RSS

Tag Archives: Dattilam

Music of India – a brief outline – Part Fourteen

Continued from Part Thirteen –Forms of Karnataka  Samgita  

Part Fourteen (of 22 ) – Lakshana Granthas

Lakshana-granthas

1.1. As said before, the evolution of Music of India in all its forms, including the sacred music, art music, dance music, opera, instrumental music and other recognized forms (Gita prabandha, Vadya prabandha, Nritya prabandha and Lakshana prabandha) is a long process spread over many centuries. It took a long time for music to come to its present-day form. What we have today is the result of a long unbroken tradition and the fruit of accumulated heritage of centuries, stretching from the notes (Svara) of Sama-gana to the Mela-kartas of Govindacarya.

1.2. What is remarkable about the Music of India is its systematic way of developing musical thinking that aimed to organize and arrive at a golden mean between melody (Raga) ,the structure of the compositions (Sahitya) and the rhythm (Taala) . These had to be in harmony with the emotional content (Bhava) of the song. Such well thought out structuring has lent our music an inner-strength and an identity of its own.

1.3. There followed a very long period stretching over a thousand years – from Natyashatra to Chaturdandi prashika – which produced most wonderful texts providing substance , structure and a sense of identity to what we now call as Classical Music. These texts on Samgita-shastra (Musicology), classified as Lakshana-granthas, brought together the various strands of the past Music traditions; established a sound theoretical basis for the structural framework Music, its related issues and practice.  Each genre of these texts also provided a model for the subsequent treatises to elaborate on music-theories and practices (Samgita Shastra).

1.4. The authors of ancient Indian musical texts seemed to be concerned with precise ways to describe Music as it should be; how it should be taught, learnt and performed; and, how it should be experienced and enjoyed.  It was an evolutionary process cascading towards greater sophistication.

The Samgita shastra was at once the theory that laid down concepts and rules to be brought into practice; and it was also the practice that remodeled the theory. It was a two-way mode of progression. It was said:  Shastram iti shaasanopaayam. The Shastra was not merely a theory but it was also a tool (upaya) for perfecting the Vidya. The theory (lakshana) had to have a purpose or a target (lakshya). The test of a theory was in its application, Viniyoga.

1.5. The Lakshan-granthas, the text lying down theoretical aspects of Music, authored by various  musician-scholars,  are the fruits  of their systematic study of the art-forms as they existed in the past and as it was practiced during their times. The texts also projected their vision of how the Music should develop and prosper in future. Thus, the Lakshana-granthas over the centuries have defined, protected and guided the Music of India.

Though the forms and formats of Music over the centuries changed to suit their adopted environments, the essential principles behind the Music have remained true and lasting. Like in other Indian traditions, continuity and change go hand in hand in Music. That happy union, I reckon, is mainly due to the brilliant series of Lakshana-granthas.

Before we go on to the  notable among the texts of ancient and medieval India that deal with Music, briefly lets briefly look at Naradiya Shiksha  perhaps the oldest of Music-texts.

  1. Naradiya Shiksha

Shiksha is a branch of Veda lore (vedanga); and, it deals with elements of chanting and phonetics. According to Taittereya Upanishad (1. 2), the elements of chanting includes six factors: Varna (syllable); Svara (accent or note); Maatra (duration); Balam (articulation or stress); Sama (even tone) and Santana (continuity). The first four deal with correct pronunciation of individual syllables; and the last two with the recitation of the entire line or the verse.

Om̃ śīkṣāṃ vyākhyāsyāmaḥ । varṇaḥ svaraḥ । mātrā balam । sāma santānaḥ । ityuktaḥ śīkṣādhyāyaḥ ॥ ॥

Briefly, Varna is the correct pronunciation of every isolated syllable, combination of consonants and ovals and compound letters. Svara is how a syllable has to be pronounced in one of the three accents (udatta, anudatta and svarita). Maatra is the time duration for pronouncing a syllable. There are of four types: hrasva– a short one – duration for short ovals; dhirga –  two unit-duration for long vowels; plutam- longer than two–unit duration; and, the fourth is ardha- maatra, half unit, meant for consonants not accompanied by vowels.

Some of the well-known Shiksha texts are: Paniniya, Yagnyvalkya, Vashisthi, Katyayani, Manduki and Naradiya.  The last one is  associated with Sama Veda.

[ As regards the name ‘Narada’ ; and many persons associated with it, please take a look the explanation provided in the comments section, in response to a comment made by prachidublay]

**

Naradiya Shiksha, composed, for the most part, in the Anustubh Chhandas; and based, mainly in the theories and practices of singing   Sama Veda, is an ancient text that deals mainly with the musical notes and the pronunciation of the words in the Vedic language.  It is regarded as an authentic source of references on the development of Indian Music from the Vedic times to the period of the Shiksha literature.  The Naradiya Shiksha, is believed to pre-date Bharatha’s Natyashastra (second century BCE). Some scholars also believe that Bharat might have been familiar with Naradiya Shiksha.

One of the reasons for that inference is that the Naradiya Shiksha discusses the Gāndhāra Grāma, its Mūrchanas and Tānas; but, by the time of Bharata’s Natyashastra, the Gandhara Grama had become obsolete. Further, it is believed that a verse of the Natyashastra (33. 227) seems to reflect verse (1.3.13) of Nāradiya-śhíkhā, which, in effect, says:

Acharyah saamam icchanti; padath chhedantu panditah / striyo madhuram icchanti , vikrustam itare janah//

Those well versed in musical art, appreciate melodious and tuneful singing (sama); the scholars look for clear pronunciation of the words (pada) of the song; the women love the sweetness of voice of the singers (madhuram); and, the rest demand a loud, full-throated singing (vikrustam). 

It is also said; one couplet in Patanjali’s   Maha-bhashya (dated around 200 BCE) closely resembles the one in Nāradiya-śhíkhā:

mantro hīna svarato varato vā mithyā prayukto na tam artham āha sa vāgvajro yajamāna hinasti yathendraśatru svarato ‘parādhāt //

A mantra which is uttered with a defective accent or bad pronunciation does not carry the proper meaning. It is a thunderbolt of speech and kills the yajamāna (sponsor of the Yajna) just as it was done by the wrong accent of (the compound) ‘indra-śatruḥ’.

The opening phrase of the relevant verse in Patanjali appears as ‘dṛṣṭa śabda ‘in place of ‘mantro hīna in the Naradiya Shiksha

For these and other reasons, the Naradiya Shiksha is considered to be a text that is not later than 200 B.C.  Some scholars assign  this Shiksha-text a much earlier period.

**

Apart from discussing the system of music (Svaramandala) of his times, in terms of SvaraGramaGrama-ragas, Murchanas, Tanas, sthana (registers), Jati-srutis etc , Narada in his Shiksha gives information about the ten different methods of singing (gunavrittis) according to different Vedic recessions; and, ten desired qualities of a good singing (dasha-vidha gunavram). Narada also introduces number of interesting concepts and notions with regard to music, such as: associating each Svara with a color or with a god or with other beings.  The text attempts to derive each Svara from the sounds made by a bird or an animal. It visualizes the origination and the placement of Svaras in different parts of the human body. The text suggests, based on Sama Gana, the ways to intonate the Svaras with the help of fingers of the right-hand. The text also offers some details about the string instruments (Veena) like Daravi and Gatra, which were used in the Samagana and Gandharva -gana.

Further, apart from specifying the charecteristics of correct and melodious singing, the text also suggests the ways and the disciplines needed to improve the singer’s voice-culture.

But, its most significant contribution that has vitalized Indian Music is that of aligning the Vaidika (Sama) and the Laukika – Flute (Venu) Svaras; and, rearranging the Sama svaras of the descending order into ascending order of the Laukika svaras as we know it today.

*

It is said; in the beginning, the (Rig) Vedic priests used only three notes called Udatta, Anudatta and Svarita.  It is explained that Udatta meant the highest Svara, acutely accented (uchchaih); Anudatta, was the lower, gravely accented (nichaih) ; and Svarita was the summation of the two, with Udatta in the first-half. It is called a circumflex-ed accent.

The singers of the Sama Veda discovered some more notes and extended the range from three Svaras (Udatta, Anudatta and Svarita) to seven Svaras.

Narada (NarS 1.1.12) identifies the seven Sama Svaras (Vaidika) as: Prathama; Dvitiya, Triya; Chaturtha; Mandra; Krusta; and Atisvara.

Prathamasca dvitiyosca tritiyosca chaturtacaha / Mandram krustho hyu atisvarah yetan kurvathi saamagah /1.1.12/

And then, he correlates the Sama Svaras used by the Saman singers with the notes of the flute (Venu) – according to the Laukika music (NarS 1.5.1).

He says:  Prathama, the first Svara of the Saman singers is the Madhyama Svara of the Venu (flute); Dvitiya, the second, is GandharaTritiya, the third, is traditionally the RsabhaChaturtha, the fourth, is said to be ShadjaPanchama, the fifth, is DhaivataSasta, the sixth, is considered to be NishadhaSaptama, the seventh, is the Panchama.

