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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Eighteen

Lakshana Granthas Continued

Continued from Part Seventeen

12. Nartana-nirnaya of Pundarika Vittala – Part Two

 

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Nartana-nirnaya

The central theme or the focal point of the Nartana-nirnaya is the Nartaka, the Dancer and his performance (Nartana); and, all the other participants – the Taladhari (Cymbal player), Mrudangi (Drummer) and the Gayaka (Singer) – are ancillary to that. And, even the Nataka (Drama) is said to be a mere device to showcase his excellence.

The efficacy of the Nartana , the dance, is determined (Nirnaya) by the performances, the combined excellence and coordination  of  the Dancer (Nartaka) and his troupe (Vrnda), consisting the Singer (Gayaka), the Cymbalist (Tala-dhari), the Mrdangam-player (Mrdangi), flute-player (Mukhari), and the Dance-composer (Nattuva). These components, together, are the determinants (Nirnaya-kari) of the Dance (Nartana); hence the title of the text is Nartana-nirnaya.

shantalamag

The text Nartana-nirnaya is, at times , called as Nartaka-nirnaya , which some scholars opine is also quite appropriate; because , its principal  subject is the Nartaka (dancer); while the Taladhari (cymbal player); the Mrdangi (Mrdangam player), and the Gayaka (singer)  merely support  the Nartaka  as ancillaries.

nartaka

Thus, in a Dance performance, the Nartaka is the most important performer. The next to him, in importance, is the Gayaka, the singer. He is followed, in the diminishing order of importance, by the Mrdangam player and the Taladhari.

Bharatnatyam Music Player

The Nartana-nirnaya comprises four Chapters (Prakarana) each devoted to a type of participant, Viz., Taladhari (Cymbal player); Mrudangi (Mrdangam player); Gayaka (Singer); and, the Nartaka (Dancer). Thus the treatise focuses on the role of the artists involved in presentation of a Dance performance.

But, the very heart of a dance performance is the Nartaka, the Dancer. The other supporting artists supplement the Dance performance, by way of rhythm (Nattuvanga, Taala and Mrudanga); Melody (Raga); and Lyrics (Prabandha). The final Chapter is the very heart of the text; while the earlier three Chapters are about the infrastructural or ancillary support to the Dancer.

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At the beginning of the first Chapter, the author declares his plan to write on five topics:  Taala (rhythm); Vadya (instrumental music); Gita (vocal music); Nartana (Dance), and Natya (Drama) – NN. 1.3.

nartananirnaya

However, for some reason, he did not write the fifth Chapter, relating to Natya. The text of the Nartana-nirnaya, as it has come down to us, has only four Chapters, ending with the Prakarana on Nartana, the Dance.

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The text begins with a set of 34 verses, written in a variety of metres, in praise of the Moughal Emperor Akbar and his ancestors.

Nartana-nirnaya is characteristically different from other works on performing Arts, in regard to the arrangement of the subject-wise chapters; the Divisions and Sub-divisions; organization of the supporting material and exposition.

The Nartana –nirnaya adopts a logical, coherent and a consistent approach in the arrangement and depiction of its subject.

Each Chapter contains considerable, original, conceptual and descriptive matter. Even where it is largely indebted to earlier authorities, it achieves a remarkable degree of ingenuity, clarity by judicious aesthetic arrangement of its topics.

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Sopana-marga

The four Chapters of the text are arranged in what is known as Sopana-marga (or arohana-krama), in the ascending order of importance of the subject matter, like climbing up the stairs. Such a method of exposition; and, the arrangement of its subjects is said to be unique to Nartana-nirnaya.

Accordingly, the Chapter on Taladhari (the Cymbal-player), the one who keeps time and beats (Tala and Jati), appears first; and, is prior to the one on the Mrdangin (Mrdamgam player). And, Chapter on Mrdanga precedes the one on Gayaka.  Finally the performance of the Nartaka (the Nartana) ; and, the Dance, in general (Nrtta) are discussed in the Fourth Chapter.

Following such scheme of arrangement, each chapter (beginning with that of the Cymbal-player) leads on to the next Chapter, which deals with the more important aspect of Dance.  Here, the first two Chapters are concerned with the auxiliary of Dancing, viz., the rhythmic content (Nattuvanga, Tala and Mrdanga); the next (third) Chapter deals with the melodic content (Raga) and the lyrics of the song (Prabandha). The final and the most important Chapter is about Nartaka and Nartana.

The first Chapter, consisting of 260 verses, is on Taladhari, the Cymbal player, who provides rhythm; and, the second Chapter, in 116 verses, is on Mrdangam, the drums.

The Mrdangam and the Tala (Cymbal) provide the rhythm and time-units in terms of Tala and Laya. Of these two, the former is more important; because, his performance is more visible to the spectators – prekshitamukha (NN.2.7a). The Mrdangam player, in a sense, is the leader of the percussion instruments; and, the other percussion instruments look up to him for the lead. He is assigned 116 Slokas. The Chapter on Mrdangam follows that on the Tala.

But, the size of the Chapter on Taladhari is more than twice that on Mrdanga. That is merely because; the former includes about 144 slokas on Marga and Desi Talas and Tala-pratyayas.  Otherwise, both the chapters are almost equal in extant – 127 and 118 Slokas respectively

The next in importance of the  dance performance, is devoted to the Gayaka, who provides the textual and melodic framework for the Dance, in the form of the words, their content and the music (He is assigned 578 Slokas , in two segments concerning Raga , the melody (234 Slokas) and the Prabandha , the text (344 Slokas).

flute player

The role of the flute-player (Mukhari), who just follows the singer and provides the ambiance; but, has no independent function in the dance recital; is described in just 38 Slokas in the Chapter on Dance.

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Eventually, following the hierarchical arrangement of the components of Dance , proceeding in the successive stages of importance, the earlier three Chapters lead to the Fourth and Final Chapter which deals with the most important component of Dance, the Dancer, the Nartaka, himself, the central figure of the performance.

The fourth Chapter, the largest one, having 913 verses, is devoted to Nartaka and his performance. This Chapter starts by defining Nartana, a term used by the author to mean Dance, in general. The Dancer’s (Nartaka) performance is presented in its two aspects: Nartana (dance in general combined with Abhinaya-237 Slokas); and, the Nrtta (pure dance- 676 Slokas).

Here again, the Nartana is said to comprise three kinds: Natya, Nrtya and Nrtta (Natyam Nrtyam Nrttam iti trividham tat prakirtitam); of which, the last is again divided into three types: Visama (difficult, acrobatic), Vikata (hideous) and Laghu (light).

Natya, as the wise explain, is adorned with a narration, teaching, Vritti, Bhava and Rasa; and, is complete with four kinds of Abhinayas (NN.4.3-4)

Nrtya is Dance that is beautiful in all its four components and delighting the hearts of the spectators.

Nrtta is that which provides aesthetic pleasure enjoyed by the people; it is resplendent and spectacular in all its aspects (Angas) through the display of the movements (Vikshepa) of the hands, feet etc., although it is bereft of the Abhinaya –element (NN.4.5-6)

All the types are defined; and, the author reproduces in the first ten verses of the Nartana-Adhikarana, the Sangita-ratnakara’s view that Nrtya and Nrtta may both have varieties of Tandava and Lasya.

Nartananirnaya contents

Outline

Each Prakarana (Chapter) of Nartana-Nirnaya gives, at its commencement, a summary of its content. Further, Each Prakarana begins with a definition of the respective performer, in terms of his function, merits and defects.  It then proceeds to describe and discuss the materials of the performance medium; the techniques; and, the forms of compositional repertoire.

[The exception to this rule is the Chapter Nartana-adhikarana (4.1). Its summary is given at the beginning of Chapter Three at 3.1 and 3.2, thus treating both the Adhikaranas as a single Chapter. ]

Separate lists of the contents for the Tala, Raga, Prabandha, Pratyanga-abhinaya, compositional structural elements etc., are given in the respective Adhikaranas, before taking up their definitions, descriptions or discussions

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The contents of treatise

Taladhari Prakarana

Manjeera

Pundarika Vittala commences his treatise with a prayer to his favorite deity (Ista-Devata) Sri Krishna, the most sublime of the Dancers, sporting the divine Rasa Dance (NN. 1.1.-3. Mangala charanam):

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I bow to that my Lord Sri Krishna, who is the final recourse (Upetu) of all devotees (Yati) for bestowing liberation (Moksha) ; one who is the abode of all classes of mortals; and, one who is immersed in the Rasa Dance  . With that Lord residing in my heart, I shall proceed to narrate the Nartana-nirnaya.

prayer

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At the commencement of his treatise – Chapter One – Taladhari Prakarana – Pundarika Vittala states that the roles assigned to the Taladhari (Cymbal player); the Mrudangi (Mrdamgam player); the Gayaka (singer), the Nartaka (Dancer); as also the substance of the play, form the components of Nartana-nirnaya (NN.1.3)

Then, he says: I shall describes these five elements of Nartana, in an ascending order, starting with the Cymbal player.

nartananirnaya cnotent sloka

The opening Chapter on Taladhari is divided into the following thematic clusters:  the player; his instrument, which is the Cymbal; his stance; performing techniques, varities of the instrumental compositions (Tala- Tala pratyaya tala sadhana) etc. It also lists:

  • The desired qualities of the Cymbal bearer;
  • Paatas (sound syllables) of percussion instruments;
  • Desi Talas
  • Alamkaras, Kavita , likewise the ten sancharas ; performing postures; the method of performing on the Cymbals –Stuti-sabda
  • The composition named Gajara; then Ota; Vakya-sruti bhushana, patachali ; then rudrabhushana , panchadathu
  • Sudakarma (compositions) ; Yati and other Prabandhas , Prahelicas (percussive conundrums), Talas, and other devices ( exact knowledge of them)

As regards the merits (Guna) of the Taladhari, it is said:

  • He should be handsome; having pleasant contours; and, assume an attractive posture while playing.
  • He should be an expert in percussive –instrumental syllables, skilful in string the Cymbals,
  • He should be well conversant with Yati, Prasa, Tala and tempo (Laya). He should have sound knowledge of Graha , such as Sama , specialized in performing soft and harsh ( percussive) syllables; light of hands ( dextrous in playing the Cymbals)
  • He should have adequate skill in picking up in picking up (Graha), in resting (Moksha) during Nattuvanga, corresponding to the vocalized syllables. Similarly, he should be an expert in ten Sancaras, having adequate stamina, and intense attentiveness
  • He should be skilled in Desi Talas; have the capacity to create aesthetic appeal, ability to please and win over the spectators.

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Mrdangi Prakarana

mrdanga Siva

And, the Chapter on Mrdangam is also similarly treated. It enumerates the merits (Guna) and defects (Dosha) of the Mrdangam player; his appropriate stance; techniques in use of fingers, palms; varieties of instrumental compositions; repertoire for accompanying Dance performances ; the merits and defects of his own  performance etc.

The topics described here cover:

  • Varieties of Mrudanga –players called Bharika;
  • Merits and defects of the Mrdangam player;
  • Descriptions of the Mrdanga;
  • Hasta-paatas ; drum syllables;
  • Mrudanga vadana karma – methods of playing the Mrdanga ( concert repertoire); and,
  • performing stance and style of the Mrdangam player

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Gayaka Prakarana

gayaka

The Chapter on Gayaka, the singer, has two segments (Adhikaranas) : one dealing with the melodic aspects (Raga-adhikarana); and, the other with the lyrics and varieties of its compositions (Prabandha-adhikarana).

Gayaka Prakarana – Raga-adhikarana

The first segment (Raga-adhikarana) commences with the definition of the singer;  the role and the importance of the singer in a Dance performance ; his merits and defects; modes of singing; ways of rendering melodic elements in a song – Ragalapa; establishing a Raga.

Here, it is said; the true singer is one who is proficient in Shudda and Chayalaga (Ragas and Prabandhas); one who understands the Murchana, Grama and Tana; and, one who possess profound knowledge of Tala; and , sings with aesthetic delight   – Ranjaka Gitam (NN.2.1).

shuddha

Pundarika lists the merits (Guna) of a singer

  • He should be an expert in Graha and Moksha – competently following and managing  the beginning and end of  the song in Laya and Tala
  • Conversant (Alapti-kovida) is various kinds of Alapti, Sravaka (melodious and heard even from a distance), Sampradayika (traditional);
  • Specialist in bringing out the delicate nuances (Dhvani) of Ragas and Prabandhas , in pleasing and well cultured (Ayatta-kanthavan) sweet and rich voice (Susarira) even while rendering in high( loud) or low ( soft) tone –Savadhanaka; with inflexion curvature  in tone (Kaku); and, skilled in employing
  • Understands and follows closely the Dancer’s movements and the appropriate vocal support the situation needs.
  • Thorough familiarity with both the Marga and Desi Music

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As regards the merits of a song (Gita-guna), they are said to be ten : Vyakta (clarity in the combination of syllables); Purna (complete in all its limbs and Gamaka); Prasanna (readily intelligible); Sukumara (tender , soft); Alamkritam ( endowed with poetic beauty); Sama (evenness in the distribution of the rhythm and pitch); Surakta ( in harmony with the sounds of the Veena); Slakhna (smoothness in the movement from low, middle and high pitches ; and slow and fast tempo);  Vikrasta ( high , distinctly audible); and , Madhura ( sweet, graceful and highly pleasing) – (NN.2.229-230)

vyaktapurna

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The desired qualities of a composer are said to be: through knowledge of Grammar (Vyakarana), figures of speech (Alamkara); prosody (Chhandas); diction, style and a vast and rich vocabulary.

He should have the capacity to compose different varieties of songs; and, have the skill to set the words to match with the music.(NN.2.338)

shabda

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Then, the text moves on to lay down the framework or the structure of the melodic content, the tone-curvatures (Kaku) of the Raga-alapa. That is followed by the varieties of the Alapti, establishing the nature and the mood of the Raga; the lists of the Raga and the descriptions of the Raga, and the descriptions of the Raga-raginis and Ragaputras that are commonly used; their descriptions; appropriate tones and curvatures while rendering the words of the song bringing out its delicate nuances etc.

In this section, Pundarika Vittala largely follows Sarangadeva while enumerating the merits and defects of a Singer , in the matter of presenting various elements  of music and their  facets such as : Nada- Sthana; Sruti; Svara, Grama, Murchana; Tana ; Prastara, Varna; Alamkara; Gamaka; Alapti etc.  That is followed by an exposition on the Ragas; their descriptions and classifications. Here, Pundarika discusses in detail the characteristics of the Raga-families such as: Shudda-bhiravi; Hindola; Desikara; Sriraga; Shuddha-nata; and Nata-narayana;

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Gayaka Prakarana –Prabandha-adhikarana

The segment on Prabandha (Prabandha-adhikarana) – musical compositions following the definitions prescribed for Desi Ragas – deals with two aspects of the song: word (Mathu) and the Music (Dhathu). It is also called as Gana. (NN.3.1)

The segment on Prabandha (Prabandha-adhikarana) – musical compositions following the definitions prescribed for Desi Ragas – deals with two aspects of the song: word (Mathu) and the Music (Dhathu). It is also called as Gana. (NN.3.1)

dhatu matu

Its word-content (Vasthu or Mathu) is analysed into syllabic structures. There is also a mention of the fruits that may accrue to the performer and the patron form their use.

And, the musical content (Dhatu) consists of Raga and Tala. The former is treated in the preceding Raga-Adhikarana; and the latter in the very first Chapter (Taladhari Prakarana); because, it is essential to dance, music and also to song.

