parochana (introducing the play and playwright to the spectators); Amukha or Prastavana (where the Sutradhara strikes a conversation with the Nati or Vidushaka, as a prologue to the play); Vithi (sort of monologue the Sutradhara carries on before the play proper); and, Prahasana (hilarious conversations between minor actors). All these take place, mostly, in the Purvanga, the preliminary to the play proper.]

Bharata enumerates the thirteen subdivisions of the Vithi (Vithyanga)  (Natyashastra -Chapter 18.113-114). According to Bharata, the Vithi should include characters of the superior, the middling or the inferior type (Adhamo-uttama-madhyābhir-yuktā); and, it may contain any of the thirteen types of speech.

The thirteen subdivisions of the Vithi are:

Abrupt Interpretation (udghātyaka); Transference (avalagita); Ominous Significance (avaspandita); Incoherent Chatter (asat-pralāpa); Compliment (prapañca); Enigma (nāli or nālikā); Repartee (vākkeli); Outvying (adhivala); Deception (chala); Declaration (vyāhāra); Crushing (mdava); Three Men’s Talk (trigata); and Undue Combination of Words (gaṇḍa).

Adhamo-uttama-madhyābhir-yuktā syātpraktibhistisbhi uddhātyakā avalagitā-avaspanditanālyasatpralāpāśca 113

 vākkelyatha prapañco mdavādhibale chala trigatam । vyāhāro -gaṇḍaśca trayodaśā-agānyudāhtā-nyasyā 114

Thereafter, Bharata says ‘Any of these thirteen types is always to be attached to the Vīthi. I shall now speak of their characteristics in due order’

Udghatyaka: – it is when a person uses obscure terms to explain a given word; and, that leads to a meaning that was not quite intended by the speaker.

Avalagita: – It is when a different purpose is achieved (inadvertently) along with the intended one.

Avaspandita: – It is when a misinterpretation of a word, which might either be auspicious or inauspicious (Subha-asubha), leads to the exactly opposite of the true meaning of the word.

Asat-Pralapa: – It is when a learned person advises a fool, asking him to do the right thing; but, the latter (the fool) chooses to ignore the good advise.

Asat-Pralapa also happens when an irrelevant question is followed by an equally irrelevant answer.

Prapañca: – it is a way of mocking, when two persons praise and complement each other by using false but funny sounding words

Nalika: – It is an enigmatical remark that gives rise to laughter.

Vākkeli: – It is a repartee or a counter speech. It is a series of questions followed by witty replies producing comic effect,.

Adhivala: – It is when, during the course of an argument, both the parties are forced to modify or revise their statements. Thus, each tries to outdo the other.

Chala: – It is a type of deceit, when, during the course of an argument, one party tries to mislead the opponent by  making worthless and nonsensical statements, in order to frustrate, ridicule and mock at him.

Vyāhāra: – it is a fearless declaration made in presence of the hero ; and , it is made to happen.

Mdava: – It is when one ridicules, dements and crushes the opponent by mocking at the opponent’s merits and make it look worthless and a blemish too.

Trigata: – It is a dignified discussion, with humour (Hasya) carried on by three characters. According to Dhanajaya, it is a discussion among three actors, as in the Purva-ranga (preliminary scene)

Ganda: – It is when in the heat of the situation; and due to excitement, confusion and agitation   , one bursts out with disjointed statements, wrong words and hurling abuses at the opponent.

Bharata remarks, if any or most of these thirteen divisions of Vithi, are employed, in a series, it would then result in a Vithi type of Rupaka.

Abhinavagupta explains that these thirteen Angas of the Vithi are quite different from the Lakshanas and Alamkaras (embellishments, figures of speech). The Vithi, according to him, is a series of eloquent and clever statements and counter statements (Vākkeli) made with wit and alacrity. The scope of Vithi is, thus, not limited to a single utterance or to an expression of beauty. It gives rise to series of diverse varieties of skilful, imaginative, innovative statements (ukti-vaichitrya) – (Vithiyantu bahuvidha vakrokthi visesa utpadayante).

Dhananjaya observes that if a playwright, having gained the proper understanding or the essence of Natyashastra,  diligently applies to his work the series of definitions of the ten forms of drama (Dasarupa) as prescribed in the Natyashastra; and, if he also studies the works of great poets, he would undoubtedly be able to produce, without effort, a literary work of great merit that is adorned with rhetorical embellishments (Alamkara), sweetness (Madhurya), clarity (Prasada), loveliness (Lavanya) and eloquence (Abhijata) , composed in leisurely paced (Manda-kranta) metres.

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Lasyanga

The description of the thirteen varieties of Vithyanga is followed by the descriptions of the ten Varieties of Lasyanga.