Yo Samaganam prathamah sa venur Madhyamah Svarah / yo dvitiyah sa Gandharas, trias tu Rsabhah smrtah // Chaturthah Shadja ity ahuh Panchama Dhaivato bhavet / sastho Nishadho vijneyah, saptamah Panchama cmrtah // NarS 1.5.1//

[ The fifth, sixth and the seventh Svaras of the traditional Vaidika music are also indicated by names: Mandra, Atisvarya and Krusta. These correspond to Dhaivata, Nishadha and Panchama of the Venu Svaras]

*

Narada offers an explanation that from the ancient Udatta the Svaras Nishada (Ni) and Gadhara (Ga) were derived; from Anudatta, the Svaras –  Rsbha (Ri) and Dhaivata (Dha); and, from Svarita emerged three Svaras:  Shadja (Sa), Madhyana (Ma) and Panchama (Pa).

udātte niāda gāndhārāva anudātte  ṛṣabha dhaivato / svarita prabhavā hyete adja madhyama pañcamā  //

*

Swami Prajnanananda in his A  History of Indian Music remarks that Narada  has rendered a valuable service to the music world, by discovering a connecting link between the tonal pitches of seven tones of both Vaidika and Laukika music. He has said that the pitch-value of the tone, prathama of the Vedic music is equal to that of the tone, madhyama of the Laukika music; and in this way, it can be shown that the tones, prathama, dvitiya, tritiya, chaturtlha, panchama, shastha or atisvarya and saptama or krusta are equivalent in their sound values to those of the tones, madhyama, gandhdra, rishabha, shadja, dhaivata, nishada and panchama of the Laulika music.

Thus, the   Naradiya Shiksha relates the Sama Svaras to the notes on the flute (Venu) as: Ma, Ga, Ri, Sa, Dha, Ni, and Pa.

 

       Sama Svara                      Venu Svara
01 Prathama Madhyama Ma
02 Dwithiya Gandhara Ga
03 Trithiya Rishabha Ri
04 Chathurtha Shadja Sa
05 Panchama Nishadha Ni
06 Shasta Daiwatha Dha
07 Sapthama Panchama Pa

*

But, the Sama Svaras were of Nidhana prakriti or Vakragati, arranged in a diminishing order, following Avaroha karma, a descending order (uttarottaram nicha bhavanthi). The order of the Svaras in Sama-music was: Ma, Ga, Ri, Sa, Ni, Dha, and Pa.

Since the Sama notes were in a descending order there was not much flexibility in music.

Naradiya Shiksha redefined the concepts and terms of the Sama Gana. It revised and recast the descending order of the Sama scales into the natural ascending order – Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni   – as we are familiar with it today.

Because of that re-orientation of the Sama scales a well-structured system of music could be erected and developed during the later ages.

This, surely, is one of the most significant contribution of the Naradiya Shiksha to the growth and vitality of Indian Music in all its forms.

*

Naradiya Shiksha (1.5.3; 1.5.4) explains that each Sama-svara was derived from the sounds made by a bird or an animal in its appropriate season. For instance; the peacock’s cry was Shadja (Sa); the bulls roar was Rishabha (Ri); sheep-goat bleat was Gandhara (Ga); kraunchaka’s (heron) cry was Madhyama (Ma); koel’s (cuckoo) melodious whistle was Panchama (Pa); the neigh of the horse was Dhaivata (Dha); elephant’s trumpet was Nishadha (Ni). Please see the table below.

Shadjam vadati mayuro, gavo rambanti ca Rsabham / ajavike tu Gandharam, kraunco vadati Madhyamam // pushasaddarane kale kokilo vakti Panchamam / avas tu Dhaivatam vakti, Nishadam vakti Kujarah // NarSh 1.5.3-4 //

The peacock cries Shadja; the bulls moo Rsabha; the she-goat and the sheep Gandhara; the curlew cries Madhyama. And, in the spring time, the cuckoo calls Panchama; the horse produces Dahaivata; and, the elephant, the Nishadha

[ Note: Here, Narada has named the Laukika Svaras, and as compared to the Svaras of the Saman, they correspond as:  Madhyama = Prathama; Gandhdra, = Dvitiya; Rishabha= Tritiya; Shadja = Chaturtha; Dhaivata = Mandra; Nishada=Atisvarya; and, Panchama= krusta.]

Name in Sama Music Symbol Sama Veda Svara Bird/animal

Sound

associated

Madhyama Ma svarita heron
Gandhara Ga udatta goat
Rishabha Ri anudatta bull
Shadja Sa svarita peacock
Nishadha Ni udatta elephant
Daiwatha Dha anudatta horse
Panchama Pa svarita koel

*

Narada (NarS. 1.5. 7-11) explains how and why the five Svaras – Shadja, Rsabha, Gandhara, Madhyama, and Panchama– came to be named as such .

Shadja (Sa): Because, it is situated in the nose, the throat, the chest, the palate, the tongue and the teeth; and, because it springs from these six , it is traditionally called Shadja.

Nasam, kantham, uras, talu jihvam, dantams cha samsritah / sadbhih sanjayate yasmath tasmath Shadja iti smrtah //

Rsabha (Ri):  Because, the air, rising from the navel and striking the throat and the head, roars like a bull, it is called Rsabha.

Vayuhu samutthito nabheh kantha-sirasa samahath / nardaty Rsbhavad yasmath tasmath Rsbha ucyate //

Gandhara (Ga): Because, the air, rising from the navel and striking the throat and the head, blows smells to the nose and is delicious; for that reason it is called Gandhara.

Vayuhu samutthito nabheh kantha-sirasa samahath / nasam gandhavah punyo gandharas ten hetuna//

Madhyama (Ma): Because, the essence of the Madhyama is in the air, which rising from the navel, striking the chest and the heart, reaches the navel as abig sound.

Vayuhu samutthito nabhir urohrdi samahath / nabhim prapto mahanado madhyamavatam samasrute //

Panchama (Pa) : Because, the air , which rising from the navel and striking the chest, the heart, the throat and the head springs from these five places , is accounted to be the essence of Panchama

Vayuhu samutthito nabhir urohrtkantha-sirohatah / panchastsnotthitasyasya panchamatvam vidhiyate //

*

Naradiya Shiksha (NarS.1.5.5-6) mentions several parts of the human body as origins of the seven svaras on the scale:

Shadja springs from the throat; Rsabha springs from the head; Gandhara from the nose; Madhyama svara from the chest; and. Panchama svara springs from the chest, the head and the throat; Dhaivata from the forehead. As regards Nishadha, it springs from the combination of all parts of the body.

Kanthad uttisthate Sadjah; Sirasas iv Rsabha smftah / Gandhars iv anunasikya; uraso Madhyama svarah / lalatad Dhaivatam vidyan Nishadam sarva-sandhijam

*

The Naradiya shiksha, following the practice of the Saman singers’  intonation of the musical Svaras they were singing, mentions the positions of the Svaras on fingers of the right hand. As for example:

Krusta (Panchama) is situated on the top of the thumb; Prathama (Madhyama) on the thumb (Angusta); Gandhara on the index finger (Tarjani) next to the thumb; Rshabha on the next to it (Madhyama) (middle finger); Shadja on the ring finger(Anamika) next to the middle one; Daivata on the little finger(kanisthika) ; and , the top of the little finger is Nishada.

Angusthasyottame krushto angushthe tu prathamah svarah/ Pradeshinyam tu gandhara-rishabhas tadanantaram // Anamikayam shadjastu kanishthikayam cha dhaivatam | Tasya adhastat cha yo nya stu nishadam tatra nirdiset //

The thumb was made to move and touch the other fingers, and thus help the singers to sing with proper intonation.

[ Note: Here, Narada has mentioned about the Laukika Svaras: and, it should be remembered that Madhyama = Prathama; Gandhdra, = Dvitiya; Rishabha= Tritiya; Shadja = Chaturtha; Dhaivata = Mandra; Nishada=Atisvarya; and, Panchama= krusta.]

*

The Naradiya shiksha, also mentions the practice of the Saman singers of touching parts of the body with the fingers on the right-hand to indicate the Svaras they were singing. 

The Saman singer will touch, respectively:  the middle part of his head, forehead (lalata) to indicate Krusta (Panchama); the middle part of the eyebrows (Bhruvormadhye) to indicate Dvitiya (Gandhdra); the ears (Karna) to indicate Tritiya, (Rishabha); the throat (Kanta) to indicate Chaturtha(Shadja); the thigh (uru) to indicate Mandra (Dhaivata); and, the heart (hridisthanam) to indicate Atisvarya, (Nishada) .