That is why Prabandha follows Raga and Tala; and, precedes Nartana

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The Prabandha, here, is first analyzed into melodic and structural elements; and, is classified through them. Pundarika discusses the Six Angas (components) of a Prabandha: Svara (seven musical notes); Birudu (laudatory phrases); Pada (one that expresses meaning); Tenaka (tena-tena sounds); Paata (instrumental sounds); and, Tala (time-units).  It is explained; among these Angas; Tena and Pada are the eyes; Paata and Birudu are the hands; and, Tala and Svara constitute the feet of a Prabandha. The Tena (tena-tena) sounds are the manifestations of auspiciousness (Mangala-kara)- (NN.3.10)

talasvarau

Here, Pundarika Vittala, supplements his explanations with illustrations from the contemporary materials derived from various regions/provinces.

Then, the ancient Prabandhas – textually and orally transmitted – are listed and described. As with the Tala, the Raga, and the Dance forms; the author concludes the topic with the description of the contemporary material taken from different parts of the country. The Chapter concludes with an account of the merits and defects of the song rendering and the music composition.

Here, again, Pundarika Vittala follows Sarangadeva and Kallinatha, while describing the varieties of Prabandhas and their characteristics, in terms of their structure and textual elements. He cites with illustrations, 75 types of Prabandhas spread over:  8 of Shuddha Suda class, 24 of Alikrama, 36 of Viprakirna, and 7 of Salaga Suda variety. Pundarika Vittala provides explanations for their applications in different parts of song –composition.

In the process, he describes eleven Prabandhas that were unique to the traditions of Karnataka:  Chandraprakasha; Suryaprakasha; Navaratna; Vira-srngara; Rudraprakasha; Ranaranga; Dasavatara; Sarabhalila; Caturanga; Rtuprakasha; and, Srngarahara.

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Nartana-prakarana

adavu harini

The Chapter titled Nartana-prakarana is highly relevant to Dancing. And, it is the most important Chapter of the text; and, it is, in fact, the prime factor of the treatise, as it provides the very basis or the cause of its title Nartana-nirnaya.

This Chapter accounts for almost half the size of the text.  And, it is devoted to Nartana, which is presented in two Adhikaranas:  one, dealing with Nartana, the dance form endowed with emotive content, the representational art of dancing, giving expression to emotions through Abhinaya ; and other, with Nrtta which provides aesthetic experience derived from pure form of Dance through disposition, movement and configuration of the various parts of the human body,  employed as a communicative instrument to give a form to its expressions. Here also, Pundarika, largely, follows the explanations provided by previous authorities; such as   Bharata, Abhinavagupta, Kallinatha and Sarangadeva.

Nartaka Prakarana – Nartana_ Adhikarana

This Adhikarana relating to performance of dance – Nartana-prakarana – also deals with the persons involved in the presentation of Dance, such as: Nartaka, Patra, Nartaki, the supporting instrumentalists, the Patron, the audience (Sabha-sada) etc., their merits and defects.

Next, the orchestra in which only the flutist and the flute are discussed, since the other members , viz., Taladhari, Mrdangin, and Gayaka are already discussed in the previous Chapters

Also in the list are the dance-hall, the characteristics of a good dancer, Rekha or the lines created by the movements of the body, the Lasyangas or features of Lasya, Sausthava or standing without any movement, Citrakalasa or concluding movement, Mudra or natural grace, Pramana or harmony, the audience, the person presiding, sitting arrangements, the troupe of musicians, the flute, the entrance of a dancer and various dance-sequences. The actual discussions of these topics are in verses 245 to 656.  Most of the material comes either from the Natyashastra or the Sangita-ratnakara.

While enumerating the desired qualities (Guna) of a Nartaka (Dancer), it is said; he should have a thorough knowledge of all the four forms of Abhinaya;  the requisite skill in maintaining Laya, Tala and Yati; the knowledge of Graha and Moksha; and, above all should have humility, the keen desire to learn and the attractive grace to win the hearts of the spectators.. Besides these, a Dancer of merit should have the capacity to follow vocal and instrumental music; ability to express Rasa and Bhava articulately. (NN.3.325-327)

Then the text goes on to enumerate the items of the dance recital: the opening dance item, entry of the dancer (Mukhacali, including Pushpanjali and various Gatis-strides); Nanadi Slokas invoking the blessings of the gods; the kinds of Urupa, Dhavada, Kvada, Laaga and Bhramari.

Finally the contemporary dance forms from various regions (Desi) are enumerated. These include the dance forms originating from various regions: Sabda, Svarabhinaya, Svaramantha, Gita, Cindu, Dharu, Dhruvapada, Jakkadi and Raasa.

Some of these are classified under Bandhanrtta, the group dances with complex configurations and formations.

These are also of the Anibaddha type, the graceful, simple dances, not restricted by the regimen of the rules etc.

Under Bandha-nrtta, Pundarika includes Mukhacali; Urupa; Dhuvada; Vidulagava; Sabdacali; (also discussed as Sabda-nrtta); Sabda-prabandha; Svara-mantha; Gitapra-bandha; Cindu; Dharu and Dhruv-apada. Their descriptions in verses 668 to 874 show them to be highly structured dance pieces. A group of five Bhramaris is also discussed (in Verses 794 to 98) inserted between the discussions on Vidulagava and Sabda-nrtta.

Next, Anibandha dance is discussed in verses 875 to 898 with its forms given, namely, Namavall; Yati; different Neris; kaivartana; Rnuru, Talariipaka; Gundala; Kamala; Natajanuka; Mandi; Mudupa; Murandari; Kudupa; Tiryakarana; Lavani and Vatu. These have fewer details compared to the discussion of the Bandh-anrttas.

At the end of these descriptions the author refers to these sequences as Anibandha – Urupas, evidently using the term Urupa to denote a broad category of dance. The term Urupa is described in only two works:  in this text; and, in a later work, the Sangita-makaranda of the scholar Vedasuri.

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Abhinaya

Like most works before it, the Nartana-nirnaya also discusses the various types of Abhinaya (that which carries the intent or meaning of the performance to the spectator), namely, Angika-abhinaya, Sattvika-abhinaya and Aharya-abhinaya; and in doing so it follows the Natyashastra as interpreted in the Sangita-ratnakara.

Generally, the representation of meaning – descriptive and representational – is called Abhinaya; and, it is accomplished in four modes: verbal (Vacika), body-movements (Angika), emotional (Sattvika), and costumes as well as make up (Aharya). But in the Nartana-nirnaya, the Vacika, is not discussed; because, it is not much employed in Nartana.  Similarly, there is not much discussion on Aharya.

In verses 11 to 206, Abhinaya is discussed, with the Sattvika, and Angika types of Abhinaya described in detail. The Citrabhinaya is then described in verses 207 to 238.

The Dance is presented through idealistic and dramatized mode of communication (Natya-dharmi) following the theatrical conventions, in preference to the realistic, day-to-day expressions (Loka-dharmi). These two Dharmis together constitute Chitrabhinaya (special representation).

The external objects are suggested through appropriate gestures (Bahya-vastu-anukarani). And, the implicit and symbolic representations are presented through Chitta-vrtti-arpika.

Krishna Holding a Flute and Dancing on a Lotus

Nartaka Prakarana – Nrtta _adhikarana

The segment (Adhikarana) on Nrtta deals with the abstract aesthetic movements and configuration of various body parts. It is virtually about the Grammar of Dance. . It describes the Nrtta element of Dancing with reference to the special configuration of the static and moving elements of the Dance, such as: Sthanaka, Karana, Angahara, Cari, Hasta, Angri, Recaka, Vartana etc., with reference to the appropriate Anga or Pratyanga.

Anga-Pratyanga

According to Natyashastra, for the purpose of Dance, the human body may be divided into six major members or Angas: the head; the trunk; the Arms and the legs together with their respective subdivisions or minor members (Pratyangas). For instance; the Pratyangas of the head are: eyebrows, eyes (eyelashes and eyeballs); nose (nostrils); cheeks, chin, teeth, as also facial colour. Similarly, the Pratyangas of the Arms are: the shoulders; elbows; forearm; wrists; palms (back of the hand); and fingers.

The Nrtta-adhikarana may be treated as the Grammar portion of Nartana-nirnaya where the various movements of the Angas and Pratyangas are comparable to the alphabets, the word formations, phrases, clauses and sentences (in which the conjunctions, prepositions and syntactical rules or conventions are invoked).

However, Pundarika Vittala does not classify the movements of the limbs as those specifically pertaining either to Anga, Upanga or Pratyanga.  But, in verses 239 to 244, where he lists his topics of discussion, he mentions the movements of the parts of the body which, in his view, are of importance. These include the movements of the head, the eyes, the eyebrows, the arms, the hand-gestures and other actions of the hands, the waist and the feet. He also discusses the function of the colour of the face. The list further includes more complicated movements generated from the combination of the movements of the parts of the body, such as the Sthanas or postures; Caris or the movements of one leg; Karanas or dance-units ; and, the  Recakas or oscillating movements.

However, instead of following the usual practice of reproducing the descriptions of the 108 Karanas and the 32 Angaharas details as given in the Natyashastra and the Sangita-ratnakara, the Nartana-nirnaya selects only 16 of the Karanas as those needed in Bandh-anrtya, of which it describes several varieties. The text then proceeds to describe the distinctive features of the various kinds of Anibandha-nrtya. From these descriptions of dance compositions there emerge striking similarities with the classical dance styles of the present time, such as Kathak and Odissi.  Thus, Nartana-nirnaya may thus be regarded as the link between the older and present day traditions of classical Indian dancing

The Nartana-nirnaya is therefore regarded as a major work that throws light on the origins of some of the dance forms – particularly Kathak and Odissi – that are prevalent today.

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Nartana-nirnaya describes in Pratyanga-abhinaya, 19 movements of the head (Shiro-bedha); 36 of eyes (Akshi-bedha); 7 of eyebrows (Bhru-bedha); 4 complexions (Mukha-raga); 16 movements of the arms (Bahu-bedha); 6 of the hips (Kati-bedha); and, 13 of the feet (Anghri-bedha).

These correspond, in name and number, to the enumerations made in Sangita-ratnakara.  But, Pundarika Vittala offers a slightly different set of applications of these Pratyangas.

This is also true of Recaka; Karakarana; Calaka; Hasta-pracara; and, Karakarma.

Nartana-nirnaya has adopted from the Sangita-ratnakara all of the 6 Purusha Sthanakas; but, only 3 of the 7 Stri Sthanakas (excepting the Gatagata, Valita, Motita and Vinivartita)

As regards the Desi-sthanakas, except the Parsni-parsvagata; Eka-prasvagata; Eka-janugata; and, Pravarta are included.

Among the 9 Upavista- sthanakas, the Utkata-sthana has been omitted. It has also omitted all the Supta-stanakas.  Thus, in all, Pundarika selects only 27 among the 51 Sthanakas enumerated in the Sangita-ratnakara.

Again, Sangita-ratnakara describes 86 Caris, classified into 16 Bhumya (touching the ground); 16 Akasha (Aerial); and, 35 Desi Bhumya and 19 Desi Akasha Caris.

But, Nartana-nirnaya gives only 84 of these under Bhumya and Akasha divisions; but , not classified as Marga or Desi Caris.

As regards the Hasthas ( the hands) , as against the 24 single Hasthas (Asamyukta), 13 combined Hasthas (Samyukta) and 30 Nrtta Hasthas ( 67) of Sangita-ratnakara, the Nartana-nirnaya adds 38 more single Hasthas; 17 combined Hasthas; and 32 Nrtta Hasthas

Pundarika Vittala describes only 16 Karanas among the 108 given by Sarangadeva. According to Pundarika, it is only these 16 Karanas that are useful in performing Bhanda-nrtya, structured Dance forms.

Generally, Pundarika follows the descriptions given in the Natyashastra and the Sangita-ratnakara, in regard to the depictions of the Sthanakas, Caris, Hasthas and the Karanas. But, his treatment of these subjects differs, considerably, from that of the others.

Finally, Pundarika Vittala ends the work with two more dance sequences, Jakkadi and Rasa, which he includes under Anibandha dance (875 to 912).

Throughout these descriptions the terms Nrtta and Nrtya are used interchangeably.

*

Rasa-nrtya

krishna dance

Pundarika Vittala had commenced his treatise Nartana-nirnaya with an invocation to his Lord Sri Krishna; and, appropriately, he ends his treatise submitting his prayers to Sri Krishna, the very heart and essence of Rasa Dance.

prayer

And; he concludes the Nartana-nirnaya with a description of Rasa Dance – Rasa-nrtya (NN. verses 664 -672)  that Sri Krishna performed with the Goips amidst the mango and Kadamba groves along the banks of the gentle flowing Yamuna under resplendent full moon of the spring season, celebrating the Vasantha festival.

As the Muraja and other musical instruments play, the pairs of four, eight, sixteen, thirty-two or sixteen pairs of players (Patra) of men young men and women dance in rhythm ; following the Tala and Laya; ; holding in their hand coloured sticks of sixteen Angulas in length, bound with gold and other metals at both ends; perform delightful Caris and Bhramaris; moving around in circles; weaving amazing geometric patterns (mandalibhuya); singing delightfully; then it is called as the most fascinating Dandarasa

And, the same dance performed without sticks is Rasa-nrtya.

**

Upasamhara

The last four verses of the Fourth Chapter contain Pundarika’s concluding remarks (Upasamhara) ; his observations on the general state of Dance; his efforts to bring clarity into a rather muddled practices; and, a final prayer. He says:

The theory and practices (Lakshya-Lakshana) Dance which had become ambiguous (Sandignam) and had shrunk (Sangata) because of the blind traditions has been rescued and rendered simpler by the efforts of Pundarika Vittala.

I have composed this treatise (Sangita), which is much varied in both the aspects of theory and practice of Dance; and is much simpler and easy to follow; in order to please (ruchyartham) Emperor Akbar. May this bring great joy to the hearts of you all, my friends (Suhadam Hrdaye Sukham Bhuyath).

By studying (Drstva) this excellent (Lokottara), varied (Bahutara-bhedam) , beautiful (Sundara)  Nartana-nirnaya, composed by Pandari Vitthala; as also by judicious use of the Art of Sangita as prevailing, may the learned scholars (Pandita) become the Gurus of the new-age and guide along the right path the aspirants desirous of learning and become experts  (Chatura, Agrinam)  in the Arts of Tala, Mrdanga, Singing (Gana), flute playing (Vamsa), and Dancing (Nrtya).

Thus ends the Fourth Chapter entitled Nartaka-Prakarana in Nartana-nirnaya composed by Pandarika Vittala of the auspicious Karnataka region (Karnata-jatiya).

upasamhara

krishna-raas-leela-

 

Sources and References

The primary source on which I have depended upon is Nartana-nirnaya (in three volumes) edited and commented upon by the renowned scholar Prof. Dr. R. Satyanarayana. For Volume Three ; please click here

 For Volume One :please click here

For more on Nartana- nirnaya and other texts on Dance forms ; as also  for the details of the few mentioned here , please do read  Dr. Mandakranta Bose’s research  paper ( The Evolution of Classical Indian Dance Literature: A Study of the Sanskritic Tradition

Also refer to Pundarika Vittala by Dr. Padma Rajagopal

(https://sg.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/60012);

And to Musicological Literature by Emmie te Nijenhuis

ALL IMAGES ARE FROM INTERNET

 
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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Seventeen

Lakshana Granthas Continued

Continued from Part Sixteen

12. Nartana-nirnaya of Pundarika Vittala – Part One

dance posedance

Intro…

In the textual traditions of the Indian Dancing, the Natyashastra; the Brihad-desi and the Sangita-ratnakara are regarded as seminal works; both in regard to the theory and to the practice of Dance, in its various forms. The Nartana-nirnaya of Pundarika Vittala, coming almost four hundred years after Sangita-ratnakara, is another major work

The Nartana-nirnaya is considered a highly significant and an influential text of its period (sixteen-seventeenth century); and, is classed along with the Sangita-ratnakara of Sarangadeva in regard to the quality, the range and the depth of its discussion; and, also in regard to the extent of influence it exerted on the theory and practice of Dancing of the later periods.