Bharata says, there is a form of entertainment called Lasya, which is closer to Bhana and Vithi. And, like in Bhana, it is done by one actor (Bhana iva eka-prayoga ni / Bhana-kritiva-Laasyam), displaying various aesthetic expressions (vividha-bhāvam) .

bhāṇā-kṛtiva-llāsyaṃ vijñeyaṃ tva-eka-pātra-hāryaṃ prakaraṇa-vadūhya kāryā-saṃsta-vayuktaṃ vividha-bhāvam ॥ 19.118॥

Bharata again says, the Lasya is related to Srngara rasa, portraying love and other softer, graceful aspects. And, Lasya is present in Vithi, which enters into Prahasana. And, Vithi and Prahasana also enter the first of the three parts of the Samavakara. Further, all of these together with Lasya and its Angas enter into Nataka (Anyāni ca Lasya vividha-angani tu Natake prayuktani).

The emotional theme in the Lasya is a product (utpadya-vastu) of the poet’s imagination, Uhya. In that respect, it is similar to the Prakarana, a play with a created story, uhya-karya (or kavya) – Utpadya-vastu Prakarana vad uhya-karyam.

The Natyashastra does not clearly define Lasya; but, it gives a list of ten Lasyangas, the subdivisions of Lasya (as below), soon after concluding the discussing on Bhana. It also says that the Lasyangas are to be presented by a single character as in the case of a Bhana; and, not by a group of characters.

Geya-pada: – It is a joyful song sung by the heroine, for the pleasure of the hero, while she is seated. She is surrounded with stringed instruments and drums; and, yet, she prefers to sing without accompaniment of any of these. It is a simple rendering of a song, based in melody.

Sthita-pathya: – it is a sad song in Prakrit (regional language) sung by the love-stricken heroine pining for her lover, while resting (sthitha) in her seat.

Asina-pathya: – The lonely, forlorn heroine who is separated from her lover sits (Asina) alone – depressed and pondering over her situation, throwing oblique glances. And, she is not even listening to any sort of music.

Pushp-agandika: – it is a song and dance, with music, performed by a woman who is in the guise of a man, for the pleasure of her female friends

Pracchedaka: – It is dance performed by a separated woman afflicted by moonlight and overcome with passion, clinging to her lover, even though he had been unfaithful to her.

Trimudhaka: – It is when the heroine dances, naturally, to a song composed with soft and sweet sounding words, set in easy, even metre.

Saindhavaka: – As the heroine anxiously awaits her for lover , who has failed to keep his tryst, she sings ,with grief, a song in Prakrit, and dances displaying various Karanas, to the music on Veena and other instruments.

Dvimudhaka:– In it a song of the Caturasra type (chaturasra-pada) set in four kaalas (rhythm, tempo); with a proper beginning (Mukha) and elaboration (Prathi-mukha); and full of emotive feelings and expressions of love , that is sung by the heroine. She dances gracefully, in circular movements, accompanied by melodious vocal and instrumental music.

Uttamottamaka: – It is a dance full of playful and joyous movements, accompanied by exciting songs (adorned with various kinds of Ślokas) and instrumental music .

Ukta-pratyukta: It is a dance performed, as a duet, to a lyric which is composed by weaving into it interesting speeches and counter-speeches (repartee) full of flirtation, dalliance and sarcasm. The song set to playful music, sometimes, contains words of censure and mock-anger.

**

[Bharata had specifically mentioned ten kinds (Dasa-vidha) of Lasyanga. For that reason, Abhinavagupta recognizes only the above ten forms of Lasyanga.  He did not accept the two other forms – Chitrapada and Bhavita – for, he thought that they might have been inserted into the text at a later time.

Citra-pada: It is a dance performed by lovelorn person who amuses herself / himself by looking at the portrait of her/his beloved.

Bhavika: It is a dance in which the heroine dreams about her lover and expresses diverse feelings in a rather pensive mood.]

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  1. The Prahasana

Pakhandi–vipra-prabhrti-cetaceti-vita-kulam cestitam vesa-bhasa-bhih suddham hasya vaco-nvitarn

Kamukadi vaco vesaih sandha kancuki tapasaih vikrtam, samkiram vithya samkirnam dhurta- samkulam

It is called Prahasana, because it generates lots of laughter (Hasa). Bharata considers that humour (Hāsya) is related to erotic (Sṛṅgāra) – (Sṛṅgārāddhi bhavedd-Hāsya).  He said amusement or humour (hāsya) as a Rasa is born out of the dominant mood (Sthayi-bhava) called mirth (hāsa) – (hāsyo nāma hāsa-sthāyi-bhāvātmaka). However, Abhinavagupta states that shades of humour can be brought in and experienced in any Rasa (etena sarve rasā hāsye antarhitā iti darśitam).

Prahasana is a farcical or comic satire, created (utpadya) by a playwright, with a view to provoke laughter. It is a burlesque, one or two-Act-skit, littered with caustic humour, flippantly deriding the so-called respectful figures in the society (who, in fact, are worthless people – Kapurusha); and, their corrupt practices.  The rumours that are in circulation among the common people (Loko-pacara-yakta-varta), about the deceitful contrivances of the roguish rich and influential are brought out on the stage, without hatred or rancour. Hasya, humour or laughter is its main Rasa.

Bharata had earlier divided the Prahasana it into two types: pure (Shuddha) and mixed (Samkirna). Dhananjaya made that into three subdivisions.