Krustasya murdhani sthanam lalate prathamasya tu/ Bhruvormadhye dvitiyasya tritiyasya cha karnayo// Kanthasthanam chaturthasya mandrasyorasituchyate / Atisvarasya nichasya hridisthanam vidhiyate //

[ Note: Here, Narada has mentioned the Vedic Svaras of the Saman, as compared to the Laukika Svaras, and, here:  Prathama =Madhyama; Dvitiya= Gandhara; Tritiya = Rishabha; Chaturtha= Shadja; Mandra= Dhaivata; Atisvarya = Nishada; and, krusta =Panchama.]

Now, the hand and finger poses (mudras) that are adopted in the religious functions (puja) and others (updsana-mudras) as well as the gestures adopted in the art of dancing (nartana-mudras), are all evolved from the Mudras employed by the Saman singers.

*

Naradiya Shiksha (NarS. 1.1.7) mentions three voice registers (sthanas) in connection with the recitation of the Sama Gana: chest, throat and the head are the three voice-registers (urah kanthah siras chaiva sthanani trini vanmaye)

At another place (NarS. 1.7.1-2) , Narada mentions seven registers, each one being used for each of the seven notes (svara) of the Sama Gana (head, forehead, between eyebrows, ears, throat, chest and in the heart-region).

While listing the seven registers, Narada mentions the Vedic Svaras, as:  the registers of Krusta (i.e. the Panchama of the Laukika) is the head; of Prathama (Madhyama) in the forehead; of Dvitiya (Gandhara) between the eyebrows; of Triya (Rsabha) in the ears; of Chaturtha (Shadja) in the throat; of Mandra (Dhaivata) in in the chest; of the low Atisvara (Nishadha) in the heart region.

(The Laukika Svaras are given within brackets, for reference).

Krustasya murchani sthanam lalate prathamasya tu / bhrur-madhye dvitiyasya; tritiyasya tu karanayoh / kanthasthanam chatturtasya; mandrasyo urah utcyate / atisvarasya nicasya hrdi sthanam vidhiyate //

*

Naradiya Shiksha (NarS. 1. 5. 13-14) associates the Svaras with certain gods and with Gandharvas – Narada and Tumburu; and says: The Shadja svara (Sa) is sung by Agni; Rsabha (Ri) is uttered by Brahma; Gandhara (Ga) is sung by Soma; the Madhyama svara (Ma) is sung by Vishnu; the Panchama svara (Pa) is sung by Narada the great person (mahatmana); the Dhaivata and Nishadha are sung by Tumburu

Agni gitah svarah Shadja; Rsabho Brahmanoyate / Somena gito Gandharo, Vishnur Madhyamah svarah // Panchamo tu svaro gito Naradena mahatmana / Dhaivatas cha Nisadas cha gitau Tumburuna svarau //

According to Naradiiya Shiksha (NarS. 1.7.6-8), the gods live on the Svara Krusta (=Panchama); human beings on Prathama (=Madhyama); cattle on Dvitiya (=Gandhara); the Gandharvas and Apsaras on the next note (Triya= Rishabha); the birds (Andaja – others born from an egg) and the Pitris (ancestors) on Chaturtha (= Shadja); the Pisachas (goblins), Asuras and Rakshasas (demons) on Mandra; and, the others on Atisvara (= Nishada).

According to (NarS. 1.2.15), the Shadja delights the gods (Devanam); Rsabha the seers (Rshinam); Gandhara the Pitris (Pitrnam); Madhyama the Gandharvas (Gandharvanam); Nishadha, the Yakshas (Yakshanam); Dhaivata the other living beings(Praninam)

*

In the Naradiya Shiksha (NarS. 1.4.1), the Svaras are also said to be related to certain colors. It says: Shadja has a reddish colour like lotus; Rsabha has a reddish – yellow color like a parrot; Gandhara is gold colored; Madhyama is colored like jasmine; Panchama has a bluish-black color; Dhaivata is said to be yellow; and, Nishadha has all colors. These are the colors of the Svaras.

Padma-patra prabhah Shadja, Rsabhah sukapinjarah / kanakabhas tu Gandharo, Madhyamah kundasaprabhah // Panchama tu bhavet Krishna pilakam , Daivtam viduh / Nishadah sarvavarnas tu ity etah svaravarnatah // NarS 1.4.1

***

As regards other music-terms and their concepts:

Narada in his Shiksha talks about the system of music (Svaramandala) of his times, in terms of SvaraGramaMurchanas and Tanas. He mentions the number of Svaras as seven; Gramas as three; Murchanas as twentyone; and, the Tanas as fortynine.

Sapta-svaras; trayo grama; murcchanat ekavimshatih | Tana ekonapanchashadityetat – svaramandalam

Narada mentions the Svaras as seven –Svara saptaka. And, he defines Svara as: that which is pleasant to be heard, that which is sweet and of a pleasing character ; that which spontaneously charms the mind of the listener is called Svara.

Srutyanantarabhavi yah snigda anur anandatmakah / svato rajayati srotrcittam sa svara ucyate.

*

Narada mentions the three Gramas as Shadja, Madhyama and Gandharva; and, each Grama as having seven Murchanas (a total of 21 Murchanas – (NarS.1.2.4.6); and, states their origin as: The Earth for Shadja grama; the intermediate space (atmosphere) for Madhyama grama; and, heaven for Gandhara grama. It also mentions that Gandhara grama is only in heaven (svarga); and, is not found anywhere else. (It does not elaborate on the Gandhara grama)

Shadja- Madhyama-Gandharas trayo gramah parkirtitah / bholokad jayate Shadjo; bhuvar lokac cha Madhyamah// svargan nanyatra Gandharo //

Nardiya shiksha (NarSM. 1.1.49) explains the Grama by comparing it to Murchana (Gramah svara-samuhah syan Murchana tu svarasraya).

According to the renowned  shcolar  Shri M S Ramaswami Aiyar (The Question of Gramas – JRAS, 1936, p.632 ) : Grama is described as a group of scales consisting all the Shuddha and Vikrta svaras, collected together; and, preserved for the purpose of selecting, from that group scale, any desired set of seven svaras with a Graha, the starting point – which set , when sung in the natural order of ascent and descent was called as Murchanas ; and, which when a harmonic individuality was established with the help of Amsa , Nyasa, Vadi and Samvadi etc took the name of Jati.

And another version says: A Grama is a collection of svaras; a Murchana is closely connected with or based upon the svaras (Gramah svara-samuhah syan Murchana adi samashrayah)

Kallinatha (15th century), commenting upon this line, explains: ‘the word – adi (meaning etc)’ is meant to indicate the regular order (krama) of svaras, series of svaras (Taana), ornamentation (Varna), grace (Alamkara) and mode (Jati) ‘- atra adi shabdena karma Taana – Varna -Alamkara- Jati adyayo grahyante.

*

Murchana was described as the elaboration of the closely connected series of Svaras (kramayutah) in their  proper  (krama) ascending and descending forms. Each type of Murchana was said to possess its own special aesthetic merit.  It was said; the set of Murchanas related to Gandharva Grama were meant to please Devas; and, the other two to please Pitris and Rishis. Though Narada mentioned the Gandharva grama, yet it had become obsolete during his time; and, Bharata too did not mention about it in the Natyashastra.

Matanga  also explains Murchana as:  the ascent and descent of the seven svaras in a regular order is called Murchana (Kramadi svaranam saptanam arohas cha avarohanam / murcchanady ucyate). That is to say; Murchana is something more than the scale; because, it enhances the quality of the Jati (melody-types of the recognised kind).

Nardiya shiksha (NarS. 1.2.4-9) mentions 21 Murchanas which can be divided into three Gramas.

The seven Murchanas of Gandhara grama are said to belong to the gods (Devanam) : Nandi, Visala, Sumukhi, Chitra, Chitravati, Sukha, and Balaya;

the other seven Murchanas  of the Madhyama grama are said to belong to the ancestors (Pitrnam) : Apayini, Visvabhrta, Chandra, Hema , Kapardini, Maitri , and Barhati (Chandramasi) ;

and , the next seven Murcahnas  called Laukika or common are said to belong to Seers (Rishi) : Uttaramandra, Abhirudgata, Asvakranta, Uttarayata, Rajani, Sauvira and Hrsyaka .

[ The aja Grāma gaves rise to seven Mūrchanās such as Uttara-maudrā, Rajanī, Uttarāyatā, Śuddhaajā, Matsarīktā, Aśvakrāntā and Abhirudgatā

The Madhyama Grāma gave rise to seven Mūrchanās: Sauvīrī, Hariāśvā, Kalopanatā, Śuddhamadhyā, Mārgavī, Pauravī and Hṛṣyakā.

The Gāndhāra Grāma also gave rise to seven Mūrchanās. But, since this Grāma had become obsolete at the time of the Natya Śhastra, their name were not mentioned.]

According to Nardiya shiksha (NarS. 1.2.13) the Gandharvas practice the seven Murchanas of the gods (Devanam) – Upajivanti Gandharva Devanam sapta Murchanath.

The Yakshas practice the seven Murchans of the ancestors (Pitrnam) – Pitrnam Murchanadh sapta tatha Yaksha na samsayah.