The Sangita-ratnakara, in a concise form, had earlier summarized the changes that took place in the field of Sangita (Gita, Vadya and Nrtta) between the time of Bharata and the thirteenth century. In the process, it provided a theoretical basis and a textual authority for further discussions on the theories and practice (Lakshana-Lakshya) of Music and Dance.

The Nartana-nirnaya, following the Sangita-ratnakara, laid the foundation for further several interesting and radical changes that later took place in the practice of the Art forms, especially the Dance.  At the same time, it set aside, many theories and practices that had become obsolete. Thus, the Nartana-nirnaya went beyond the Sangita-ratnakara.

In a similar manner, the Nartana-nirnaya went beyond the Natyashastra.  Like most of the works prior to its time, the Nartana-nirnaya too discusses various types of Abhinaya (Angika-abhinaya, Sattvika-abhinaya and, Aharya-abhinaya) according to Natyashastra, as interpreted in the Sangitaratnakara. However, instead of merely following or reproducing the Natyashastra‘s descriptions of the 108 karanas and the 32 Angaharas, the Nartana-nirnaya selects only 16 of the karanas as representing the essential characteristics of a Bandha-nrtya, a well regulated Dance-form.

 In contrast to that, the text then goes on to describe the distinctive features of the various kinds of Anibandha-nrtya , the free flowing , innovative dance sequences. The Nartana-nirnaya thus covers both the pristine (Marga) as also the improvised, spontaneous regional (Desi) dances, which are now a part of the ’classical dances’ of today.

All the types are defined; and, the author reproduces in the first ten verses, the Sangita-ratnakara’s view that Nrtya and Nrtta may both have varieties of Tandava and Lasya.

To sum up; apart from its deep concern for preserving the past traditions, Nartana-nirnaya presents a clear picture of the state of Arts during the contemporary times. It also introduces many new elements, components, techniques and terms into the theory and practice of Dancing. Thus, the Nartana-nirnaya not only encapsulates its past and its contemporary scene; but also serves as a guide and an inspiration for the Dance forms to follow. Therefore, the Nartana-nirnaya could be said to  a path –finder; and a golden link (svarna-setu) that brings together the older and present day traditions of classical Indian dancing.

dance-Collage

Background

The Nartana-nirnaya comes about four hundred years after Sangita-ratnakara. This period between these two texts was marked by several interesting and rather radical changes and transformations that were taking place in India, in the field of Arts.

The Nartana-nirnaya was composed in the sixteenth century, while Pundarika Vitthala (or Pandari Vitthala) was in the service of the Mughal Court.   Pundarika Vitthala, a versatile artist, scholar and an author, had the opportunity to witness and experience the diverse regional traditions of India as also the newer practices derived from Persia. Pundarika Vittala mentions that he wrote the Nartana-nirnaya, concerning music and dance, at the suggestion of Emperor Akbar, to cater to his taste – Akbara-nrupa rucyartham idam krutam (NN.4.2.675)

Akbar nrupae icchartha bhuloke sangitam / krutamidam bahu tara bhedam sah-hrudam hrdaye sukam bhuyath // N N 53 b //.

In the world, this simple Sangita is created with a lot of varieties in order to please the king Akbar. May it please the heart of the goodhearted ones.

The Royal Courts of Raja Man Singh, Raja Madhav Singh and Akbar provided the forum for interaction between the North and South Indian traditions on one hand; and, between Indian and Persian practices on the other. This surely was an interesting period when diverse streams of Art came together and fused into enterprising new forms; and, therefore, it is aptly termed as the watershed period of Indian Music and Dancing.

This was a vibrant period in the development of Music and Dance, in general. It was during this period that the standardization of Ragas, their classification into major groups (Melas) based on the structure of their notes (Svras); theoretical principles interpreted in terms of the position of the frets on the Vina (Vina-mela); ten types of Tala ( time-units)

Thus, the Nartana-nirnaya came into being in a fascinating, invigorating and an altogether different ambiance, providing opportunities and a forum for interaction between the different Schools of the North and the South; as also between the Indian (Desi) and Persian (Yavana) practices.  Each of its Chapters reveals flashes of originality, innovation and ingenuity in adopting the newer, contemporary trends and practices into the traditional formats.

Though it is primarily based in the Natyashastra and the commentaries of Sarangadeva and Kallinatha, it, in essence, is an original treatise on Indian Music and Dancing. The Nartana-nirnaya is, therefore, regarded as an authoritative and a creative text. As regards Music, it set new trends into motion by bringing together the best in the Karnataka Sangita, Hindustani Music and the Persian Music.  And in dance, it brought into the fold of what could be called Classical Dance, the techniques of Persian Dance as also the idioms of folk dancing.

dance_mh39mj84

**

The subject matter central to Nartana-nirnaya is Dancing. The technical details of Dance as detailed in the Nartana-nirnaya are an important source for reconstructing the history of Indian music and dance during the middle period. This was also the time when the old practices were fading out and new concepts were stepping in. For instance, by the time of Pundarika Vittala, the 108 Karanas were reduced to sixteen. At the same time, dance formats such as Jakkini, Raasa nrtya were finding place among traditional type of Dances.

dance shakthidance rasasdance yamini

In his work, Pundarika Vitthala does not confine only to the traditional dances of India and Persia; but, he also describes the various dance traditions of the different regions of India that were practiced during his time. The information he provides on regional dance forms is quite specific, in the sense that he points to the part/s of India from where the particular style originated, the language of the accompanying songs and the modes its presentation. The Nartana-nirnaya is, therefore, an invaluable treasure house on the state of regional dance forms as they existed in the sixteenth century India

dance forms333

NatyaNrtya and Nrtta

While explaining the title of his work (Nartana-nirnaya); and, the use of the term Nartana, generally, to mean ‘Dance’, Pundarika said that by Nartana he meant it to be a general class name for Dance. And, that the term Natrana would cover the three forms of Dance: NatyaNrtya and Nrtta. The last (Nrtta) would again be subdivided into three other types:  visama (acrobatic), vikata (ludicrous) and laghu (light and graceful), identified respectively as rope-dancing, a comic dance, and a dance based on easy karanas.

Thus, it seems, while Nartana stood for the general class name; the other three were its sub-divisions.

As regards the definition of these terms, Pundarika said he would be adopting those offered by Sarangadeva (11th century).

And, Sarangadeva had, in turn, followed the explanations given by the earlier writers like Somesvara, Dhananjaya and such others (perhaps Nadikesvara too?)

According to those explanations, generally (although there were some slight variations among them):

Natya: refers to an Art form that gives forth Rasa (ultimate aesthetic enjoyment); and, is based in Rasa – Natyam rasam-ashrayam (DR.I. 9). It gives expressions to the inner or true meaning of the lyrics through dance gestures – vakyartha-abhinayatmaka.

Nrtya:  is a means of putting forth different aesthetic moods or Bhava (bhavahetu orbhavashraya) or giving expression to individual words of the song through appropriate gestures and/or facial expressions  – pada –artha-abhinayatmaka

Nrtta: is the display of smart looking (shobhahetu) limb movementsin tune with attractive and catchy Taala (rhythm) and Laya (tempo) – Nrttam Taala Laya ashrayam (DR.I. 9). But, in itself, it is devoid of meaningful content; and, is valued for its mere visual beauty of body movements (gatrasya viksepaha).

*

Nandikeshvara (Abhinayadarpana-1. 15-16) had earlier distinguished Nrtya from Nrtta, thus:

Bhavabhinaya-hinam tu nrittamitya-abhidhyate | Rasabhava-vyanjana adi yuktam nrityam ity uchyate

And, Sarangadeva said that Nrtya and Nrtta can both be of two kinds –Tandava and Lasya (SR. 7. 28); and, while Tandava is uddhata (vigorous), the Lasya is of Lalita (delicate) movements (SR. 7. 29- 30).

But, Pundarika, in his Nartana-nirnaya, throughout, uses the terms Nrtta and Nrtya interchangeably, perhaps, because, both those dance forms involved, in some measure, the elements of abhinaya or interpretative movements.

Nrtta Nrtya Natya

Bhaddha – Anibhaddha 

But, the more significant theoretical aspect of Nartana-nirnaya is the adoption of the two sets of concepts to classify the Dance forms.

Pundarika adopts Marga and Desi class concepts into the Lakshana and Lakshya   (theory and practice) of Dance, for classifying its forms.  

And then, he introduces a novel feature (hitherto not tried by anyone else); which is the principles of Bhaddha (structured) and Anibhaddha (neither bound nor structured) for stratifying the dance forms into two separate classes.

(1) Pundarika carried forward the practice of the earlier scholar-writers who distinguished the dance forms along the lines of Marga and Desi. The term Marga (literally ‘of the way’ or ‘path’) refers to those arts that adhere to codified rules; while Desi is understood as the unregulated regional variations.   

The concepts of Marga and Desi were originally introduced into Music by Matanga in his Brhaddeshi (around seventh or eighth century) to distinguish the pure and well-structured Music (Marga) from the innovative regional melodies (Desi).

As regards the dance forms; by about the eleventh century, Somesvara adopted the Marga-Desi classification to categorize the then existing Dance forms. Later, around the same time, Sarangadeva, in his Sangita-ratnakara, systematically presented the Marga and Desi forms as distinct styles of dance. 

Here, in these texts, the classical style, that is the one codified by Bharata in the Natyashastra; and, acknowledged by tradition   as the core of classical art, was regarded as the Marga.  The Nrtya, for instance, was classified under Marga form of dance.

The regional and popular dance styles, with easy movements, that allowed more freedom, greater improvisation, within the given framework, were classified under Desi. The Nrtta, for instance, was treated as a Desi form of dance.

Pundarika Vitthala, in his Nartana-nirnaya, also adopted the Marga-Desi classification to categorize the different dance forms. Nartana-nirnaya describes several entirely new dance forms that were popular during its time.

*

(2) The Nartana-nirnaya marks a major conceptual departure, primarily by following the structural principle of classifying Dance forms into two divisions: namely, Bandha, or styles that rigidly adhered to set rules of composition; and Anibandha, styles that did not do so and allowed innovations by the dancer. The texts of the earlier period, including Sangita-ratnakara, followed the approach of the Natyashastra. But, in the post-Nartananirnaya period, the classification of Dance forms along the lines of Bandha and Anibandha became part of their conceptual framework.

*

Matanga had earlier classified Music  into two classes –Nibhadda and Anibhadda –  the one that is regulated and structured with Dhatus (elements) ; and , the other  that is not structured (un-bound).

According to Matanga’s classification:  Anibaddha Gita is free flowing music that is not restricted by Taala; it is also   free from disciplines of Chhandas (meter) and Matra (syllables); and, it does not also need the support of compositions woven with meaningful words (Pada or Sahitya).

In fact, neither Taala, nor Grammar, nor lyrics – has a role to play in the Anibaddha Samgita. Sarangadeva explains Anibaddha as Aalapa, which is not bound or which lacks rules (bandha-hinatva) – Alapir bandha-hinatvad Anibaddham itirita (Sangitaratnakara: 4.5).

And the Nibaddha Gita, in comparison, is a rendering of a pre-composed structured musical composition that is governed by Chhandas and Taala; and has words (meaningful or otherwise); as also has a definite beginning and an end. In short; it is a composition (like Prabandha, Giti, and Kriti etc.)

peacock3

Pundarika was the first scholar to apply the Nibaddha – Anibhaddha type of classification to Dance forms. That is to say; almost 1500 years after these terms came into use in music, Pundarika Vitthala’s work applied them to Dance forms, in order to segregate well-structured dance forms from rather free flowing regional dances.

While both parts followed certain rules of structure and of exposition, Anibaddha was comparatively loose in its construction since it was free of the regimen of Taala.  The Anibandha-nrttas are, thus, flexible in both form and content, within the broadly specified aesthetic frameworks.

Dr. Mandakranta Bose observes:

It would seem that the Anibandha-nrttas were unlike any other dance pieces described in the literature before the Nartana-nirnaya.   The Anibandha-nrttas seemed to be short dance-sequences, using which a dancer could choreograph her own piece. Thus, they have the same function in the dancer’s choreographic design as the karanas of the Marga tradition. But, their structural principle is entirely different from that of karanas, in that they are entirely flexible as to their components and structure while karanas are of course rigidly set structures.

*

Roughly, it would seem the Bandha-nrttas denoted dances for which there already were prescribed formats and rules ; while, the Anibandha-nrttas denoted dances for which there were none or minimal.

A traditional Bhaddha-nrtta was more rigorously constructed, bound as it was by the constraining patterns of Taala; and, was performed by dancers who were appropriately trained; and, who could interpret a composition perfectlyexecuting all the movements in detail and precisely as per the prescribed sequence.

Pundarika grouped under the Bandha-nrtta class, those dances that were characterized by yati, tala, laya, sthana, Cari and hasta etc. as prescribed in the ShastrasHe enumerated twelve varieties; and, described in detail their specific movements, their structured sequences, including karanas (N2V.43a-45b)

*

All the other dance forms were drought under Anibandha Dance form. The principle of Anibaddha allowed the dancer a considerable degree of freedom, encouraging her to search for and to create, through her ingenuity, novel aesthetic expressions. This was a major departure from the regimen that required the dancer to rigorously follow the prescriptions of the texts. The opportunities to come up with artistic innovations, within the framework of the tradition, helped to infuse enterprise and vitality into dance performances. The dance became more alive.

In the Nartana- nirnaya, the Anibandha dances are described in two parts; the first consisting of twenty-one Anibandha-urupas (denoting a broad category of dance sequences formed with the karanas); and, the second, consisting two Anibandha-nrtyas. Of the two, some of the Anibandha-nrtyas come from Persia. And the other is Raasa, which includes the form called Dandarasa, the group dances associated with Lord Krishna and the Gopis (NN. 53a-b). Raasa is the only dance recorded by Pundarika which seems to have continued over centuries and is found even today in at least two regions of India, Gujarat and Manipur.

rasa mandal

*

Fresh perspective

Though the Natyashastra continued to be the authoritative source book, which lays down the basic principles of the performing arts; and, identifies the range of body movements that constitute dancing, in the later times, many works on dancing followed the Nartana-nirnaya’s approach to the categories of dance; and, that eventually became part of their conceptual framework.

The emphasis of the later texts tended to shift away from the Marga of the Natyashastra; but, lean towards the newer forms of Desi Dances with their improvised techniques and structural principles. Apart from increase in the varieties of regional dance forms, a number of manuals in regional languages began to appear. These regional texts provide a glimpse of the state of Dance as was practiced in different regions.

Dr. Mandakranta Bose observes:

Bharata’s account represented only a small part of the total body of dance styles of the time. When new styles became prominent in the medieval period they had to be included in the descriptions of dancing. Such a widening of frontiers meant a great increment of technical description in the texts.

The distinction between the Natyashastra and the later texts is not merely one of detail. Of greater significance is the fact that unlike the Natyashastra, the later texts recognize different styles. These are distinct from the one described by Bharata, the main path or Marga tradition of dancing. The later texts concern themselves more and more with other styles, known, generically, as Desi, whose technique and structural principles are sufficiently different from the style described by Bharata…

Thus, the evolution of Indian Dance system is a dynamic process that absorbed new elements and techniques without compromising its basic tenets. It, thus, demonstrates the time-honored Indian principle of growth: continuity along with change.

peacock3

Historical significance

Now, as regards the historical significance of Nartana-nirnaya; many scholars, after a deep study of the text, have observed that there is enough evidence to conclude that the text marks the origin of two major styles of India today, namely, Kathak and Odissi. 