Dhananjaya mentions that Prahasana which is similar to Bhāa (tadvat) in plot (Vastu) , juncture (Samdhi), gentle dance (Lasya), and style (Vrtti) has three types: Shuddha (pure); Vikrta (modified); and, Samkirna (mixed) – tadvat prahasanam tredha; shuddha, vaikrta, samkaraih.

The Shuddha (the pure) Prahasana is that in which the leading characters are heretics, hypocrites (Pakhandi), Brahmins (Vipra), ascetics, (tapasaih) men (Dasa) and maid-servants (kancuki). It contains conversation of ascetics and gods provoking humour; but, it is devoid of obscenity and falsehood.  Its language and conduct are studied and learned (Adighata). The Shuddha Prahasana is performed with appropriate costumes and language; and, is full of (anvita) comic speeches (hasya vaco-nvitarn). It is also said; when the plot focuses on the personality of only one person, whose conduct is improper, only then he should be laughed at.

‘The second is the modified Prahasana (vikrta) where the characters are of vulgar type, such as:  eunuchs, prostitutes, rouges (Dhurta) and parasites (Vita). It deals essentially with the, hypocrisy, tricks, squabbling, and mean streak of every kind. The characters, their appearance and flashy costume, are uncouth, garish and loud.

The third, the mixed Prahasana (Samkirna) is similar to the Vikrta type; but, in addition, it is an admixture of elements taken from the street-play or the Vithi type of Rupaka; and, it is filled with rouges (Dhurta).

Apart from providing amusement, the hilarious Prahasana is useful, in the sense that it cautions the good folks to be on guard against the possible exploitation by the unscrupulous elements in the society.

Bharata said that Prahasana was the most popular form of Drama: sarva-loka-prahasanair abādhante hāsya-saśrayai NS.36.8). It is not surprising that Prahasana, which had its origin in the pains, disgust and laughter of the common people, was a much sought-after popular form of comic relief, in an otherwise dreary existence.

Dhananjaya names six types of laughter: smile (smita), smile (hasita), gentle laughter (vihasita), laughter of ridicule (upahasita), vulgar laughter (apahasita) and excessive laughter (atihasita).

Clever, slick, and captivating eloquence (Bharati-vritti) is the very lifeblood of Prahasana; and, it is essential that the actor ensures that there is never a dull movement in his presentation. He should start off briskly; and, ingeniously employ with alacrity every element of Amukha, the opening section: catch the attention of the audience (udghātyaka), introduce the theme quickly (kathodghāta), and develop it with imagination (avalagita), if need be, by resorting to exaggeration (prayogātiśaya) and other smart and entertaining means.

In its structure, the Prahasana has two Samdhis (junctures): Mukha, the opening; and, Nirvaha, the conclusion.  Its style is eloquent (Bharati Vritti); and, its predominant Rasa is Hasya (Mirth). Prahasana lends abundant scope for use of song and dance.

Sylvain Levi in the first volume of his work The Theatre of India writes: “The farce or the Prahasana, among all dramatic types, comes nearest to the popular theatre or, rather, to popular taste. In contrast to the Nataka and the Natika with their conventional setting, the Prahasana moves more freely in a natural atmosphere of joy and human imperfection.”

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Bhagavadajjukam of Bodhayana (6th -7th century AD) is one of the earliest Prahasanas; and, it is often clubbed with the Mattavilasa-prahasana of the Pallava King Mahendravarman (7th century). And, both these works are mentioned in the Mamandur inscription of the Pallava ruler.

The satirical comedy Bhagavadajjukam (The saint-courtesan) hilariously pictures the confusions and absurd situations that follow when the souls of a hermit and a courtesan get interchanged. The monk and his transformation as a courtesan by the exchange of souls give enough scope for amusement as also to ridicule the hypocrisy  and to  puncture the vanity that shrouds the ‘high society’. The work also exposes the practices of sham mendicants and lampoons the degeneration of the contemporary society.

Mattavilāsa-prahasana, a parody in one Act, is built around the confusion when the drunken antics of a Kapalika,  and the lives of his fiancée and  of  Buddhist monk get entangled in mess over a begging-bowl that went missing, of all the places, at the local liquor shop. Please click here for a detailed study of Mattavilāsa-prahasana.

In the Next Part , let us talk about the Dima, Vyayoga and Samavakara forms of the Rupakas.

traditional-art-phad-painting-vivek-joshi

Continued

in

The Next Part

Sources and References

The Dasarupa a treatise on Hindu dramaturgy by George C. O. Haas, Columbia University press / 1912

 A Study of Abhinavabharati on Bharata’s Natyasastra and Avaloka on Dhananjaya’s Dasarupaka – by Manjul Gupta

Sahityadarpanah of Viswanathakavirajah

The Theory of the Samdhis and the Samdhyangas in Natya Shastra by T.G. Mainkar

Sanskrit Dramaturgy

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/48454/21/21_chapter%2021.pdf

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/106901

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/122/18/09_chapter1.pdf

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/22886/6/06_chapter%202.pdf

http://www.jstor.org/stable/25220898?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

All images are from Internet

 
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Posted by on December 17, 2017 in Dasarupa, Natya

 

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