And, the seven Murchanas of the Seers (Rishi) are in common practice – Risinam Murchanah sapta yas tv ima laukikah smrtah.

Narada arranges the the third set of Murchanas – that is of the Rishis in ascending order: Uttaramandra stands on Shadja; Abhirugata on Rsabha; Asvakranta on Gandhara; Suvira on the Madhyama; Hrsyaka on Panchama; Uttarayata on Dhaivata; and, from Nishada one knows Rajani.

[ Bharata’s enumeration of the third set of Murchans varies slightly from that of Narada; and is also arranged in a descending order.

Though Narada talked about twenty-one Murchanas, Bharata mentions fourteen (dvai gramikshcha- turdasha).  And, by different arrangements of seven Svaras (sa ni dha pa ma ga ri), a total of 84 (7 X 12=84) variations of Murcchanas might have evolved.

Matanga in his Brihaddeshi, said, Murchana was of two kinds: one, having 7 Svaras; and the other, having 12 Svaras (Sa murcchana dvivida; sapta-svara-murcchana, dvadasha-svara-murcchana chcti).

[  However, the Murhcana of 12 svaras  had gone out of practice even before the time of Sarangadeva.]

And, the Murchana with 7 Savras was further divided into four parts: purna, shadava, auduvita, and sadhdrana. The purna or heptatonic contained seven svaras; shadava, the hexatonic, six svaras; auduvita, petnatonic, panchama, five svaras; and, the sadhdranahad two displaced (vikrita) svaras – antara-gandhara and kakali-nishada.

The Murcchana with 12 tones manifested in three registers (sthana), low, medium and high (mandramadhya and tara).]

*

Narada has mentioned six Grama-ragas like Shadava, Panchama, Madhyama-grama, Shadja-grama, Kaishika and Kaishika-madhyama, which remained in use till about the 7th century A.D.

*

In the ancient music theory, the function of a Varna is to manifest a song; and, therefore, it is known as the Ganakriya. The Varna is said to be of four kinds: arohi, avarohi, sthayi and sanchari. Different alamkaras evolved from those four Varnas. Now, from the arohi-Varna evolved 12 alamkaras (varnalamkara) such as, vistirna, nishkarsha (together with its gatravarna), bindu, etc. From the avarohi and sthayi varnas similar alamkaras evolved; and, from the sancharivarnas evolved 25 alamkaras.

**

The relation between the Srutis and the intervals (svara) is a very important aspect of the theory of the ancient Indian music.

The Nardiya shiksha also describes five Jati-srutis (parent srutieslike dipta (excited, bright, radiant); ayata (extended, broad, wide); mridu (soft, tender, mild, gentle); Madhya (central, proper tolerable, middling); and, karuna (sympathetic, compassionate, tenderness, merciful).

Narada remarks: One who does not know the distinctions of the Sruti such as Dipta, Ayata, Karuna, Mrudu, and Madhyama, is no teacher at all.

Dipta, ayata, karunanam mrudu, madhyamayos tatha srutinam yo visesajno na sa acharya ucyate (NarS. 1.7.9)

Bharata, later arranged twenty-two Srutis on the basis of five parent shrutis as indicated by Narada: tivra; kumudavati; manda; chandovati; and, dayavati, which were termed as Jatis or Adhara or parent Srutis.

And much later, Sarangadeva (1.3.27) lists the names of these twenty-two varieties (vidha) of the five parent Srutis:

Tivra; Kumudvati; Manda; Chandovati; Dayavati; Ranjati; Ratika; Raudri; Kroda; Vajrika; Prasarini; Priti; Marjani; Ksiti; Ratika; Samdipani; Alapini; Madntika; Rohini; Ramya; Ugra; and Kshobini.

[ In the Naradiya Shiksha, the Sruti is taken as a subtle sound. It explains , just  as fire remains in the wood, ghee remains in the curd, Sruties remain in the Svaras.

However, there are discussions on the authenticity of the twentytwo Surtis; Some say that Sruti is but a theoretical concept. And, Srutis could be any number; not merely twenty-two. It is only talked about in the older texts. But, among the practicing muscians of the present day, ‘Sruti; just denotes ‘pitch’; and ‘off Sruti’ means that one is ‘out of tune’. The term Adhara Sruti refers to the pitch which a performer has chosen as the most apt and convenient for his voice, instrument or the song he is just about to render.  Quite often, even the raga-s have their notes established on sruit-s, rather than the usual notes

But, Dr.  Vinod Vidwan , in his scholarly research paper , on the basis of the research and experiments he conducted , asserts that the five types of shrutis mentioned in Naradiya Shiksha and their applications; as also, Bharata’s `Shruti Nidarshanam’ experiment is a conclusive proof of the equal temperament twenty two shrutis .

And, Dr. Kunhan Raja  provides the following explanation , based on the Raga-vibodha of Somanatha

Raga vibodha Sruti]

*

In the Nardiya shiksha ( II. 8), Narada said that 20 Tanas, series of notes which formed the basis for various musical forms., are evolved from the Madhyama Grama; 14 from the Shadja Grama; and, 15 from the Gandhdra Grama; that is a total of 49 Tanas.

Though Narada  mentions Gandhara Grama , it had gone out of use by the time of Bharata. However , Pundarika Vittala , in his Ragamanjari ,  makes a mention of  two types of Gandhara Grama – one according to Yastika ; and , the other as mentioned by Sarangadeva. For more please check here.

[ But, during Bharata’s time, 84 Taanas were evolved (chaturashiti NS. 28.33). Bharata states that Taanas depend on the Murchanas. In Murchana all the seven svaras should be in krama – aroha/avaroha. In Taana, the svaras can be in any order. The Taanas which depend on the Murcchanas are eightyfour in number. (Tatra Murcchanad samsritas Taanas chaturasitih / tatra ekona pancha sat svarah, pancha trimsat panchasvarah – NS 28.36)

According to Bharata, these 84 Taanas comprised 49 Taanas with six svaras; and 35 Tanas with five svaras. And, it was said; besides these, there exist Tanas with 7 itones (sampurna-tana). Bharata also talked about the Taanas, as applicable to musical instruments (veena, etc.), and they were divided into pravesha (low or soft) and nigraha (touch).

And, Dattila said that besides the simple Taanas, there evolved gradually thousands of intricate or kitta tanas in the later period, from different methods of plucking the strings of ‘the musical   instruments like veena, etc (krama-niutsrijya tantrikam). ]

[ According to some texts (Samavidhana Brahmana and Arseya Brahmana)Sama-Gana employed seven Svaras (notes): 1. Prathama; 2. Dvitiya; 3. Tritiya; 4. Chaturtha; 5. Panchama or Mandra (low); 6. Shasta or Krusts (high); and, Antya or Atiswara (very high). ]

 Please also check  the article on Gandharva for more on Taana]

**

There is also a brief description of the string instruments (Veena) like Mahati, Daravi and Gatra, which were used in the Samagana and Gandharva -gana.

 Daravi gatra-veena cha dve veene gana-jatisu | Samiki gatra-veena tu tasyah shrinuta lakshanam [ | Gatra-veena tu sa prokta yasyam gayanti samagah|

It is said that the Gatra-veena possessed a gourd and a wooden stem, having five or six or seven gut strings for tones. It used to be played by holding it in a recumbent position, with the help of the fingers; and, was used to be placed on the thighs of the player. Narada gives a description of the method of playing the Veena.

Narada (NarS.1.6.5) while explaining the Gatra Veena, which accompanies the singing of the Saman, says: Gatra Veena is furnished with notes and ornamentation (svara vyapti janasmyukta) ; and, by playing with  with all the fingers stretched, one should be able to produce the range of notes – prasarya cha angulih sarva ropayet svaramandalam.

*

Narada has mentioned about the ten different methods of singing (gunavrittis) according to different Vedic recensions. He also enumerates ten factors that enhance the quality of rendering of the songs (Gitis ) – (dasha-vidha gunavram); and, emblish the compositions (sahitya) as well as the melodies of the songs – both Vaidika and Laukika  –  like raktam, purnam, alamkritam, prasannam, vyaktam, vikrusfiam, shlaknam, samam, sukumaram and madhuram, 

Ganasya tu dasavidha guna vrtti sadaya-

Raktham, purnam, alamkritam, prasannam, vyktam, vikrustam, shlaknam, saman, skumaram, madhuram iti gunah //1.3.1//

These are the ten good qualities with regard to the performance of a song (gita-guna), namely: harmonious (surakta), complete (purna), ornate (alamkrit),   clear (Prasanna), distinct (vyakta), evocative (vikrusta ) , smooth (slaksna) ,  even (sama), lovely  and delicate ( sukumara),  and charming (madhura) .

Narada also offers explantions for each of the said ten qualities of good rendering of a song.