Dr. Mandakranta Bose, in her very well researched paper (The Evolution of Classical Indian Dance Literature: A Study of the Sanskritic Tradition )  stresses the historical importance and relevance of Nartana-nirnaya; and , states   :  This text  offers us a major breakthrough in understanding both the evolution and the continuity of the art of dance;  because , it enables us to reconstruct the styles prevalent at a transitional period in the cultural history of India.

Thus, Nartana-nirnaya serves as a bridge that spans between the older and present-day traditions of classical Indian dancing.

gtsk69h

It was during this period, the Persian influence, through the Mughal Court , entered into Indian dancing, giving rise to a new style of  Dance form, the Kathak.  This period was also marked by the emergence of the Dance forms that were not specifically mentioned in the Natyashastra – the Uparupakas. This genre of musical dance dramas not only came to be admitted into the mainstream of dancing, but also eventually became the dominant type of performing art, giving rise dance forms such as Odissi, Kuchipudi etc.

Dr. Bose also concurs that such connection seems highly plausible. The text, according to her, was part of the cultural world of the Mughal court that nurtured Kathak. She points out that several technical terms used in Nartana-nirnaya match those used in Kathak today. And she goes on to say:

When we look closely at the technique of the dance described under the Anibandha category, we begin to see certain striking similarities with the technique of Kathak. One cannot say that the style described in the Nartana-nirnaya matches Kathak in every detail.  But, one may certainly view that style as the precursor to Kathak; because, the descriptions and the similarities in their techniques clearly show it to be the same as what we know today as Kathak.

The Nartana-nirnaya seems, thus, to be the proper textual source for Kathak. This claim becomes stronger still on examining points of technique….

kathak-classical-festival-1539181385

As regards Odissi, Dr. Bose observes:

The Bandha-nrtta as practiced in the Odissi style is very similar to the descriptions given in the Nartana-nirnaya.  And, the basic standing postures prescribed in the Odissi style: Chauka and Tribhangi. (Chauka and Tribhangi are the two main basic stances in Odissi. Chahka is a stable-wide stance, with weight of the body distributed equally on both the sides; and, the heels facing the centre. It is said to be a masculine posture.  Tribhangi, is a graceful feminine posture, with the body bent in three-ways). These are comparable to vaisakha-sthana and Agra-tala-sanchara-pada of the Nartana-nirnaya. 

Further, some acrobatic postures that are still in use are: danda-paksam, lalata-tilakam and nisumbhitam (the foot raised up to the level of forehead), and several others are found both in Odissi and in Chau dance of Mayurbhanj region of OrissaFurther, there is in the Nartana-nirnaya, the description of a dance called Batu involving difficult poses; and it is very similar to the Batunrtta, a particularly difficult dance in the repertory of Odissi.

Indiandance_1600x897

 

Pundarika Vittala

Before we move on to a brief discussion on the structure and contents of the Nartana-nirnaya, let’s take a look at its author: Pundarika Vittala, a renowned a musician-scholar.

Pundarika Vittala (16th century) describes himself as a person hailing from Karnataka – Karnata Desiya – born in the village of Sathanur, situated near the Shivaganga Hills (about 50KMs from Bangalore).

Karnate Shivaganga abhidana giri nikate, Satanur-hrudaye yo gramasta janma pravarasunikarath Jamadagni yo asmita vamsa

He refers to his father as Vitthalarya (Vitthalayya) of Jamadagni Gotra – (Tarta Vitthalaryo bhavad amitaya sa sadgunakhya; tat suno ragachandrodaya iti bhaja-SC.3, 57)

He gives his mother’s name as Demaka (RJ.2.77) (Demaka janani-nijasuta Vittalakrta Ragamanjarike yam)

The shrine of Vitthala-raya-swami located about ten KMs from the town of Magadi is believed to be family deity (Kula-devata)

*

Pundarika Vittala was a remarkable link between the Art traditions of the South and of the North. After moving away from his native country, Pundarika Vittala settled down in the North, initially under the patronage of Muslim King Burhan Khan  in Anandavalli  (near Nasik) in the district of Khandesh. He then moved on to other Royal Courts in the Western and North India.

He was an expert in what is today known as Karnataka Sangita, Hindustani Music, Dancing, Lexicography and Dramaturgy. He later got familiar with Persian Music. He describes North Indian Music forms such as Dhrupad, Jakkari and Raasa etc. He wrote a series of books concerning Music of North India. He exhibits a broader view of the contemporary Arts and their practices in various regions of the country.

While in the Court of Burhan Khan of Khandesh, at Anandavalli, during 1560-1570, Pundarika Vittala wrote his famous work – Sad-raga-chandodaya – having three Chapters titled as: Svara-prasada, Svara-mela prasada, and Aalapi-prasada.  It is a very extensive text, covering almost all the aspects of Music. In this work, Pundarika deals with both the Southern and Northern systems of Ragas ; and, classifies them under nineteen Thats or parent scale, viz.: Mukhari, Malava-gaula, Sri, Suddha-natta, Desaki, Karnata-gauda, Kedara, Hijeja, Hamir, Kamode, Todi, Abhiri, Suddha-varati, Suddha-ramakri, Devakri, Saranga, Kalyana, Hindola and Nada-Ramakri.

In this text, Pundarika Vittala introduced; and, almost adopted Ramamatya’s system of 19 Melas (as in his Svara-mela-kalanidhi) to the North Indian Music. He was, perhaps, the first Musicologist to undertake such an exercise. Out of these nineteen original (Mela) Ragas, he attributes five of them to their respective derivative forms (janya-raga). But, he changed the names and scales of several Melas.

Of the 19 Melas listed by Pundarika Vittala, 11 are identical with those mentioned by Ramamatya:  Mukhari, Malavagaula, Sri, Shuddhanata, Desaksi, Karnatagaula, Kedaragaula, Abhiri, Shuddhavarali, Shuddharamakri and Nadanamakri. As regards the other eight Melas either their notes are different or their names as well as their names are different (few of them have only one note different).  For instance; Ramamatya‘s Hejuri becomes Pundarika’s Hijeja. Similarly Vasanthabhairavi becomes Todi; and, Saranganata becomes Saranga.

*

His next treatise named Ragamala, was probably, written under the patronage of the Jaipur princes, Madho Singh and Man Singh Kacchwas. It is believed; Ragamala  was written during 1576 for one Kapila muni (Srimath Kapilamuniyarthe  kriyate Raga –maalikah) ,

Here, Pundarika Vittala classifies the Ragas (Raga-Ragini Parivara) under six male Ragas. And, attributes to each Male raga, five Raginis – ‘spouses’ (bharyyas) and five ‘sons’ (Raga putra) — totalling 66 Ragas. He also gives the details related to their Svaras, such as:  graha, amsa, nyasa etc.  He also explains the Raga structures in terms of:  nada, sruti, svara, sthana, grama, murchana, tana, etc.

In all, he covers six Male Ragas – with five Raginis and five Putra (sons) for each Male Raga- totaling 66 Ragas.

 *

Later, when he moved to the court of the Prince Madhavasimha and Manasimha who ruled from Jaipur as the feudatory of Akbar, Pundarika Vittala wrote his third treatise:  Raga Manjari 

In his writings, Pundarika Vittala carried forward the work of Gopala Nayaka (14th century) of grafting Karnataka music on to the newly evolving North Indian music.  Raga Manjari shows a further leaning towards North Indian Music, although the set of twenty Melas is the same as in his earlier Sad-raga-chandrodaya. He adopts the typical North Indian classification of Ragas as: Male (Purusha), female (Stri) and infant (Putra) Ragas.

But the interesting feature of this work is the recognition of as many as sixteen Persian melodies; and, relating them to the Indian Ragas by their nearest equivalents.

(1) Rahayi – Deva-gandhara (2) Mahur – Saranga (3) Desh – Ahanga (4) Suhaya – Kedara (5) Huseni – Jijavanta (6) Yaman – Kalyana (7) Deshkar – Vakhrej (8) Devangyo – Devagandhara-Mushakakya (9) Kanara – Nishavara (10) Jangula – Bangala (11) Vara – Malhara (12) Danasya – Irak (13) Sarparda – Bilaval (15) Malave – Muslik (16) Asavari – Hijjeja

Most probably, these imported melodies had already secured a place in the then current Indian music of the North; and, the author only confirmed the practice by including them in his work and by indicating their characters by assigning them to their places in relation to the Indian models.

According to the great  Scholar Pundit VN Bhatkhande, it distinctly shows that Pundarika Vittala had come into contact with the music and musicians of North India , perhaps   in  Delhi or Agra, because the names of Ragas  he mentions , like Chanri, Gowdi, Musali, Iraq, Bakharej, Yemen, Husaini,  and  Tirban  distinctly belong to that region.

.**

However, the fame of Pundarika Vitthala rests mainly on Nartana-nirnaya concerning Dance and dramaturgy, composed, in the sixteenth century, while he was in the service of Emperor Akbar.

Posthumous_portrait_of_Mughal_Empreror_Akbar

By the time of Akbar, the Persian art and music had vastly influenced the cultural life of India, particularly the milieu surrounding the Mughal court. Though the regional traditions did exist, the Persian tradition was the dominant one.

Pundarika Vitthala, while in the Mughal Court, had the opportunity to watch, to appreciate and to enjoy excellent presentations of the Persian oriented dances and music. He also had the privilege of discussing varied issues related to Art with the Persian scholars and connoisseurs attached to the Royal Court. 

The Nartana-nirnaya, an authentic text on dance and dramaturgy, written in a variety of metres (chhandas), has four chapters, one each on, rhythm (259 verses); drum (116 verses); vocal music (579 verses); and, on Dance (the largest, with 916 verses).

And, at the outset, Pundarika states that along with the various regional styles of dancing he would be describing the dance of the Yavanas, (meaning, the Persians). Pundarika Vitthala, with great sensitivity, lays down a framework for bringing about structural changes in the fields of Indian Music and dance.

The Nartana-nirnaya is indeed a major work that throws light on the origins of some of the dance forms – particularly Kathak and Oddisi – that are prevalent today. But, it is sad that Nartana-nirnaya has not received the level of attention and depth of study that it rightly deserves.

**

In the next part, let’s take a look at the structure and the contents , in brief, of the Nartana-nirnaya.

theme

Continued

In the

Next Part

 

Sources and References

The primary source on which I have depended upon is Nartana-nirnaya (in three volumes) edited and commented upon by the renowned scholar Prof. Dr. R. Satyanarayana. For Volume One, please click here. For Volume three please click here.

For Volume One :please click here

For more on Nartana- nirnaya and other texts on Dance forms ; as also  for the details of the few mentioned here , please do read  Dr. Mandakranta Bose’s research  paperThe Evolution of Classical Indian Dance Literature: A Study of the Sanskritic Tradition

Also refer to Pundarika Vittala by Dr. Padma Rajagopal

(https://sg.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/60012);

And to Musicological Literature by Emmie te Nijenhuis

ALL IMAGES ARE FROM INTERNET

 

 
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The texts of the Indian Dance traditions – Part Sixteen

Continued From Part Fifteen

Lakshana Granthas Continued

11. Sangita-ratnakara of Sarangadeva

Clipboard01

Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara  (first half of 13th century) is of particular importance; because, it was written just before influence of the Muslim conquest began to assert itself on Indian culture.  The Music and dance discussed in Sangita-ratnakara is free from Persian influence.  The Sangita-ratnakara, therefore, marks the stage at which the ‘integrated’ Music of India was , before it branched into North-South Music traditions.

[Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara was published by Adyar Library in four volumes. Please click here for : Vol IVol II ; Vol III and Vol IV 

And, please click here for the Sanskrit text of the Nartana-adhyaya]

The Sangita- ratnakara (the ocean of Sangita) describes the varied aspects of Sangita. The Sangita that the text refers to is indeed a composite term. The Sangita, according to Sarangadeva, is a comprehensive Art-form, composed of three elements (taurya-trika): the vocal (Gitam) and instrumental (Vadyam) music; followed by the third, the dance (Nrtyam) – Gitam, Vadyam tatha Nrtyam trayam Samgitam uccyate. 

The last one, the Nrtyam, is comprised of all the three Angas:  the elements: song, instrumental music, and, Dance.

Sangita

Here, the first element (Anga) of Sangita, the Gitam, the song format, is a fusion of Nada (sounds) and Akshara (a composition made of words). Its musical element is named Dhathu; while its lyrics or composition made of words is called Mathu. Locana Pandita, in his Raga-tarangini, explains the term Gitam, as:

Dhatu-matu-samayauktam Gitam iti uccyate budhaih; tatra nadatmako dhatur mathur akshara sambhavah

The Gitam, going by its traditional definition, strictly belongs to the Salaga Suda class of Prabandha, which is composed two Angas (elements) – Pada (words) and Taala (time-beats); and, having three components or Dhatus (Tri-dhatuka Prabandha) :  Udgraha, Dhruva and Abhoga.  For more on that, please click here. But, in common practice, anything that is sung goes by the name of Gita (Giyata iti Gitam).

The next term Vadyam, covers a wide variety of musical instruments, such as: the varied string instruments; different types of Drums; bell-metal cymbals; and a host of wind instruments including flutes, pipes, conch, trumpets etc.

Thus, the Sangita Shastra as envisaged by Sarangadeva was a composite Art consisting Gita (melodic-forms); Vadya (instruments); and, Nrtta (dance or limb movements). 

By the time of Sangita-ratnakara (13th Century), three Angas (limbs) of Sangita were well developed. Of these, the Vocal music was regarded as the essential, fundamental music through which all other forms of music were to be understood and interpreted. Here again, Sarangadeva focuses on Desi Sangita, though he comments on aspects of Marga Sangita as well. On Dance (Nrtya), he offers clear picture of both Marga and Desi traditions, although in a concise manner.

*

In his work Sangita-ratnakaraSarangadeva devotes seven chapters (Sapta-adhyayi) for discussing these three components (Anga-s) of Sangita; but, mainly about the first two. These seven Chapters covering varied aspects of Sangita are:

(1) Svara-gata-adhyaya ; (2) Raga-viveka-adhyaya (3) Prakinaka-adhyaya (4) Prabhandha-adhyaya (5) Tala-adhyaya; (6) Vadya-adhyaya; and,  (7) Nartana-adhyaya

The first six Chapters discuss, what is now known as Music – vocal and instrumental – (Gitam and Vadyam); and, these Chapters, together, are reckoned among the longest works on Music, in Sanskrit, covering all its vital aspects. The First Chapter deals with Nada (the principle of sound);  the Second with Raga (musical modes); the Third with Prakirna (miscellaneous topics relating to music); the Fourth with Prabandha (structured composition); the Fifth with Marga (classical) and Desi (regional) types of Taala (rhythm); and, the Sixth with Vadya (musical instruments).

Apart from these, the Sangita-ratnakara highlighted the ever changing nature of music; the expanding role of regional (Desi) influences on it, and the increasing complexity of musical material that needed to be systemised over a period. Yet; Sarangadeva was rooted in the prevalent musical practices of his time. His stress was consistently on the Lakshya, the music as practiced than on ancient theories (Lakshana), which though he respects them highly.

Thus, Sangita-ratnakara not only provides material for the study of the ancient music, but it also gives an insight into the then current practices. In his writing, Sarangadeva draws a clear distinction between the well established ancient (purva prasiddha) and the contemporary popular (adhuna prasiddha) Ragas. He also gives descriptions of the structures and temperaments of   musical instruments such as Veena and Vamsa (flute) according to the practices of his times. 

Therefore, the Sangita-ratnakara is regarded as a standard work or an authoritative text, on which the later scholars and commentators drew upon copiously.

*

[There are two well known commentaries on Sangita-ratnakara: the Kalanidhi of Chatura Kallinatha (c.1430); and, the Sangita-sudhakara of Simhabhupala (c.1330). Most of the editions of the Sangita-ratnakara are published along with these two commentaries, with the description:

Sangitaratnakarah, Chatura Kallinathaya virachitaya Kalanidhdya tikaya; Simhabhula virachitaya Sangitasudhakara tikaya cha samethah

Of the two, the Kalanidhi of Kallinatha (c.1430) is considered almost as a supplement to Sangita-ratnakara; as it expands on the text by citing verses of other authorities, and also introducing some new elements. For instance; Kallinatha, while commenting upon the descriptions of the Arm-movements, adds an entire section on the Vartana of which he describes thirty-one varieties (SR.7.270 to 286; Pages 105 to 110). Again, he adds another section on fifty types of Calanas or Calakas, another type of arm movement (pages 111 to 124). Further, Kallinatha quotes from the ancient authority Kohala, on the subject of Caris; and adds a new a new type Cari called Madhupa-cari (SR. pp.313-17)

The King, Simhabhupala, of the Recherla dynasty of Rajachala in Andhra, in his commentary Sangita-sudhakara (c.1330), written about a hundred years earlier Kallinatha’s Kalanidhi, tried to clarify the topics dealt by Sarangadeva in a clear manner. It provides some valuable information culled from the older texts. He cites from a certain text named Prayogastabaka, said to be a commentary the Dattilam ascribed to Dattila (Ca. First century); but, its manuscript, so far, has not been found.]

Dances

The Seventh and the last Chapter (Nartana-adhyaya) of the Sangita-ratnakara is about the third component of the Sangita, which is Nartana, the Dance format which includes Nrtta, Natya, and Nrtya. Here, Sarangadeva follows King Someshvara (Manasollasa) who had divided Nartana into three categories: Nrtta, Natya and Nrtya.  Though the Chapter on Dance is titled Nartana, it discusses mainly its Nrtta and Natya aspects.

On the subject of Dance, Sarangadeva has less information to offer than his contemporary Jaya Senapati (Nrtta-ratnavali, 13th century). But, what he offers is concise and systematic, presenting a clear picture of two Dance traditions – Marga and Desi – as were practiced dancing in the author’s time. And, the Seventh Chapter, the Nartana-adhyaya, with 1678 Verses, is the longest Chapter of the text.

And, so far as Dance is considered, Sangita-ratnakara marks the stage when Dance came to be viewed and treated as an independent Art-form; and, not as a mere ingredient adding beauty to a theatrical presentation. And, another significant feature was that the regional, the Desi style of Dance was given due importance, along with the classical Marga. Here, Sarangadeva was following the trend set by King Someshvara, in his Manasollasa.

Now, we are mainly interested in the last and the Seventh Chapter Nartana-adhyaya, dealing with Dance.

Sarangadeva

Sarangadeva / Sharangdeva (1175–1247) gives some information about himself in the beginning of the work. Sarangadeva introduces himself as belonging to a family which hailed from Kashmir. His grandfather Bhaskara, an Ayurveda physician, moved from Kashmir into the newly found Yadava capital at Devagiri (Maharashtra), in the Deccan region, at the invitation of King Bhillanna V (1173-1192). After the death of Bhillanna, his son Jaitrapala or Jaitugi ascended the throne and ruled for a short period. He was succeeded in 1200 by Sevuna (Yadava) King Simhana/Singhana (1200-1247). He was a very powerful king and also a great patron of arts, literature, and science. It was during his reign that Sarangadeva was appointed in his father’s (Sodhala’s) post as the Royal Accountant (Sri-karana-agrani). Along with his work at the King’s offices, Sarangadeva continued to practice the family profession of Ayurveda. He is also said to have written a Vedanta work entitled Adhyatma-viveka. That work is not available now.

During his spare hours, Sarangadeva was busy composing his monumental work on Indian music the Sangita Ratnakara, the Ocean of Sangita. It turned out to be one of the important and comprehensive Sanskrit texts on Music of India.

**

The Nartana-adhyaya opens with the famous verse, which is commonly associated with the Abhinaya Darpana of Nandikeshvara.

Angikam Bhuvanam sloka

Angikam Bhuvanam Yasya, Vachikam Sarva Vangmayam, Aaharyam Chandra Taradi, Tam Namah Saattvikam Shivam 

Whose bodily movements is the entire universe; whose speech is the language and literature of the entire Universe; whose ornaments are the moon and the stars; Him we worship, the serene Lord Shiva. ..!

There is, in fact, a protracted debate about the original authorship of the first forty verses of the Nartana-adhyaya.

Dr. K. Kunjunni Raja, in the introduction to the Fourth Part of the Sangita-ratnakara, edited and translated by him (published by Adyar Library, 1976), observes , it appears that nearly forty-two  verses in the introductory portions of the Seventh Chapter of the  Sangita-ratnakara , are almost the same as the introductory verses found in the Abhinaya-Darpana ascribed to Nandikeshvara.

The question is who borrowed from whom?

At the outset, it appears as though Sarangadeva borrowed these portions from the Abhinaya-Darpana.  However, the commentators, King Simhabhupala (c.1330), author of the Sangitasudhakara; and Kallinatha (c.1430) author of the Kalanidhi assert that the introductory verses of the Nartana-adhyaya are genuinely Sarangadeva’s own verses. If that is so, then the date of the Abhinaya Darpana would be pushed further down.

But, the Abhinaya Darpana mentions that these verses are the teachings of the older authorities – Yetani purva-shastra-anusarena ukthani ve maya (AD.47)

It is also likely that Nandikeshvara and Sarangadeva, both borrowed from a common source.

Yet; the question is still open.

*

In the introductory section of the First Chapter, Sarangadeva lists a number of earlier authorities, the essence of whose views, he states, he is presenting in his work.

Sarangadeva’s Sangita-ratnakara is a great compilation, not an original work, which ably brings together various strands of the past music traditions found in earlier works like Nāţyashastra, Dattilam, Bŗhaddēśī, and Sarasvatī-hŗdayālańkāra-hāra. It is greatly influenced by Abhinavagupta’s Abhinavabharati and Someshvara’s Manasollasa. But for Sangita-ratnakara, it might have been more difficult to understand NatyasastraBrhaddesi and other ancient texts.

Chapter Seven, which is the last Chapter, is in two parts.  The first one deals with Nartana. The term Nartana is a common term representing the arts of Nŗtta, Nŗtya and Nāţya (SR. 7. 3).

In describing the Marga tradition of Dance, Sarangadeva follows Natyashastra. In fact, the whole of the Seventh Chapter draws most of its material from Natyashastra and its commentaries. Many of the passages narrated therein (say, verses 78 to 89) are straightaway taken from the Ninth Chapter of Natyashastra. Even the definitions offered in this Chapter are adopted from other sources.

As regards the Desi class of Dance he improves upon the explanations offered in Manasollasa of King Someshvara and Sangita Samayasara of Parsvadeva.

In the second part of this Chapter, the author describes the Bhavas  (states or moods) and the related Nine Rasa-s, namely, Śrńgāra, Vīra, Hāsya, Raudra, Adbhuta, Karuņā, Bhayānaka, Bībhatsa and Shānta.

*

Sarangadeva commences his exposition on Dance with the statement that the Natya-Veda is, indeed, threefold: Natya, Nrtya and Nrtta (Natya, Nrtya tatha Nrtta tridha tadipi kititam- SR.7.3)

[Here Sarangadeva is following the classification as given in the Manasollasa; except that he does not use the term Nartana, as Someshvara did to represent the Dance , in general.]

Of these three, Sarangadeva explains the term Natya as that through which Rasa manifests (Natya sabdau Rase mukhyo Rasabhivyaki karanam – SR.17.18) . It connotes Abhinaya, through which the import of the Drama is expressed by the actors, in varied ways, providing uninterrupted joy to the spectators (SR.7.19).

He explains Nrtya as that which expresses Bhavas (various states and moods) through Angika-abhinaya; and, it is of the Marga class (SR.7.26)

And, Nrtta, he says, is only the movements of the body (gatra-vishepa matra), devoid of Abhinayas (sarva-abhinaya vargitam) SR.7.28.

Then, Sarangadeva mentions three varieties of Nrtta: Visama (acrobatic, dancing around with ropes etc.,); Vikata (comical or ludicrous in ungainly dress and movements; and, Laghu (of Ancita and other easy Karanas) – SR.7.31.32

The Natyashastra had earlier described Tandava as the Nrtta performed by Shiva; and Sukumara (Lasya) as Parvati’s dance. And, Bharata had not qualified these dance types as either being aggressive or gentle. There was, of course, mention of Nrtya.

But, here, Sarangadeva differed from Bharata. He classified both the Nrtta and Nrtya into two kinds: Tandava and Lasya (SR.7.28). Further, he said that Tandava requires Uddhata (forceful, aggressive) and Lasya requires Lalita (delicate, gentle)   movements (SR. 7. 29- 30).

Thus, according to Sarangadeva, the Nrtya covers rhythmic limb movements (Nrtta) as also eloquent gestures expressing emotions through Abhinaya. It is a harmonious combination of facial expressions, various glances, poses and meaningful movements of the hands, fingers and feet. Nrtyam, the dance, delightfully brings together and presents in a very highly expressive, attractive visual and auditory form, the import of the lyrics (sahitya), the nuances of its emotional content to the accompaniment of soulful music and rhythmic patterns (tala-laya). And, Nrtya can portray both the Tandava and the Lasya Dance movements.

As mentioned earlier; with exception of some elements, the treatment of the Angika-Abhinaya in the Sangita-ratnakara, to a large extent, follows the Natyashastra of Bharata. But, Sarangadeva made some changes in the arrangement of the limbs, within the three groups of limbs: Anga, Upanga and Pratyanga. Here, Sarangadeva followed the Manasollasa of Someshvara – (Verses 38 to 42). For instance;

Anga

SR Anga

Bharata, under the category Anga, the major body-parts, had listed six parts as: the head,  the chest, the sides, the hips, the hands and the feet.

Here, Sarangadeva, following the general pattern as laid down by Bharata, adopts, under the Anga, the six body parts: the head; the two hands; the chest; the sides; the hips and two feet. In addition to these Six, he adds the shoulders also.

Here, Sarangadeva differed from both Bharata and Someshvara [who had included shoulders and belly in place of the hands (Hasthas) and the feet (Padas)].

Pratyanga

SR PratyangaBharata, under the Pratyanga, had mentioned six parts as: the neck, the belly, the thighs, the shanks and the arms.

Sarangadeva included all these six parts under the Pratyanga; and, in addition he also counted the knees and wrists. Here, Sarangadeva followed the classification made by Someshvara.

 

 Upanga

And, under Upangas, Bharata had included nine elements , such as : the eyes; the eyebrows; the eyelids; pupils; the nose; the lips; the cheeks; the chin and the mouth; in addition to facial colors.

[Sarangadeva enumerates thirty-six varieties of glances, as did Bharata. And, he remarks: these may be taken only as illustrations; but, in fact, its possibilities are innumerable, depending upon the actions of the brows, pupils and the eyelids.]

SR UpangaSarangadeva, in addition to the nine Upangas in the head, as mentioned by Bharata, brought in the elements of the breath, the teeth and the tongue. However, Bharata had not considered these three as Upangas.

Apart from the twelve Upangas located in the head, Sarangadeva counted the heels; the ankles; the fingers of the hand; the toes; and the soles of the feet. Here he was clearly deviating both from Bharata and Someshvara. Because, Someshvara had included only the tongue and teeth as Upangas, in addition to those mentioned by Bharata; but, he had not included those parts with other limbs as Upangas. Obviously, Sarangadeva adopted these details from some other source.

 

*

As regards, the colours of the Face (Mukha-raga), Sarangadeva adopts the four colours as mentioned in the Natyashastra: Svabhavika (natural); Prasanna (clear); Raktha (red); and, Shyama (dark) Verses 527-528

Asamyuktahastas

As regards the position of the hands (Kara-Pracara), Bharata had classified these into three kinds: Uttana (facing upward); Adhomukha (facing downward); and , Parsvagata (turned to the sides). Sarangadeva , however, adds twelve more  positions of the hands as sub-classification of  the three mentioned by Bharata: Agratastala (palm facing forward); Svasamm-mukhatala (palms turned to oneself); Urdhva-mukha (pointing upward); Adho-vadana (pointing downward); Paran-mukha (pointing outward); Sammukha (pointing toward oneself); Parsvato-mukha (pointing to the sides) ; Urdhvaga (moving up); Adhogata (moving down); Parsva-gata (moving to the side) ; Agraga (moving forward); and, Sammukha-gata (moving toward oneself). (Verses 532-537, Page 182)


flower design

Sarangadeva mentions (in Verses 42 to 48, Pages 16-17) that henceforth, in the Chapters to follow, he would be describing:

Sarangadeva mentions (in Verses 42 to 48, Pages 16-17) that henceforth, in the Chapters to follow, he would be describing:

: – The positions of the hands (Kara-Pracara); the movements of the hands (Kara-Karana); the actions of the hands (Kara-Karma); the places for the hands (Hastha-kshetra);

:- The descriptions of the two-fold Karanas , the Marga and the Desi Nrtta karanas,  those accompanied by jumps (Utpluti); the Angaharas along with their Recakas ; the Caris , with their Marga and Desi variants; the Sthanakas; the Vrttis; the Nyayas , with their Pravicaras , the Mandalas of all kinds;

: – The descriptions of the Lasyangas; the Rcakas;

: – The procedures for practice (Srama) of Dance ; the definition of a person fit for Dancing (Patra); the qualifications of a Nartaki, the qualifications of the Dance-teacher; the merits and de-merits of the Dance troupe;

: – The descriptions of the Acharya, the Nata, the Nartaka, Vaitalika, Carana, and Kolhatika;

: – Particulars of the rules relating to Gundali; the correct description of Peranin and his style;

: – The descriptions of the assembled spectators, the leader of the assembly, and the location of the assembly; and,

: – The descriptions of the Nava Rasa-s and Bhava-s;

Sarangadeva , generally, follows the descriptions provided in the Natyashastra and the  Manasollasa , while enumerating the different  positions and movements of the various elements and components of the body; the Caris, Sthanas,  Karanas and the Angaharas of both the Marga and the Desi types; the Lasyangas; qualities of the Dancers; qualities of the Dance teacher; the Desi Nrtta and its various forms ; and , discussions on the Rasas , Bhavas etc.

**

Sarangadeva’s description of Caris, Sthanas, Karanas and Angaharas of the Marga type are as per the Natyashastra.

[Sarangadeva explains Cari as the combination of the beautiful movements of the feet, shanks, thigh and the hips, performed in coordination. The term Cari, he says, is derived from root Car ( to move); and, by adding the suffix i (n) and ni , at the end.]

But, the Desi styles of Bhumi (36 types) and Akashi Caris (19 types); six Sthanas for men, seven Sthanas for women and twenty-three Desi Sthanas; nine sitting and six reclining Sthanas (altogether fifty-one Sthanas); the four types of Vrittis; the Bhumi and Akashi Mandalas; the Desi Lasyangas; and the 36 Utpluti-karanas from regional traditions, which demand strenuous physical exertion and perfect control of the limbs, are the same as those in the Manasollasa of Someshvara.

Some of the thirty-six Utpluti-karanas in the Sangita-ratnakara are also the same as in the Manasollasa, which lists eighteen karanas of the Desi variety (Manas. 16. 4. 1384-99).

*

As regards Bhramaris, in the Natyashastra, the Bhramari was the name of a Cari; and, it was not a particularly complicated revolving movement.

In the later times, many types of Bhramaris were developed; all of them being variations of the whirling movements. Gradually, as these diversified into more elaborate movements, they came to be recognized as constituting a distinct class. The earliest text to do so was Parsvadeva’s Sangita-samayasara (7.193) a treatise on Desi music and dance prevalent in 13th century; and, it describes eleven Desi karanas; along with five Bhramaris.  

The Abhinaya-Darpana (289- 98) also regards the Bhramaris as a distinct group.