Raktham:  This is called Rakta (harmonious) because of the harmony of notes (svaras)   of both flute (Venu) and lute (Veena)  with the singer  –  tatra raktam nama venu veena svaranam ekhibhave raktam ity ucyate

Purnam: Purnam stands for completeness. That is called Purna; because, it contains in itself all the notes (Svaras), Srutis and combines with the Chhandas (meters) , lines  of the verse (Pada)  and syllables ( akshara); and , all these are clearly and completely pronounced  – Purnam nama svar sruti purna chandah pada aksharam yogyat purnam ity ucyate.

Alamkrit:   It is Alamkarta, when the song is ornate (alamkrtam) with the beauty of the three voice-registers (sthana) emanating from singes’s chest, head and the throat; appropriately producing the high, low and mid notes as required – alankrtam namorasi sirsi kanthayuktam ity alamkrtam

Prasanna: Prasannam is that which is uttered without stammering and understood with clarity (prakatartham) –  Prasannam nama vagat agadagada nirvitiankam prasannam ity ucyate

Vyakta:  it is Vyakta (distinct) , when the text (patya) with its syllables, grammer, tense, gender, vibhakti etc are clearly pronounced; and, the listener understands it properly – Vyaktam jneyam ativyaktaih prakripratyayaksaaih

Vikrusta:  It is evocative. The lyrics sung in fast, medium and slow speeds , should be pronounced loudly and clearly – vikrustam ucchairuccarad drute Madhya vilambite

Slaksnam:  The term Salkhana means a collection of high and low plutas (elongated syllables of three matras or time-units) in a quick and not in slow speed with hela ( a sort of dramatic grace)and upanayana ( introduction) etc which are effective. This is called Slaksanasalaksana nama drutam avilambitam uccanicapluta samaharam helalaupanayanddibhir upapadanabhih slakshanam ity uchyate

Sama: The term Sama means even, where there is no disparity or conflict (a -vaisamya). Saman also means combination of the positions of the hand indicating the rhythym, avapa nirvapa pradesa and pratyantara – This is called Sama – Saman nama vaapanirva pradesha pratyantara sthananam ity saman uchyate

Sukumara: It is called Sukumaram, when the music is delicate (sukumara);  is full of lovliness (Lavanya guna purnam); and, when the voice (gatra), flute (Venu) and the Veena  are in harmony  –   sukumaram syad venu veena gatra dhvaniyaika yuktam

Madhura:  The term madhuram means that which is abundantly endowed with natural, graceful and pleasing (manoharam) words, syllables and merit (guna) – Madhuram nama svabhavopanita Lalita pada akshara guna samruddham madhuram ity ucyate

*

Bharata follows the explantions offered by Narada; and, in his Natyashastra 32.492 , mentions the desired qualities of a song-rendering. In his list, Bharata included Six of the qualities mentioned by Narada (NarS .1.3.1 )- ( viz. purna, rakta, sama, slaksna, alamkrita and madhura).

According to Bharata:

That which fully includes the svaras, varnas; and, is emblished by instruments, relates to three voice -registers (sthana), three Yatis (speeds) , three matras ( time-units) , gives joy , is harmonious (sama) and delicate (sukumara)  , contains alamkaras , is performed with ease , and has sweetness is called Gana (song) .

Purna svaram, vadya vichitra, varna tri sthanagami trilayam trimargagam / raktam sama slaksnam alamkrtam ca mukham prasastam madhuram ca ganam

*

And again , in Chapter 14 ; verses 75-81 of Saṅgītaśiromaṇi , a text compiled in 1468 by a group of scholars , as  edited  and translated by Emmie Te Nijenhuis , the qualtyies of excellent singing are summarized , based on the earlier texts .

When a song is complete in respect of its words (pada), notes (svaras), section (anga) , variations (prayoga) , melody (raga), and poetical meter (Chhandas) , it  is called Purna ( complete)

When its meaning (artha) is clear (prasanna), the song is meaningful. When it fascinates the listener, it is charming (madhura).

When it is full of qualities of lovliness; and , when it is delicate (sukumara); when it is colourful in three voice-reisters (sthana), it should be regarded as ornate (alamkrita).

It is distinct (vyakta), when its syllables clearly show its basic pattern.

Harmonious (surakta) indicates that the flute (venu), the lute (veena) and the singers voice (gatra) are perfectly in tune with each other. Surakta implies that in accompaniment there are no disharmonies (vaisamyaa varjitam) with the sounds produced by the singer.

Evocative (Vikrusta) means that the song is loud in the fast, medium and slow tempos.

Smooth (slaksna) means that the melodic lines (varna) can be clearly heard in the lower as well as in the higher parts. Even (sama) means that there is no conflict (avisamya) in the melodic lines (varna), the registers (sthana) and in the speeds (laya).

These are the qualities of the good rendering of a song (iti gita-gunah).

Tatra purnam padah svarah angaih prayogaih sampurnam ragena chandsapi cha / prasannam prakatartham syan / madhram syan manoharam  //

Lavanya guna purnam cha sukumaram / nu ranjakam tri-sthana sambhavam yat syat tad vijneyam alamkritam//

Vyaktam jneyam ativyaktaih prakripratyayaksaaih/ sukumaram syad venu veena gatra dhvaniyaika yukta //

Suraktam yatra gatrottha dhvani vaisamyaa varjitam / vikrustam ucchairuccarad drute Madhya vilambite //

Nicoccayos cha varnanam sravyatve slaksnam ucyate / varna sthana laya adi naam avaisamye samam matam iti gita-gunah //

**

Narada suggests;   an ardent student of music must lead a disciplined and well-regulated life; meditate at proper times. He should learn to pronounce the Mantras clearly and crisply. He recommends consumption of Tri-phala-churna (a powder) mixed with salt for digestion, memory and lucid pronunciation. He also recommends breathing in of its smoke and also have honey (Madhu). He says, for securing a clear and sweet voice and attractive teeth, one should use the slick of a mango or wood-apple. Either for learning Vedas or Music, it is essential to have clear voice, self-control, attention, sound approach.  A student of Music should learn to recognize the divinity in the Svaras.

[Ref: http://www.omenad.net/page.php Dr. Lalmani Mishra ; A  History of Indian Music  by Swami Prajnanananda ; and,   Vaidika sahithya Charithre by Dr, NS Anantharanga Char; Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music edited and translated by Emmie te Nijenhuis ; https://ia801602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-nAradiyA-SikshA-sAmavEdIya-Kal-18900028.pdf;https://ia801602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-nAradIyA-SikshA-of-Narada-1964-Datiya-0082.pdf]

divider1

2. Dattilam

Dattilam, believed to be the work of Dattila or Dantila or Dattilacharya, is one of the earliest works after Natyashastra. (It is otherwise an untitled treatise said to be by Dattila) .And, as it usually happens in the Indian texts, not much is known about the author of Dattilam or his period. It is surmised that Dattila was contemporary or a follower of Bharatha since Dattilam is closely connected with Natyashastra. The ancient authorities referred to in the Dattilam are Khohala, Narada and Visakhila. Dattila is counted as one among the five-Pancha Bharathas: Nandikesvara, Kohla, Dattila, Bharat and Matanga. And, the later authors of the medieval times, in turn, quote Dattilam. It is therefore surmised the Dattilam might belong to the first or second century of Common Era.

Dattilam is a fairly short text of about 244 Karikas or stanzas, spread over 12 Chapters. Judging from the brevity of its structure and its style, the scholars opine that the edition of the text that has come down to us might be an abridgement of a more extended work. The author, in fact, remarks that he will desist from discussing Veena-playing (Veena-vadana) for fear of making the treatise too lengthy. Similarly, Dattilam does not deal with dramaturgy (Nrtta, Natya), perhaps because that was dealt in the original extended work.

Dattilam takes a significant position in the history of Indian Music. It is the bridge between the Sama Gana the ritual music of Yajna , and the pious Gandharva songs, which later transformed into the Desi Sangita that has come down to us through series of transformations.

The Gandharva totally remodeled the Music structure. In the Gandharva, the original descending Sama Veda scales were recast into new ascending and descending seven Svara (note) structures. These seven notes of the Gandharva (Svara-saptaka) are in use even today.

And , therefore, as Emmie te Nijenhuis remarks : The Dattilam is a very suitable starting point for study of the Ancient Indian Music , as it is a concise compendium of almost all the Musical terms.

A major part of 244 verses of Dattilam is about Gandharva. Dattilam calls Gandharva as Avadhana, conscious (samyag baddha) melodic employment of Svara, Taala and Pada. In Verse three of the Dattilam , Gandharva is explained as a collection of notes (Svara) which is based in words (Pada- thatha–Svara sanghtah ) ; which is  measured by  time-units (Taala) ; and, which is  performed with diligence (prayukthas savadhenena) is known by the name of Gandharva , (Gandharvam abhijayate  )

Pada – thatha- Svara sanghtah Talena sumitas thatha  I Prayukthas savadhenena Gandharvam  abhijayate  II

In verses 5 and 6 of Dattilam , the author mentions that he would cover topics such as : Sruti (micro-intervals ), Svara (notes), Grama (two-note system) , Murchana (scales) consisting series of notes (Taana) , Sthana (registers) , Vritti (styles) ,  pure instrumental music (Shushka) , singing along with playing (Giti), Sadharana (two ways of overlapping of notes), Varna (movement of Svaras) and Alamkara (ornamentation ) etc.