Here, Sarangadeva was following Parsvadeva, who had described Utpluti-karanas needed for the Desi Nrtta along with eleven Desi Karanas with different Desi Sthanas; and, five Bhramaris.

These Bhramaris are included among Utpluti-karanas by Sarangadeva, also. And, it indicates that by his time, the Bhramaris were so developed and so important as to be regarded as a form of Karanas.

karanas_dribbble

After the description of the Sthanas which include sitting and lying postures that are appropriate to drama, the author discusses the four types of vrttis (caturdha Vrtti) , the modes of depiction and styles of presentation : Kaisiki; Sattvati; Arabhati; and, Bharati. Bharata regarded the Vrttis or the Styles as one among the most important constituent elements of the play. In fact, he considered the Vrttis as the mother of all poetic works – sarveāmeva kāvyānāṃ-mātkā vttaya smḥ (NS.18.4).

This is followed by a description of Mandala (combination of Caris); and then of ten Lasyangas of the Desi variety.

Jaya Senapati (Nrtta-ratnavali), who was a contemporary of Sarangadeva, gives a list of forty-six Lasyangas; and, Parsvadeva, who preceded both, had listed twenty Desi Angas.

But it is Sarangadeva’s list of ten Lasyangas that was cited by the  later authors.

**

Next, Sarangadeva describes the Gaundali and the Perani, the two dances commonly performed in the Desi tradition.  Here, Sarangadeva follows Sangita-Samayasara of Parsvadeva.

Parsvadeva, had mentioned Perana, Pekkhana, Gundali and Dandarasa, as forms of the Desi-Nrtya. He had also discussed the Sthanas and Caris needed for these Desi types of dances; and, in particular, the five elements or components (Angas) of Perana Dance: Nrtta, Kaivara, Ghargara, Vagada and Gita.

Parsvadeva had described Nrtta as consisting Lasya and Tandava aspects , which are based rhythm and tempo; Kaivara as praising the king through praising his ancestors; Gharghara as rhythmic stamping of feet , with bells tied to the ankles; Vagada as miming of ludicrous characters; and, Gita as a song sung according to the rules of a pure or mixed raga, complete with Alapa.

In that context, he had given the details of the instrumental music, drumming in particular, needed for four kinds of Desi dances, namely, Perana, Pekkhana, Gundali and Dandarasa. Parsvadeva had also indicated the requirements of a good dancer, her physical appearance; and, the way she should be dressed etc.

Sarangadeva, following Parsvadeva, also talks of the qualities and appearance of the Peranin a male dancer; and, says that the Peranin should : have his body covered with white coloured ash ; have his head shaved, leaving a small tuft of hair (Shikha); wear number of shining anklet-bells (Ghargharika); have a good voice ; be clever; be an expert in Tala and Laya; and, should be an attractive dancer (Verses 1301-3, Pages 384-85)

He also explains the sequential process of a performance, including the musical accompaniment, in the pure mode or Shuddha-paddhati, and the Gaundali of the Desi tradition (Verses 1316-25, Page 389). Here, Sarangadeva follows Manasollasa, entirely

The Gaundali and the Perani  seemed to have been the most common Dance-items in Desi tradition; because, they are mentioned in all the texts from the Sangita-samayasara in the twelfth/thirteenth century down to the Siva-tattva-ratnakara of Basavabhupala of Keladi (1684 A.D.-1710 A.D.)

And, Perani was popular, particularly in the Andhra region. And, Jaya Senapati had discussed it in fair detail. Its popularity is attributed to its fast movements; and, to the use of ankle bells.

Pekkhana or Preksana, a Desi Dance with Lasya and Gaundali are described with accompanying vocal and instrumental music. The Gaundali dance certainly survived till the eighteenth century; but,  later, it seemed to have faded away.

*

After describing these two dance pieces, Sarangadeva enumerates the qualifications of the Acharya (the teacher); the Nata (the actor); the Nartaka (the dancer); the Vaitalika (a common entertainer); the Charana (an expert in understanding Gharghara, a distinctive feature of the Desi dances of the Dravida region); and, the Kolatika (a performer who specializes in Bhramari, rope-walking and dancing with a dagger). Next, he describes the audience and the sitting arrangements.

Then, after describing the Lasyangas, Sarangadeva explains the importance of aesthetic beauty; and,  lays down the rules of exercise, and describes the qualities and faults of a performer (including a description of her make-up and costume), and those of the teacher and the group of supporting performers. Then he describes the sequential process of a performance, including the musical accompaniment, in the pure mode or Shuddha Paddhati.

The Chapter offers guidelines for dance practice; dancer’s merits, credentials and shortcomings; and, the description of the music/performance hall. In doing so he combines the material from the Natyashastra with that from later works; and , presents a coherent view not found in previous works.

rasas

In the second part of this Chapter, the author describes Rasas , the Nine Rasas (Nava-rasa), thirty-three Sthayi-bhavas, eight Sattvika-bhavas , thirty-three Vyabichari  Bhavas; and the definition of Sattva. Sarangadeva largely follows the explanations offered by Abhinavagupta on the theories of Rasa.

Sarangadeva mentions that all the eight kinds of states or Sattvika-bhavas (temperamental states) can appear in any of the Rasas. And, in a Drama one Rasa must be made prominent; and, other Rasas should be supplementary.

**

The Seventh and the Final Chapter concludes with the Verse wherein Sarangadeva avers that he did not compile this work out of pride of his learning or knowledge; but, as a means to reach out and to seek a place in the hearts and minds of the learned.

Na vidya-darpato grantha pravrttirmam kim tvidam / Vidvan manasa –vasaya gantu patheyam asthitam // SR.7.1678 , Page 476 //

sangita-ratnakara-.jpg

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In the Next Part, we shall move on to another text.

Continued

In

The Next Part

 

References and Sources

  1. Movement and Mimesis: The Idea of Dance in the Sanskritic Tradition by Dr Mandakranta Bose
  2. Sangita ratnakara  https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-
  3. Sangita ratnaj -kars : https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt- https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-
  4. All images are from Internet

 

 
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Music of India – a brief outline – Part fifteen

Continued from Part Fourteen – Lakshana Granthas

Part Fifteen (of 22 ) – Lakshana Granthas – Continued

4. Sangita Makaranda

Sangita Makaranda ascribed to Narada (7th -9th century) is an interesting work. It has two parts, one on music;  and , the other on dance, each divided into four sections. Its style is said to be rather complicated; and, makes a difficult reading. The first part of the text is devoted to music (Sangita) . It has subsections dealing with the origin of Nada and Svaras; associations of the Svaras with  factors such as Gramas , Murchanas etc ; various musical terms such as , Vadi, Sruti, Alamkara etc; classification of Ragas ; and , with the musical instruments.  

Before we get  back to its music-aspect lets briefly  take a look at its dance-content. 

In the first section of the part on dance, the author discusses the dance-hall, the audience, the poet, the singer, types of learned spectators, the chairman, the dance-teacher, the percussionist, the performer, the flower-offering and the origin of the Talas.

The second section describes the characteristics of 101 Talas.  The third section also gives information on Tala, including the derivation of the word, the essence of Tala, the time, Marga, Desi and such other details.

The fourth section is devoted to drums but also contains a short final subsection of 33 verses called natibhavanirupanam which is devoted to dance. It describes five double hand-gestures, five single hand-gestures, eight bhramaris, nine head movements and four feet movements.

*

According to Emmie te Nijenhuis ,  the first chapter of the Sangita Makaranda seems to closely follows  Sarangadeva’s views , specially , with regard to the treatment of the Svaras and their association with the deities (Devata), meters (chhandas) , and emotions (rasa). Narada also adds to the systems of associations the family names (gotra), constellation (rasi), the birth-star  (nakshatra ) , the presiding deities of the constellation (rasi- adidevata) and the associated creature (yoni kathanam).

Narada brings in philosophical, Tantric and religious interpretations into Desi Music. He names Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara as the deities of Shadja, Madhyama and Gandharva Gramas, respectively. In that order, each Grama is allotted to a season (Rtu): Hemanta (winter) for Shadja; Grishma (summer) for Madhyama; and, Varsha (rains) for Gandharva Grama. As regards the time of the day for rendering the Gramas, he allots forenoon to Shadja; midday to Madhyama; and afternoon to Gandharva Grama.

Narada in his Sangita Makaranda (12)  calls the playing of the seven pure or natural notes (Shuddha Svara) of the scale ascending from the lower to higher , i.e., starting from Shadja ( meaning , the one giving birth to the other six notes ) as Prakrti; and, the way of playing from the descending scale as Vikrti . Here, Prakrti denotes, a hierarchy of sounds played on a Veena. According to Narada, the practicing the scale on musical instruments is comparable to emanation and withdrawal of the universe.

Prakrti dve vijaniyath –svara-tantreshu samsthithe / tatrapi cha tayormadhya shadjadi cha nishadakam //

Ya sa prakrti-vijneta Bharatena cha charchita / vikrutich nishadadi shadja-antara-svara puritah //

There are two modes that are known to exist in playing of the Svaras on stringed instruments. Of the two, the playing of the Svaras starting with Shadja and ascending up to Nishada is known as Prakrti (natural), which was practiced by Bharata . In the other mode, the Vikrti (modified) the Svaras start with Nishadha and moves on to Shadja in order to complete the scale.

**

Narada explains that Shadja is the first important note holding more ministers (samvadi notes), hence it gets a grama on its name. Madhyama is a note which cannot be omitted in any Grama, so it also holds a grama. About Ga he says that it is born in heaven, used by divine beings, thus indisputable. (There seems to be a pun on the term. Here, Grama is a technical term; and grama is village).

Earlier, Gandharva grama was not defined clearly.   Narada in eight Slokas (49-56) gives the names of the Murchanas of Gandharva Grama as : Nandi, Visala, Sumukhi, Chitra, Chitravati, Shukha and Aalapa. Emmie te Nijenhuis explains that according to Narada, Sa and Ma has four Srutis, and Dha three Srutis. He takes one Sruti from Ri and Ma each and allocates them to Ga, which normally has two Srutis only. Thus, Ri has two Srutis, Ma has three Srutis, Ga has four Srutis. Narada says that Ni takes one Sruti from Pa, which has four Srutis. Sa has only three Srutis.

Further Emmie te Nijenhuis  explains : In the description of Shadja and Madhyama Gramas,  Narada follows the general order accepted by all, i.e. Shadja Grama (4,3,2,4,4,3,2 Srutis); Madhyama Grama (4,3,2,4,3,4,2 Srutis). Narada also confirms that in Shadja grama, Shadja is in consonance with both Madhyama and Pancama. In the same way, in Madhyama Grama, Pancama is the consonant to Dhaivata and Rishabha. Narada again mentions that Panchama has only three Srutis, while Dhaivata of Madhyama Grama gains one Sruti and has four Srutis.

**

As regards the Ragas, Narada introduces the concept of identifying the proper hour of the day for rendering certain Ragas.

Narada, in the third khand of the chapter Sangeetadhyaya of his Sangeet Makranda, categorized ragas according to the suryansh (solar) and chandransh (lunar) groups, i.e. sun- and moon-based ragas. He further says

evam kalavidhin gyatva gayedhyaha sa sukhi bhavet || ragavelapraganen raganan hinsako bhavet | yaha shrinoti sa daridri ayurnashyati sarvada

[ Translation: One who sings the raga-s according to their designated times, attains peace and prosperity. The raga-s themselves shall become violent and lose their attraction if sung off their times. Such (singers) become poor and live a short life ]

According to Sangeet Makranda (Ch. III, 10-23):

Morning melodtes: Gandhara, Deva-gandhara, Dhannasi, Saindhavi, Narayani, Gurjari, Vangala, Patamanjari, Lalita, Andola-sri, Saurastreya, Jaya-saksika, Malhara, Sama-vedi, Vasanta, Suddha-Bhairava, Velavali, Bhupala, Soma-raga.

Noon-day melodies: Sankarbharana, Purva (?), Balahamsa, Desi, Manohari, Saveri, Dombuli Kambhoji, Gopikiirpbhoji, Kaisiki, Madhu-madhavi, Vahuli (two varieties), Mukhari, Mangala-kausika

After noon melodies: Gauda and the derIvatives therefrom

Noctural melodies: Suddha-nata, Salanga, Nati, Suddha’varatikii, Goula, Malava-gauda, Sri-raga, Ahari, Ramakrti, Ranji, Chaya, Sarva-varatika, Dravatika. Desi, Nagavaratika, Karnata, Haya-gaudi.

**

A significant  feature of the work  is the system of classifying  six Ragas as male and six Raginis as female , thus    forming six cohesive families, raga-parivara.  It also mentions about neuter (napumsa) ragas. In a particular season, one designated Raga is to be sung along with its Ragini and their offspring (putra raga).

The six groups of Ragas enumerated in the Sangita-makaranda formed foundation of the earliest mythology of the melodies. The legends ascribe to Shiva or Nataraja, the origin of the science of music and drama.

According to the legend here, the ragas are said to have been derived from the union of Sihva and Shakti – Parvati, or Girija. From the five faces of Shiva, at the beginning of his dance (nartana arambhe), came out the five ragas: Sri-raga, Vasanta, Bhairava, Panchama, and Megha; while the sixth raga, Nata narayani came out of the mouth of Parvati (Girija), the daughter of the Himalaya, when she performed the elegant lasya dance.

Siva-Sakti-samayogad raganam sambhavo bhavet / Pancasyat panca ragah syuh sastastu Girija mukhat // Sadyo vaktrattu Srirago Vamadevad, vasantakh / Aghorad bhairavo ‘bhut, tatpurusat pancamo’ ‘bhavat // Isanakhyad megha-rago, natyarambhe Sivadahut / Girijaya-muka lasye nata-narayano’ bhavat //

*

 In Sangita Makaranda , the author wonders : strange are the ways that assign names to the Ragas – Naradena vicitrena santi namani vaksyate.  He then indicates how the Ragas came to be named during different periods in the history of Indian Music.

In the period of Natyashastra the Gramas were named after their main Svaras. For instance; Shadava was named after Sha; Madhya Grama after Ma; and, Gandharva after Ga. As regards the  Ragas,  took their names from the dominant or significant Svara prevailing in their compositions. Thus, one of the Grama-ragas is called Shadji  from the note Shadja; Arsabhi, from the note Rsabha; and,  Gandhiiri, from the note Gandhara, and so on.

In the second stage, it says, the Ragas came to named after the names of tribes (Janapada). For instance; Raga Abhiri was named after Abhira tribe, Raga Saviri after Savara tribe; Pulinda Raga after Pulinda tribe ; Saverika (Saveri) after the Savars, and Bhairava-raga  after the Bhairavas  ; and so on .

In the third stage, Ragas were named after the regions (Desha). For instance Surati or Surat Malhar was named after Saurastra region; Sindu Bhiravi after Sindu Desha; Karnati after Karnataka; Kambhoji after Kambhoja Desha; Gauda and Purvi after the  Eastern part  of Bengal  ; Gurjari after Gujarat region and so on . 

Later , some of the names of the Ragas were derived from their associations with the season( Megha raga with raina , Vasantha with spring ) , and seasonal feastivals  (Hindola with swing festival, Sri Raga with harvest festival).

 [ For more please check pages 71 and onward of Prof. O C Ganguli’s book . ]

**

Sangita Makaranda has seven sections:  Naada, Sruti, Svara, Raga, Veena, Taala, Nartana, etc. Many types of instruments are mentioned – including nineteen types of Veena – kachchapi, kubjika, chitra, parivadini, jaya, ghosavati, jyeshta, nakuli, mahati, vaishnavi, brahmi, raudri, ravani, sarasvati, kinnari, saurandri, ghosaka etc.

It also lists 22 Srutis and their names. The Srutis are divided into five classes : (1) Dipta (dazzling) –Tivra,Raudri, Vajrica and Ugra; (2)  Ayata (vast oe expansive) – Kumudvathi, Krodha ,Prasarini, Sandipini, and Rohini; (3) Karuna (compassion) –Dayavathi, Alapini and Madanti; (4) Mrudu (tender) –Manda , Ratika,Priti and Ksiti; and (5) Madhya (moderate) –Chandovathi, Ranjani, Marjani , Raktiki, Ramya and Ksobini.

[Ref: http://www.natyam.ru/index.html#music        Natalie Savelyeva; Musicological literature by Emmie te Nijenhuis ; https://ia601602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-sangIta-makaranda-Narada-GOS-1920-0053.pdf]

 

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Sarasvathi-hrdaya-alamkara-hara by king Nanyadeva

King Nanyadeva, a prince of a later branch of the Rastrakuta (Karnataka) dynasty is said to have reigned in Mithtili between 1097 and 1154 A.D. His capital was at Simarampur (modern Simraon), now within Nepal. Though his Sarasvati-hrdaya-alamkara hara was primarily written as a commentary (bhashya) on Bharata’s Natya-shastra, it is, for all purposes, treated as an independent work. Because, he introduced many new matters such as –  the grama and jati ragas that were not commented upon  by earlier authorities. He also mentions Karnata-pata tanas and gives references to the music of South India.

The Sarasvati-hrdaya-alamkara hara contains four main chapters  : Vachika, Angika , Satvika and Aharya.

[ Each chapter ends with the colophon: “Iti maha samantadhipathi dharmapalaka Sri-man-Nanyapati-viracite Sarasvati-Hrdayalankara Bharata-vartike vacikamso …… adhyaya samaptah “]

Nanyadeva is cited as an authority by Sarangadeva. His text not only includes descriptions of several Ragas, but also about 15 examples of compositions (called Panikas, which are of lighter nature might have been used for dancing as also for singing in groups) with notations for vocal rendering. The Panikas belong to a genre of music forms called Gitakas or Prakaranas of varying rhythmic patterns (as opposed to the modern compositions set to a particular Taala). These are no longer in use. Each rhythmic suit is identified by the number of matras (time units), by claps and gestures to measure the time of the beats.

The Notations used by Nanyadeva are simple pitch notations by numbering the Svaras (Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni). However, no distinction is made between Shuddha Ga and Antara Ga; or between the standard Shuddha Ni and Kakili Ni. Some notations are indicated by placing dots as superscripts. In some cases, it is not clear; as it appears the copyists might have got confused.

*

Nanyadeva derives most of his materials from Narada, Yastika, Kasyapa and Matanga, the last two of whom are profusely quoted as important authorities. He remarks: “How could people of lesser intelligence succeed in swimming across the ocean of Ragas which such early exponents as Matanga and others failed to cross,” meaning thereby that it is impossible to describe the melodies exhaustively.

Yo na tirno Matanga-adyaih raga-dvash raga-sagarah / Svalpa-buddhya purveneha sanataritum sakyate katham

Following Matanga, he gives the various classifications of Ragas.  Nanyadeva divides the gitis under five instead of under the seven groups given by Matanga.  He uses the term mula-raga (root-ragas) for the major melodies (mukhya) which are so called “because of their extremely soothing qualities.” – Ranjanadatisayatvena tastu mukhyah prakirtitah

[ Nanyabhupala,  in his Bharatabhashya, connects each type of  Giti s to specific hours hours (yamas) of the day. For instance; the two Gitis, shuddha and bhinna, are assigned to the first yama or prahara (a three-hour period) of the day. The Giti, gaudi, is placed at mid-day; vesara is in the first part of the day; and sadharana is said to be common to all hours of the day. ]

He introduced a new term called ‘Svarakhya ragas’, i.e., Ragas which take their names according to the notes (svara) e.g.   the Grama ragas such as Sadji, Arabhi, Dhaivati, etc.

Similarly, the term Desakhya ragas, indicated Ragas which derive their names from the country, province, or region of their origins. They are five in number, and, are classed as Upa-ragas: Dakshinatya, Saurastri, Gurjari, Vangai, and Saindavi.

Desakhya Dakshinatya ca Saurastri Gurjari tatha / Vangali Saindhavi cobhe pancaitu tett- uparagaja

Of the various melodies described by their note structures and notations we come across some new names such as ‘Stambha-patrika’ and ‘Tumburupriya‘.

Nanyadeva devotes a small section of his work for  indicating the presiding deity of the principal melodies. Some indications are also given as to the appropriate hours and seasons for the Ragas.

 [ For more on Nanyadeva and notations on Panika songs please the remarkable study made by D. R. Widdess in his paper:Tāla and Melody in Early Indian Music: A Study of … – jsto ]

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 5. Manasollasa

Manasollasa (also called Abhjilashitarta Chintamani) ascribed to the Kalyana Chalukya King Someshwara III (1127-1139 AD) is an encyclopedic work, written in Sanskrit, covering a wide variety of subjects ranging from the means of acquiring a kingdom, methods of establishing it, to medicine, magic, veterinary science, valuation of precious stones , fortifications, painting , art, games ,  amusements , culinary art and so on . The third section called upabgogasya vimsathi details twenty kinds of upabhogas or enjoyments. The chapter on annabhoga describes how various recipes are prepared as well as how they should be served to the king. Manasollasa is a treasure trove of ancient recipes. In general , it provides valuable information on life of those times. It is also of historical importance as it gives the geographical description of Karnataka of 12th century and details of its people.

The work is divided into five sections called Vimsathis because each contains twenty Adhyayas (chapters) .  The book is thus a tome of 100 chapters. Each chapter is dedicated to a specific topic. The five Vimsathis are: the Rajya Prakarana; Prapta Rajya –  Sthairikarana; Upabhoga; Vinoda and KreedaThe treatment of the subjects is sophisticated, cultured , suiting the  elite atmosphere of a King’s court.

The first Vimsathi, Rajya Prakarana, describes the means of obtaining a kingdom and the required qualifications for a king.  The second, Prapta Rajya Sthairikarana describes the ways of maintaining a king’s position strong and stable.   The Upabhogasya vimsati describes how a king must enjoy a comfortable life. In this section two chapters are dedicated to annabhoga or enjoyment of food and jala or paniyabhoga enjoyment of drinking water and juices. The next Vinoda vimsathi describes how a king should amuse himself.   The last section Krida vimsathi describes various recreations. The last two sections , in particular, are virtually the guides to Royal pastime (vinoda).

The subjects of Music and dance are covered under the fourth Section, the Vinoda Vimsathi.  The  Vocal and instrumental Music is covered  two sections Geeta Vinoda and Vadya Vinoda ; and , dance is covered under Nrtya Vinoda.

[Please check the following link for more on the Nrtya Vinoda :

https://sreenivasaraos.com/2018/11/25/the-texts-of-the-indian-dance-traditions-part-fourteen/ ]

*

King Someshwara was himself an accomplished musician and a gifted composer He is said to have composed in varied song-formats such as : Vrtta, Tripadi, Jayamalika, Swaraartha, Raga Kadambaka, Stava Manjari-, Charya and so on. He composed Varnas, Satpadis and Kandas   in Kannada language  . In addition, he compiled Kannada folk songs relating to harvest  season , love , separation ( in Tripadi); marriage-songs (in Dhavala); festival and celebration songs (Mangala); marching soldiers (Raahadi); and Sheppard-songs (Dandi).

Prince Someswara  was regarded by the later authors as an authority on Music and Dance. Later musicologists Parsvadeva and Sarangadeva quote from Manasollasa quite often ; and,   Sarangadeva in his work mentions Someswara along with other past-masters of  of music theory (Rudrato Nanya-bhupalo Bhoja-bhu-vallabhastatha, Paramardi ca Someso Jagadeka-mahipatih)

*

Someswara describes two schools of music – Karnata and Andhra; and, remarks that Karnata is the older form. This, perhaps, is the earliest work where the name Karnataka Sangita first appears (Musical Musings: Selected Essays – Page 46 )

Manasollasa defines chaste Music as that which educates (Shikshartham), entertains (Vinodartham), delights (Moda Sadanam) and liberates (Moksha Sadanam) –   This, I reckon,  by any standard, is a great definition of Classical Music. And, this  is how the chaste and classical music is defined even today.

Shikshartham Vinodartham Cha, Moda Sadanam, Moksha Sadanam Cha.

Such Music, he says, should be a spontaneous source of pleasure (nirantara rasodaram ), presenting varied bhavas  or modes of expressions (nana- bhaava vibhaavitam) and should  be pleasant on the ears (shravyam) .

It says, “One should sing of the manifestations of God like Vishnu and Siva. Out of desire for wealth or honor, one should sing of ordinary mortals; if he sings of them, he is to be condemned”.

*

Someswara mentions the Ragas as being indirectly derived from the Samaveda. Then , he says :  ‘From the jatis,  the ragas were ascertained. And, from the Ragas came the Bhashas, and then Vibhashas and the Antara Bhashikas.”

Manasollasa classifies Ragas as Shuddha , Gauda , Sadharana etc. Some of the Ragas are named after the region  (Desi)they are associated, such as Turki –Todi etc. It about fifty-one Ragas, and thirty-one types of Taalas.

According to Someshwara, Desi-ragas that were  derived from the names of regions, were current in his time, in popular and beautiful forms – (Desi-raga…desa-nama-samudbhavah I Pravartante vinodesu siimpratam sumanoharah).

 He then says: “The Raga develops by hearing, and the mind is always pleased and elated by it; therefore, they are called Ragas.  I am proceeding to recite them by names- (Ragah pravardhate srutya rajyate manasam sada/ Tena ragah! samakhyata namatastan vravihyahami).

Then, he gives a list  of the different classes or types of Ragas, apparently current in his time .

The five suddha ragas are stated to be: (1) Shuddha-sadava; (2) Shuddha-panchama; (3) Shuddha-sadharita; (4) Shuddha-kaisika-madhyama; and (5) Shuddhakaisika.

The names of the five Bhinna’ragas are given as : (1) Bhinna-shadja ; (2) Bhinna-tana(?) ;  (3) Bhinna-kaisika-madhyama; (4) Bhinna-pancahma (5) Bhinna-kaisika.

The three Gaudas are: (1) Gauda-panchama; (2) Gauda-kaisika-madhyama; (3) Gauda-kaisika.

The ragas proper are said to be eight in number: (1) Sadava; (2) Vodda-raga, (3) Malava-panchama; (4) Takka-kaisika; (5) Sauvira; (6) Malava-kaisika; (7) Hindola; and, (8) Taka.

( These mostly  resemble the list given by Matanga :

Sadavo Voda-ragaca tatha malava-pancamah / Taka-kaulika-Sauvira, tatha ma!ava-kauhka/ Hindo!a-taka-ragasca, ityashu raga-bhavantyasu )

Of the Sadharana Ragas, seven names are given: (1) Narta; (2) Saka; (3) Kakubha; (4) Harmana-panchama; (5) Rupa-sadharita; (6) Gandhara-pancahma; and ,  (7) Sadja-kauslka.

Someshwara then gives a series of verses describing the structure of the following melodies:

Sri-raga; Soma-raga, Malava-kausika; Hara-puri(?); Hindola; Desi-Hindola; Bhairivi; Mahlara; Saveri; Valiti (? Vahuli); Vangala; Karnata-Vangala; Gurjari; Saurastri; Pun-nata; Kaisik; Suddha-varali; Karlnata-varati; Dravida varati; Suddha-nati; Megharaga; Ahiri; Chayanati; Todi (?); Dulli-Todi; Vahlana; Vahurl; Vala-ulli; Chaya-vela-ulli; Cundyi; Hamsa; Khambhari; Kamoda; Silmhali-Kamoda; Desanaka (?) Desakhya); Danthibhi(?); Kolahala; Saindhav; Damva’krti; Ramakrti; and, Nanda-kiti.

This is an interesting list. By the time of Sarangadeva, the names of the Ragas had changed grately; and , many new Ragas had come into use.

 *

Someswara in his  Manasollasa comments upon the desired qualities of a singer, voice culture, ways of elaborating a song etc besides clearly stating the structure and the components of a class of Music called Prabandha which dominated Indian Music till about the end of 17th century. And, it offers views and comments on, Alapana, Gamaka , a composer etc.

It lists seven qualities of a singer:  Shaariram (Voice); Dhwani (tonal quality and suggestion in the voice); Medha (learned  both in lakshya and lakshana); Praudi (maturity or expertise);  Gamaka Kaushalam (skill in adorning the music with graces) ; Taala gnanam (sense of Taala and understanding rhythm) ; and, Nirbhayata (self-confidence, fearlessness).

Someshwara lists five qualities (Guna) of a good voice as : Madhurya (sweetness) ; Snigdha( possessing high quality and sweetness even in high octaves); Ghana ( rich and resonant) ; Svaraka ( clear voice that can carry over to distances) ; and, Swanaka ( in which all the beautiful qualities are combined).

Madhurya (sweetness) is the quality of sound that is sweet, melodious as that of Veena and Vamsi (flute) , matching that of  a Cuckoo‘s sound .

 (Venuvinasamo nado yuktosou Avanirisyate I Kokilasavam sankasou madhuradva nirucyate)

Snigdha is very melodious in the high octave and possessing all the beautiful features

(Uccaisthannepi yah sravyah snigdhadhavni rasou matah)

Ghana is the rich and resonant tonal quality.

 (Aksaso nibido yasthui ghanasou dhavaniriritah)

 Sravaka is the clarity and loudness that can be heard from a long distance without losing sweetness or Madhurya.

(Durastah sruyate yastu sandhra madhyesthithopi va Madhuryadigunopeto Sravako dhvaniriritah)

Swanaka is the comprehensive quality that is considered very important and best among the qualities (dhvani-nam-uttamh). It is the sound which is very melodious in the high octave and possesses all the beautiful features described earlier.

 (Uccasvanepi yah Sravyah sobhano laknanvitah Dhvaninamuamah prokto dhvani-svanaka-sobhanah)

The composers (Vak-geya-kara) are classified into three classes: the lowest is the lyricist; the second is one who sets to tune songs of others; and, the highest is one who is Dhatu Mathu Kriyakari –who writes the lyrics (Mathu), sets them to music (Dhatu) and ably presents (Kriyakari)  his composition.

The work has clear instructions on how the musicians should be placed on the dais. The Vaggeyakara should be seated in front with assisting male singers on either side. Flutists and female vocalists should be in a middle row and the drummers seated behind. (This makes a good arrangement for blending and balancing the deep voices, the shrill flute and high female voices and the resounding drums.)

Manasollasa makes a very interesting comment on the role of the organizer of the Music-meet. It says that the Sabhapathi, the organizer or the host  should have good knowledge of Music and Shastras . He should be physically fit, mentally sound and must be in a tranquil frame of mind. He can afford to sit and enjoy music only after he fulfilled all his responsibilities and duties.

It also mentions how the listening audience should behave and interact to music.

The work  suggests that the audience must be youthful in its frame of mind to be able to appreciate music .

(Ref: Dr Sathyavati  on Manasollasa and its relevance to present day music )

***

As regards Dance, the Manasollasa deals with the subject in the sixteenth chapter titled Nrtya-vinoda, coming under the Fourth Section of the text – the Vinoda vimsathi. It is dealt with in 457 verses (from 16.4. 949 to 16.4.1406) of the sixteenth chapter.

Someswara introduces the subject by remarking that dances should be performed at all joyous occasions, such as:  festivals; celebration of conquests achieved; success in competitions and examinations as well as festivities of joy, passion, pleasure and even when someone enters into Sanyas (the  stage – asrama – of  renouncement).

The term that Someswara uses for dancing, in general, is Nartana, which he divides into six types: Natya (limb movements), Lasya (delicate), Tandava (vigorous), Visama (acrobatic), Vikata (comic or ludicrous) and Laghu (light and graceful).