Dattilam also explains those music-terms of its period. For instance;  Dattilam (9) explains Sruti as the difference in sounds (dvani visesha) produced by striking on the strings on the upper end of the Veena (Uttarottara-taras tu veenayam) and that produced by striking on the  lower end (adharottarah) of the Veena . And, Abhinavagupta explains the term Sruti as the sound (sabda) produced (prabhavita) when struck at appropriate position (śruti-sthāna-abhighāta) on the Veena.

Dattilam says Svaras are seven , starting with Shadja ( Svarah shadjadyah sapta gramo shadja madhyamo – Dattilam .11) ; and they are of four types:  Vadi (sonant); Samvadi (consonant); Anuvadi (assonant) and Vivadi (dissonant). Vadin is the note that produces the melody. As Vadin is repeated often, the other notes are used in relation to it . For instance; the two Svara-s with an interval of eight or twelve Sruti-s between them  are called Samvadi of each other. Ni and Ga are Vivadi (discordant) to other Svaras. The Svara following a Vadi Svara is called Anuvadi.

Dattila explains these terms: “Vadin is the king; Samvadin is the minister who follows him; Vivadin is like the enemy who disrupts, and should be sparingly employed; and, Anuvadi denotes the retinue of follower.”

(Abhinavagupta adds a word of caution; and remarks that Dattila’s analogy just as any other analogy is rather brittle; and, should not be pressed very hard.)

Murchana is described as the ordered or the sequential arrangement of the seven Svaras. The Svaras of the Murchanas of the Shadja Grama are seven (Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni). If the commencing Svara (initial note – Graha) is changed, but the intervals between the Svara (Sruti) is kept unchanged, it then is called Graha–Bedha. It was through this method, it is said, Murchanas were derived from Gramas.

Dattilam (22-24) explains that the Murchanas of Shadja Grama are, generally, seven (Uttaramandra; Rajani; Uttara-ayata; Shuddha-Shadja; Matsarikruta; Ashvakranta; and, Abhirudgata). The Murchanas of the Madhyama Grama were also seven (Sauviri; Harinasva; Kalopanata; Shuddha-madhyama; Margi; Pauravi; and, Hrsyaka). The Murchanas of the two Gramas add up to fourteen.

Natyashastra mentions eighteen Jaati-s  (melodic structure). Of these, seven are called Shuddha Jaati-s. These are the Jaati-s which have the Svaras (notes) after which they are named, such as: Graha, Amsa and Nyasa. To this, Dattila adds Apa-nyasa. The Nyasa of Shuddha Jaati is Mandra. And, the remaining ones, originating from a mixture of these (suddha jatis) are modified (vikrita).

The Shuddha–Jaati had all the seven Svaras. When any one or more of these was  dropped, excepting the Nyasa (final note), the Shuddha Jaati would become Vikrta (modified). By the combination of the two or more Jaatis the eleven  Samsargaja–Vikrta would be formed.

Dattilam (55) lists the ten characteristic of Jaati as:   Initial note (graham), dominant (amsa), high (tara) and low (mandra) registers, hexatonic (sadava) and pentatonic (auduva) in due order, rareness (alpatva), prevalence (bahutva), final note (nyasa) and secondary final note (apanyasa).

Graha amsau tara mandarau ca shadava audava kramath / alpatvamcha bahutvamcha nyaso apanyasa eva ca // 

Then Dattilam goes on to explain:

This is the tenfold characterization of jati according to class (i.e. according to each jati). The accurate description of these ten (characteristics) will be set forth briefly.

There is the initial note (Graha), which is the starting note (adisvara) of a song. The high register (Tara) is considered to consist of five notes, rising (upwards) from the dominant.

it is recommended that in nandayanti jati the limit is not further then the dominant, with the final note as its limit, or even beyond (i.e. lower than) this one, that is the low register (mandra).

hexatonic (sadava) and pentatonic (auduva), respectively, are songs which are based on six or five notes. Rareness (alpatva) and prevalence (bahutva) depend on the rare or frequent use of certain notes.

Nyasa if the final note of a song. In the same way, the note which occirs in the middle, that is to say, in a section (vidari), as a final note, is the secondary final note (apanyasa). I will mention them according to the jatis

Verses 62-95 are about descriptions of 18 jatis.

Similarly, Natyashastra had earlier listed thirty-three types of Alamkaras. But, Dattila abridged the list to thirteen. Matanga who followed Natyashastra reckoned thirty-three Alamkaras.  However, in later times the list grew up to eighty-eight types of Alamkaras.

Dattila’s list of thirteen Alamkaras , which is  regarded as the basic was: 1. Prasanna-adi, begins with low note; 2. Prasanna-anta, ends with low note; 3. Prasanna-madhya, low note in the middle; 4. Prasanna-adyanta, begins and ends with low note; 5. Bindu, higher note touched like lightning; 6. Nivrtta-pravrtta, lower note touched quickly; 7. Prenkholita, even swing between two notes;  8. Tara-mandra-prasanna, gradual rise followed by sudden drop; 9. Mandra-tara-prasanna, sudden rise followed by gradual descent; 10. Sama, even ascent and/or descent; 11. Kampita, quiver in low register; 12. Harita, quiver in middle register; and, 13. Recita, quiver in high register.

Even the vocal styles were defined based on the relation between singing and playing the song on Veena. When one plays on the Veena ( following the vocal style) but without singing it is then known as Shuska or A-gita . And, when one plays on the Veena and sings the song as he plays m it is known as Giti.  Abhinavagupta in his commentary explains it further, saying: every type of Giti can be played on Veena. And, there are three types of Giti:   Tatva, Anugata and Ogha. When the Gana (singing)  is prominent and the Veena follows Gana completely , it is Tatva; when the Veena follows Gana in some part and then shows its own craftsmanship , it becomes Anugata; and , when the playing techniques becomes A-nibaddha and the Karanas become more prominent  and the Gana becomes secondary then the Giti becomes Ogha . Thus in the rendering of the Giti, Veena performs an important role.

Similarly, Murchana and Taana variations to provide pleasure to the listener as also to the performer were explained with reference to Veena. Dattilam (36) mentions about the techniques of improving Taana-s on the Veena (Taana-kriya). Dattila says: The Taana-kriya is twofold (Taana-kriya dvidha tantryam): Pravesika and Nigraha. Pravesika (entering) is raising the lower note or lowering the higher note. And, Nigraha (abstaining) is not touching the string (asamsparka tu nigrahat)

 (Taana-kriya dvidha tantryam praveshena nigrahat tatha I tatra pravesho dhvanyaikyam asamsparka tu nigrahat II)

Thus, along with Natyashastra, Dattilam is a fundamental Lakshana-grantha, a text that defined and explained the theory and practice of Indian Music. It put in a clear language the concepts and terms governing the Music of its time. Though some of its terms such as Jaati, Murchana, Grama etc are no longer in use, their essential principles have percolated to the present-day through a series of transformations.

[Ref: Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music by Emmie te Nijenhuis ; and , Natalie Savelyeva http://www.natyam.ru/index.html#musi ;

 https://ia801602.us.archive.org/27/items/Mus-SourceTexts/TxtSkt-Dattilam-Tvm-1930-Xrx-0019.pdf ]

 

 divider1

 3. Brihaddeshi

Brihaddeshi is another landmark text that spans the period from Natyashastra/Dattilam to Sangita-ratnakara. It carries forward the tradition of Natyashastra and Dattilam; and, at the same time , it establishes the Desi Sangita on a firm pedestal. Brihaddeshi bridges the Marga and the Desi class of Music; and, it also provides the basis for the emergence of the Mela system of classifying the Ragas.   One could say; Brihaddeshi gave a new birth to Indian Music; and, revitalized its creative genius by bringing the concept of Raga into the very heart of the Music traditions and their sensibilities.

Brihaddeshi also serves as a reference to many earlier authors whose works are now lost, such as: Kashyapa, Kohala, Durgasakti, Maheshwara, Yastika, Vallabha, Vishvavasu   and Shardula.

The text is attributed to Matanga or Matanga Muni or Matanga-Bharatha (as he is regarded one among the five-Pancha Bharathas: Nandikesvara, Kohla, Dattila, Bharatha and Matanga) takes a very important position between Bharatha (Ca.2nd century BCE) and Sarangadeva (Ca.13th century). It is surmised that Matanga perhaps lived during sixth or the seventh century.

The edition of Brihaddeshi, as it has come down to us, is an incomplete text. Only about five hundred of its verses are available. Those available verses and chapters deal only with Music; and, conclude with the remark that the next Chapter will deal with Musical instruments (Vadya).  Sadly, that and subsequent Chapters, if any, are not available. However, some commentators of the later periods cite from Brihaddeshi the references pertaining to instruments, taala and dance.

In the available chapters, the first portion starts with the definition of Desi.  The term Desi, here, refers to all art forms that are related to songs; and, in particular,  it comprehends the three arts of Gita (song), Vadya (instruments) and Nŗtta (dance). One of Matanga’s major contributions is his scholarly focus on the regional element in music.  The title Brhaddeshi (Brihat + Desi) , thus , stands for a masterly compilation of the music traditions of the various regions (Desha).

Next, the concept of Nada is described as the most subtle vibration , which is the basis for speech, music, dance and all other forms of activities. Then, the text goes on to discuss two Grama-s: Shadja-grama and Madhyama-grama. From these, Grama-s the music elements Sruti, Svara, Murchana, Tana, Jaati and Raga are derived.

Matanga deals with Grama, Murchana and Jaati, rather briefly. According to Matanga, twenty-one Murchana-s evolved from the three main Grama-s: Shadja, Madhyma and Gandharva. Murchana were of two kinds: one, having seven Svaras and the other having twelve Svaras (sa-Murcchana dvi-vidha; sapta-svara-Murchanat dvadasha-svara-Murchana cheti).

The Murchana with Seven Svaras  was divided into four parts: Purna, Shadava, Audava, and Sadharana, The Purna contained  seven Svaras (hexatone ) ; Shadava , six Svaras (heptatone ) ; Audava , five  Svaras (pentatonic ) ; and, the Sadharana , two displaced (vikrita} Svaras i.e,  antara-gandhara and kakali-nishada.

And, the Murchana with twelve Svaras manifest in three registers (Sthana): low, medium and high (Mandra, Madhya and Tara).

The text then discusses Sruti (silent intervals between Svaras), Svara intervals in the two Grama-s and other terms and concepts such as, Tana, Varna, Alamkara, Jaati, Gita and Raga.  Various other aspects including the popular melodies of his time are given in the other chapters.  As its name suggests, it is a huge work ;and, is also highly informative.

Following the steps of Bharatha, Matanga also recognized Shadja-grama and Madhyama-grama as two basic Grama-s (groups or clusters). From these Grama-s he derived Sruti, Svara, Murchana, Tana, Jaati and Raga. He says that the Aroha (ascending) and the Avaroha (descending) pattern of Svaras form the Murcchana of a Raga.  The Murcchana, in effect, describes the string of notes which, with further embellishments (Alamkaras) of thirty-three varieties, constitutes the core of a Raga. These Alamkaras are indeed the musical excellences that adorn the songs.

After allotting a chapter to the Jaati-s, Matanga devotes a special chapter to the Ragas.  Here, he deals with Grama-raga; and the Desi-ragas: Bhasa, Vibhasa and Antarabhasa. These Desi-ragas are again classified into four categories as : Raganga, Bhashanga, Kriyanga and Upanga.

Indeed, it is in this chapter of the Brhaddeshi we first come across the definition of Raga as given by Matanga. And , it  is his  definition that has guided  all the later literature (lakshana grantha) on Classical Music. In the history of the Ragas, Brhaddeshi  is, therefore, a landmark text.

The term Raga seemed to have been in use even prior to 7th century. But, it was not used in Music or in Music-theories in the way we know it and  in the way use it now.  It is, therefore, difficult to say that the concept of Raga as it is  understood today, had fully evolved and was recognized as such in the period prior to Matanga  ; say, at the time of Natyashastra ( second century BCE)

Which is to say; the notion of melodies that are created by artistic and ingenious arrangement of ascending and descending Svaras had been there for a very long time.  But, it was a rather an amorphous concept; its structure had not been determined; and, was waiting to be defined in a clear language. This , precisely, is what Matanga did.

**

Matanga says :

The nature of the Raga system (Raga-margasya- lit. path) has not been explained by Bharatha and others (Bharathadi); and, it is going to be explained (Nirupayate) by us, according to the theory (lakshana) and also the  practice (lakshya)– (279).

Raga-margasya vad rupam yannoktam Bharathadibhih I Nirupayate tasmad abhir lakshya –lakshana –samyuktam II

Then he goes on to explain: It is that particular quality or distinction of melodic-sound (dhwani-bhedaya) which is created by the combination or the arrangement of Svaras and Varnas (Svara-varna visheshena); and, that which delights (Ranjyate) is recognized by the wise as Raga.

Svara-varna visheshena dhwani-bhedaya va punah Ranjyate yena yan kashichit sa ragah samsthatham   II 280

Or (Athava), it is that particular sound which is adorned by Svara and Varna; and , that which delights the minds of the people is called Raga by the wise.

Athava – Yo asya dhwani vishesathu svara varna vibhushitaham Ranjako jana-chittanam sah ragah kathitho vidhuv II 281

[Following Matanga, Sarangadeva in his Sangeeta-ratnakara described Raga as: ranjayati itihi rāga-  Raga is that which delights .]

After defining Raga, in two way:  as that particular  arrangement or ornamentation  of Svara and movement of Varna (Svara-Varna vishesha ; vibhushitam ); and , as the distinction of melodic sounds (Dhwani-bhedana)  which delight the minds of people (Ranjako jana-chittanam) , Matanga takes up  the etymological  explanation  of the term Raga and its origin (Utpatthi).

Matanga says: this is how the word  Raga is derived (Ithevam raga-shabdasya utpatthir abhidiyate). He explains through illustrations; saying that the word Asvakarna when it is derived from its root might literally mean the ears of a horse. But, in practice (rudi), Asvakarna is generally understood as the tree whose leaves resemble in shape the ears of a horse. Similarly, the word Pankaja literally means one that is born (ja) out of mud (panka). But, Pankaja in convention and common usage refers only to the lotus-flower.

In a like manner, he says, the word Raga has etymological as well as special conventional meaning like the word Pankaja. He explains: whatever might be its other meanings, the word Raga (derived from the root ranj = to please), effectively suggests, here, as that which generates delight: Ranjana-jjayate ragau.

Ithevam raga-shabdasya utpatthir abhidiyate Ranjana-jjayate  ragau utpatthih samudahrutah II 283 Ashva-karnadi vidha rude yaugikau vaapi vachakah Yogarudosthva raage jneyam pankaja-shabdavat II 284

Along with defining Raga and explaining its concept, Matanga takes up the question of its identity. He says that the identity of Raga is conceived in two ways (dvivida matham):  through its general (Samanya) classification; and, through its special characteristics (visheshacha lakshana). He mentions the general categories as four (Chatur vidha tu samanya); and, that the Raga’s special identity lies in Amsa and other features (vishesha cha Amshakadhikam).

Samanya cha visheshacha lakshana dvivida matham Chatur vidha tu samanya vishesha cha Amshakadhikam II 282

As regards the four broad categories (Chatur vidha tu samanya) that Matanga mentioned, he, perhaps, was referring to Desi ragas that are classified into four categories as : Raganga, Bhashanga, Kriyanga and Upanga. These ragas are the basis for all musical forms presented in the later Samgita traditions and forms.

[But, during the later times,  the connotation and interpretation of these terms underwent thorough revision. The Ragas came to be classified into Janaka and Janya. And, Janya ragas were further classified into : Sampurna — Varja; Krama- Vakra; Upanga — Bhashanga: Nishadantya, Dhaiva- tantya and Panchamantya. ]

During the time of Matanga, the Amsa was said to be the prominent or predominant Svara through which the Raga manifested (raga-janakatvad vyapakatvaccha Amsasya pradhanyam).  And, the term Amsa and Vadi were used alternatively. Kallinatha in his commentary has said that both Amsa and Vadi  were used to convey the idea of creating the pleasing sensations of the Ragas (Sa vadi tyogyatavashdt amsha syat rakti-vyanjakatvat).

Along with Amsa, nine other characteristics of Jaati (melodies) were listed in Natyashastra (28.74) as also in Dattilam (55) as : Graha, Amsa, Tara, Mandra, Sadava, Audavita, Aplatva, Bahutva, Apa-Nyasa and Nyasa.

In the explanations offered by Matanga, he mentions Svara, Varna and Alamkara etc.

According to Matanga, Svara is the sound which has a certain musical quality that creates melody. When the interval between the notes (Sruti) is raised or lowered, the musical quality gets altered

And, Varna refers to special note sequences, which indicate different kinds of movement. The function of Varna in a Raga is to manifest a song; and, it is, therefore, known as gana-kriya. The Varna-s are said to be of four kinds, depending on the movement of Svara. They indicate the general direction of the melodic line.  When a note remains more or less at the same level it is called Sthayi-varna (stable); when the notes are ascending or descending these are known as Arohi and Avarohi. And, a mixture of the three is sanchari-varna, wandering, back-and-forth.

Natyashastra had earlier listed thirty-three types of Alamkaras. But, Dattila later abridged the list to thirteen. Matanga who followed Natyashastra reckoned thirty-three Alamkaras.  However, in later times the list grew up to eighty-eight types of Alamkaras.