[But, Someswara cautions that Kings would do well to avoid performing dance items like Visama (acrobatic) and Vikata (comic), perhaps because they were rather inappropriate for a King.]

Someswara classified the whole of dancing into two major classes:  the Marga and Desi. The term Marga (literally ‘of the way’ or ‘path’) refers to those arts that adhere to codified rules; while Desi stands for all those  several types of unregulated dance forms with their regional variations.  

Later, around the same time, Sarangadeva, in his Sangitaratnakara; and, Pundarika Vittala in his Nartana Nirnaya, following Someswara, adopted the Marga-Desi concept for classifying various dance forms. The authors of the later times followed such classification.

Thus, in Manasollasa, we find four recognized categories of dance forms that were developed after Natyashastra, viz: Nrtya, Lasya, Marga and Desi.

Dr. Mandakranta Bose observes:  The term Nrtya was first recognized as a distinct category of performance in the Dasarupaka. The Manasollasa takes the term to represent the whole art of dancing. It is also the first text with a complete and sustained discussion on dancing which treats Lasya as a division of dancing.

It is also the earliest extant work, which laid emphasis on the Desi aspect for which later writers on this subject are indebted.

For these and other reasons, the Nrtya Vinoda of Mahasollasa,  occupies a significant place in the sizable body of dance literature. 

Another important contribution of Nrtya Vinoda is that it serves as a source material for reconstruction of the dance styles that were prevalent in medieval India, since it is the earliest text that describes various dance forms in vogue during its time.

*

In regard to Dance-movements, Someswara classifies them into Six Angas, Eight Upangas and Six Pratyangas. The last mentioned sub-division viz. Pratyanga is an introduction made by Someswara into Natya terminology; the Natyashastra had not mentioned this minor sub-category.

The other important contribution of Someswara is the introduction of eighteen Desi karanas, (dance poses) that were not found in other texts.

Someswara, in about seventy verses (16.4. 1307- 78) describes varieties of Nrtta-hastas – gestures through hand and finger movements – which though devoid of meaning on their own, yet add beauty and grace to dance movements.

Here, he mentions 21 Sthanas and 26 Caris (Verses 1307- 78); 18 karanas of the Desi variety, none of which was found in earlier works.

He remarks that these varieties of Nrtta-hastas should be performed either by a dancer; or , by the king himself to please his beloved.

**

Six types of Nartakas (dancers) are mentioned. The term Nartaka , here, stands for performers in general ; and, it  includes Nartaka (dancer); Nata (actor); Nartaki (danseuse); Vaitalika (bard); Charana (wandering performer); and, Kollatika ( folk dancers who dancing  around in circles rhythmically striking each other’s sticks acrobat –  as in Dandi Raas – the term kolu in Kannada is a stick).

*

The audience should be connoisseurs of dancing, which should be performed inside the palace or a house, or in a pleasant courtyard or a garden. Thus ends the section on dancing

[Source: Dr. Mandakranta Bose’s research paper: The Evolution of Classical Indian Dance Literature: A Study of the Sanskritic Tradition ]

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6.Sangita-cudamani of Kavi Cakravarthi Jagadekamalla

Sangita-Cudamani of Jagadeka Malla (1138 to 1150 AD ) –   son of king Someshwara ,  author of Manasollasa –  covers many topics related to music , such as  : Alapana  and Gamaka;   the desired qualities of a singer, of a composer; the voice culture; design of  the auditorium, and so on . Its author who is also known as Pratapa Prithvi Bhuja. Jagadeka Malla the king of Kalyan   .

Parsva Deva followed the work of Jagadekamalla on subjects like ragas, Prabandhas, etc. Sarangadeva too mentions him with respect.

***

7.Sangita Samayasara of Parsvadeva

The author of Sangita Samayasara, Prasavadeva was a Jain Acharya of 12th or early 13th century, who was widely acclaimed for his musical knowledge; and was honored with the title Sangita-aakara (ocean of music).

He was said to be the son of Adideva and Gauri. His Guru was Sri Mahadeva Arya who was the disciple of Abhayachandra Muni

The date of the author is uncertain. But, since he refers to Bhoja (1010-1050 A.D), Somesvara (about 1131 A.D.), and Paramard (about 1165 A.D.) it is surmised that Parsvadeva’s time might be 12th or early 13th century.

Parsvadeva devotes a short chapter of 75 verses to the ragas. He does not state what are the major ragas; and, he principally deals with the minor ragas under the various sub-divisions of Ragangas, Bhashangas, Upangas and kriyangas, which he defines as: ‘Ragangas are socalled by the learned as they imitate the appearances (shadows) of ragas. Similarly, Bhashangas are imitators of the visages (shadows’) of Bhashas. The Upangas are so-called by the learned by reason of imitating the visages of the Angas.

Raga-cchayanu kritad ragia-ragini vidurabudhah / Bhasangani tathaiva syuhr-bhasha-chayanukaratah// Anga-chaya mukartvad upangam kathyate budhaih/ Tananam karanam tantryah kriyabhedena kathayate// Kriyayaid bhavedangam kriyangam tadudahrtam//

Then, Parsvadeva proceeds to enumerate the Ragangas, Bhashangas, Upangas   and Kriyangas under the three groups of Sampurna, Sadava, and Odava.

*

Parsvadeva, in his work, quotes frequently many ancient authors such as Kasyapa, Yastika, Kohala, Tumburu, Dattila, Anjaneya, Matanga; in addition to his predecessors such as : Raja Bhoja, King Somesvara (author of Manasollasa and Jagadekamalla (the son of King Somesvara ) whom he mentions as Pratapa Prithivibhuja. And, among the later authors who quote Parsvadeva, Sarangadeva is prominent.

Though Sangita Samayasara is in Sanskrit , it contains many words of` local language of Maharashtra origin suggesting that Parsvadeva might have been residing in a place where Marathi was the language of the common people. (e.g. thaya, Chitta ce thaya phella phelli, joda ce thaya).

The Sangita Samayasara might be taken as the earliest contribution of a Jain author dedicated to Desi Sangita (vocal, instrumental music and dance). And, The Sangita Samayasara along with Manasollasa are the two earliest works that recognize and treat Music and Dance as two separate art-forms.

The text pays enormous importance to Desi Music and Desi Dance in contrast to Marga class of Music and Dance. Therefore, its emphasis is on Desi Music and Desi Dance.

This text discusses Sangita that is, Gita (vocal music), Vadya (instrumental music) and Nrtta and Nrtya (dance).  The text  elaborately discusses   theory of Music and various topics relating to  Nada (sound),  Dhvani (pitch),  Shaarira  ( resonating musical voice) , Gita (song), Alapti (free flowing elaboration of Raga) , Sthaya  (phrases), Varna ( lines) , Taala (rhythm) and Alamkara  (ornamentation)  . It is said; Prasavadeva explained Gamaka as: “When a note produces the color of Sruthis other than those which are its own, it is known as Gamaka.”

Parsvadeva states that Alapti is of two types Raga and Rupaka. While Raga-Alapi is Anibaddha (unrestrained or unbound), Rupaka-Alapi is rendered within the framework of Raga and Taala. Yet Rupaka-Alapi allows scope for expansion or improvisation. ( Elaborate distinctions of the two are given. These are almost the same in Parsvadeva’s Sangita Samayasara and Sarangadeva’s Sangita-Ratnakara. Some say, Sarangadeva adopted it from Prasavadeva.)

According to Parsvadeva, Raga-Alapi ( which is similar to Alapana of present-day) is presented in four stages or Svara-sthanas. (1) The Svara on which the Raga commences or is established is Sthayi. The fourth Svara from Sthayi is Dvya-ardha, which is the half-way from the starting Svara. Sounding of the Svara just below it is Mukha-chala. This is the first Svara-sthana. (2) The second Svara-sthana comprises sounding of the Dvya-ardha and returning to Sthayi. The eighth Svara from Sthayi is double the pitch (Sruti). The Svaras in between Dvy-ardha and the eighth Svara are Ardha-sthita Svaras.(3) The rendering of Ardha-sthita and return is the third Svara-sthana. (4) And, rendering of the eighth and returning to the Sthayi as the ending note Nyasa, is the fourth Svara-sthana.

The rendering of the four Svara-sthanas followed by Sthapana or the concluding part constitutes rendering of Raga-Alapi. This is done in small measures of Sthaya.

As regards the Rupaka-Alapi, it is rendered in two stages. If after rendering Raga-Alapi, the Rupaka-Alapi is taken up, it is then called Prati-grahanika (lit.  to take up). And, if it is broken again it is called Bhanjani (lit. to break).

Bhanjani is, again, in two stages: Sthaya (after rendering Raga-Alapi) and Rupaka (during the singing of composition).

When a Sthaya (phrase) from Rupaka (composition) is presented in various ways with Taala, it is known as Sthaya-Bhanjani. And, if the whole composition is rendered in different ways with Taala, it is called Rupaka-Bhanjani. (These are perhaps the origins of the present-day Pallavi and Neraval).

Gamaka is explained as: “When a Svara produces the colour of Sruthis other than those which are its own, it is known as Gamaka.”

Svara technique that emphasizes the significant characteristic of a Raga is called Kaku.  Parsvadeva’s Sangita Samayasara describes six kinds of Kakus – 1. Raga-Kaku is the essential splendor of a raga; 2. Svara-Kaku is the embellishment of a Raga is shading of its Mukhya Svara through Gamakas ; 3.Desa- Kaku is the introduction of folk and regional inflections into the Raga, giving it a novel and rich form; 4.Anya Raga Kaku is the contrasting quality achieved by introducing Graha-Bheda techniques or bhavas of other Ragas; 5. Kshetra Kaku emphasizes all the rules of the Raga in various combinations; 6. Vadya Kaku is the technique of bringing an instrumental quality into the vocal expression of Ragas.

(Ref; http://carnatica.net/onlinedictionary/dick.htm)

Parsvadeva, the great Sangita-laksankara considers the following five qualities as merits (Guna) of the voice:  Madhuryam (sweetness), Sravakartvam (loudness or clarity in voice), Snigdha (not harsh even the high octave), Ghanata (richness), and, sthana-katria-sobha (pleasant in all the three Sthana).

(Madhuryam guna samyukte kanthe syanmadhuro dhvanih)

The sound which comes out from the throat must be sweet and this quality is described as madhura. The audibility of the voice depends upon the carrying power of loudness and this is known as ―Sravakara.

Snigdha is defined as that which is not unpleasant even in singing the high notes and has fluency in producing the notes of the high octave.

(Snigdhakanthe dhvani-sthao-apvaruksah saraso bavet)

Ghanata is the voice which is pleasant, full and rich

(Kanthe tristhanasobhesyat tristhane Madura dhvanih)

The voice should be sthana-katroya-sobha– Excellent in all the three Sthanas-Mandra, Madya, and Taara.

Apart from Gunas (qualities) Parsvadeva also lists Dosha (defects) in voice, as: Kheti (phlegm); Kheni (inflexible voice unable to produce what is intend); and, Bhagnasaba (broken voice without any continuity, like that of monkeys and camels)

Chapter wise contents of the work:

Sangita-Samayasara has ten Adhikaras (chapters) with 1400 verses work establishes the importance of Desi music (vocal and instrumental) and dance. It deals with dance, instrumental and vocal music of musicology and musical traditions prevalent during its time.

The work is in nine chapters and for the most part it is devoted to vocal and instrumental music. The seventh chapter and the last part of the eighth are of interest to the study of Desi dance. Some editions carry a Tenth Chapter which contains an incomplete discussion on Taala (already described earlier in 8th chapter); and, it seems to be a later interpolation by some unknown person.

First chapter begins with   salutation to Lord Vasudeva followed by a brief description of ancient Marga or Margi music. The chapter comprises a short definition of some terms of Margi music such as Sthanas (registers), Sruti (micro tones), Svaras (notes), Grama-Murchanas (scales), Taanas (half scales), Jatis, Grama ragas (melody types) and Gitakas (song forms). It also talks, in general,  about Nada (sound), Dhvani (pitch), Sarira (resonating voice), Gita (vocal songs), Varna (melodic line) and Alamkara (ornamentation)

Second chapter deals with the Desi music which was prevalent at that period. Parsvadeva gives a brief account of the formation of human embryo as it is the origin of the sound (human voice).

Third chapter is an important chapter which deals with the Thayas, (Various types of phrases formed with a group of notes) the essential ingredients used in Alapti (elaboration of melody types).The types of Alaptis are briefly defined

Fourth chapter is on Ragas, their classification and description.

Fifth chapter deals with the Nibaddha Sangita (structured or pre composed music). It is a long chapter discusses classification of Prabandhas. Parsvadeva discusses only the Suda Prabandhas.

Sixth chapter relates to Music Instruments, their classification and playing techniques with illustrations.

Seventh chapter describes aspects of Desi types of Nrtya (dance); and it is a very lengthy Chapter.

It is not until the Sangita Samayasara that we find any description of a complete dance. This text not only describes specific dance pieces but also adds a number of new movements of the Cari, the sthana and the karanas of the Desi variety, all of which involve complicated leaping movements.

In the beginning of his chapter on dancing, Parsvadeva mentions two kinds of presentation, Nrtta and Natya. He states that he is going to describe only Angika or body movements, a class of movements that is of particular relevance for Nrtta. When he finishes describing these movements, he proceeds to describe modes of presentation, and finally to fully composed dance pieces. Such pieces he calls Desi-Nrtya.

The seventh chapter is devoted entirely to Desi dance, which is referred to as Nrtta, its definition and the body movements (Angika) . Like Bharatha, Parsvadeva divides body parts into two: Anga and Upanga. He counts all the movements of the different parts of the body and the karanas and angaharas following Bharatha. But while describing them he does not discuss the Cari, Sthana, Karana or Angahara as in Bharatha tradition; but, he  follows the Desi tradition. He describes the forms of Desi-Nrtyas which, according to him, consist of Perana, Pekkhana, Gundali and Dandarasa. He then discusses the Sthanas and Caris needed for these Desi dances. He uses the term Pala for cari, a term not  found in any other text.

Next, the author describes the utplatti-karanas, also needed for the Desi dances, eleven Desi karanas with different Desi-sthanas, and five Bhramaris; and he then moves on to describing the Angas or features of Desi dances, calling them Desiya-Angani. Jaya, the later author, combines these Desi Angas and the Angas of Lasya into one category called Desi-Lasyas. After describing the Desi Angas, Parsvadeva describes the Angas or parts of Perana.

Finally, he discusses the instrumental music, drumming in particular, needed for four kinds of Desi dances, namely, Perana, Pekkhana, Gundali and Dandarasa. The requirements of a good dancer, her physical appearance and the way she should be dressed are also described towards the end of the seventh chapter.

Eighth chapter gives a brief description of Taala (rhythmic pattern and its varieties, both Marga and Desi.

Ninth chapter, titled as Vada nirnaya (judgment of elocution contest). It is a unique and a unusual topic dealt extensively. It discusses the sitting arrangements, the qualifications of the audience, the poets, the singers, the dancers, the qualities and faults of a singer, drummers and their qualities and faults and those of the dancers of each type of Desi dance. The author warns against making dance and music subjects of gambling matches and ends the text by saying that music  leads to Moksha or liberation.

 [Ref: The Evolution of Classical Indian Dance Literature: A Study of the Sanskritic Tradition by Mandakranta Bose; The Shaping of an Ideal Carnatic Musician Through Sādhana  By Dr. Pantula Rama; and Sri Parsvadeva’s Sangitasamayasara Text with English Translation and Commentary by Dr. M. VijaylakshmiProf. O C Ganguly in his monumental work Raga and Ragini (Nalanda Books, 1935)]

Singing

Continued in Next Part

Lakshana Granthas –Continued

 
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Posted by on May 31, 2015 in Music, Sangita

 

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