Matanga, in his Brhaddeshi, speaks about  Gamakas. For in instance; while discussing about Raga-giti , one of the seven charming song-forms, he mentions that Raga-giti should be rendered with varied delicate Gamakas (lalithau–Gamakau-vichitrau); and, should be adorned with Svara pronunciations, lucid, powerful and even (300); and the Vibhasha–giti should be sung blending in the Gamakas that are pleasant on the ears (Gamakau–srotra-sukhadai-lalithairasthu) and are also delicate , according to the will of the singer (yadrucchaya samyojya)   to the delight of the people (lokan-ranjathe)- (308).

*

One can appreciate the contribution of Matanga when you realize that with the advent of Raga changed the whole phase of Indian Music.  With its coming,  the ancient music-terms and concepts such as Jaati, Grama , Murchana etc no longer are relevant in the Music that is practiced since say, fourteenth century. Since then Raga has taken the center stage; and, it is the most important concept in music composition, music performances and even in music-listening.

The proliferation of Ragas led, in the South, to systematic ways of classifying or grouping them based on the technical traits of their scales (Svaras). Classification of Ragas plays a major role in Indian Music theories. Matanga’s work became the source-text for the musicologists of the later periods for developing Mela-karta (parent scale) system of classifying Music;

 [Ref: Rāga-s in Bhaddēśī: English translation of the verses and the prose passages describing the Rāga-s, in the Bhaddēśī of Mataga by Dr. Hema Ramanathan; Brhaddasehi of Matanga by Dr. N. Ramanathan; A Brief Overview of the Evolution of Indian Music

 https://sites.google.com/site/chitrakoota/Home/carnatic-music ]

lotus

Continued in

Part Fifteen

 
7 Comments

Posted by on May 30, 2015 in Music, Sangita

 

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Music of India – a brief outline – Part Six

Continued from Part Five  – Akhyana – Ramayana

 Part Six ( of 22)-  Gandharva or Marga Music

8240b7b2c1f23d80fab238c9c54f9b19

Gandharva – Svara, Taala and Pada

After Saman and Akhyana, let’s take a look at the Gandharva or Marga Music.

1.1. The term Gandharva by itself means Music in general (Gandharva-shastra) and the Gandharva form of Music in particular. Gandharva Music regarded as Marga signifies something that which is chaste or classical. Marga, by its very nature, is rather sombre and not quite flexible.  Gandharva was said to be the Music performed for worship of gods since the ancient times. It is both sacred and well regulated (Niyata).

The early Gandharva songs were in praise of Shiva (Shiva-stuti). And, Shiva himself is said to have taught this Marga Music, on his Veena, in his Sri Dakshinamurthy form, to the sages sitting around him.

Chandogya Upanishad (7.1.2) calls the Gandharva-vidya as Devajana -vidya ( the art of the Devas). And, it is said : Ganat parataram na hi – nothing is higher than that music. 

1.2.  Gandharva or Marga is a sort of counterpart to Saman; and yet, the two are different types of Music. The Svaras in the early Saman were arranged in descending order (Avaroha); and, the concept of Grama –Vibagha (classification as per Gramas) was also not there. The Gandharva Music, in contrast, is based in Gramas and in the ascending and descending order of Svaras (Aroha-Avaroha). In fact, the term Gandharva, either as a class of Music or of musicians, does not appear in Rig-Veda. Similarly, plying of cymbals and marking of Taala also does not appear in conduct of Yajna or in Sama singing.   Further, while the Saman singing was in the context of a Yajna; the Gandharva, on the other hand, seemed to be the singing by trained singers on other worship-occasions (Puja).    Taittiriya Aranyaka (1.9.30) mentions a group of eleven Gandharva-singers (eti ekadasha gandharva-ganah) who sang songs in praise of gods.

1.3. Abhinavagupta, commenting on Natyashastra , strikes a conciliatory note and remarks : Although there is no structural similarity between Saman and Gandharva, the fruit (Phala) of rendering the two is indeed the same – bestowing bliss and leading towards Moksha. Such Music is a worthy offering to gods.  And, gods would be delighted with sublime Music than with reading Puranas or lecturing on Yoga exercises.

In support of his observation, Abhinavagupta quotes verses (26,27 and 28 of Chapter 36) of the Naytashastra :

 The recital of poetry, performance of dance (drama) along with songs and instrumental music are equal in merit to the recitation of Vedic hymns.

pāṭhyaṃ nāṭyaṃ tathā geyaṃ citravā aditrameva ca । veda-mantrārtha-va-canaiḥ samaṃ hyatad bhaviṣyati ॥ 26॥

I have heard from the god of gods (Indra) and even from Shankara (Shiva) that music (vocal and instrumental) is indeed purer and superior to taking a ceremonial dip in a river and repeating a mantra (Japa) a thousand times.

śrutaṃ mayā devadevāt tattvataḥ śaṅkarāb-ddhitam । snāna japya saha srebhyaḥ pavitraṃ gīta vāditam ॥ 27॥

Whichever places that reverberate with the auspicious sounds of songs and music of Natya will forever be free from inauspicious happenings.

yasmin nātodya nāṭyasya gīta pāṭhya dhvaniḥ śubhaḥ । bhaviṣyatya śubhaṃ deśe naiva tasmin kadācana ॥ 28॥

 2.1. Historically, Gandharva occupies an important position in the Music of India. It acts as a bridge between the Music of Saman and the Music of the later generations that has come down to us through series of transformations. In the Gandharva, the original descending Sama Veda scales were recast into new ascending and descending seven Svara (note) structures. These seven notes of the Gandharva – Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni –  were adopted in Natyashastra and in Dattilam  (Svara-saptaka); and ,more importantly, they  are in use even today.

[The Gandharva music is significant, in another way too; because, it moved away from Yajna (offering havis to Agni, the fire); and, adopted the approach of prayers and Puja – worship, adoration. It became a counterpart to Sama  which was chanted at the Yajna. Since then, worship through or with music has remained at the center of most Puja or Seva activities, with flower and other offerings.]

Therefore, getting to know Gandharva might help to gain a historical perspective of our Music.

3.1. Bharatha explains the term Gandharva as the Music dear to gods (atyartham iṣṭa devānā), giving great pleasure to Gandharvas; and, therefore it is called Gandharva.

(atyartham iṣṭa devānā tathā prīti-kara puna | gandharvāā ca yasmād dhi tasmād gāndharvam ucyate || (NS Ch. 28, 9).

3.2. Following Bharata who said : Gandharvam trividham vidyath Svara-tala-padat-makam (NS.28.11), in Verse three of the Dattilam , its author  Dattila explains Gandharva as a collection of notes (Svara) which is based in words (Pada- thatha–Svara sanghtah); which is  measured by  time-units (Taala) ; and, which is  performed with diligence (prayukthas savadhenena) is known by the name of Gandharva .(Gandharvam abhijayate) .

Pada – thatha- Svara sanghtah Talena sumitas thatha  I Prayukthas savadhenena Gandharvam  abhijayate  II

Another ancient scholar Vishakilacharya (?) also describes  Gandharva in  similar terms; as that which is the confluence of Svara, Pada and Tala (Svara-pada-Tala samavaye tu Gandharvam)

And, Naradiyashiksha (1.4.12) gives the etymology of the term Gandharva by splitting it into three parts. It explains Gandharva as made of: Ga – the song (giti geyam vidhuhu); Dha – playing on the Veena by skilful use of fingers (karupya vadanam); and , Va – other instruments and gestures (veti vadhyasya sanjnya)  ; and says ‘ this indicates Gandharva (ye Gandharvasya nirochanam).

3.3. Abhinavagupta in his Abhinava-bharathi (a commentary on Natyashastra) remarks that Gandharva which is sung from time immemorial bestows both evident or seen (Drsta) and not-evident or unseen (A-Drsta) benefits (Phala).  It is pleasant to the ears and to the mind; and, it also brings merit paving way towards liberation .

(anāditvād dṛṣṭā-adṛṣṭa-phalatvāc ca pradhāna gāndharvam… | gāna hi prīti-kārye vartate | tena tādātmya tāvad ayuktam |).

Music Dhrupad

 

3.4. The terms and concepts of the Gandharva musical tradition were described, mainly, in Bharatha’s Natyashastra and in the Dattilam of Dattila.  Natyashastra devotes about nine chapters to Gandharva Music – vocal and instrumental. And, a major part of 243 verses of Dattilam is about Gandharva. The Verse Six of Dattilam mentions that the text aims to discuss, mainly: Sruti (micro tone intervals), Svara (notes) , Grama (systems), Murchana (scales) consisting series of notes (Tana) , Sthana (voice registers) , Vritti (styles) , Suska or A-gita (playing on Veena following vocal style but without singing) and Sadharana (two ways of over lapping).

Svara, Taala and Pada

4.1. Gandharva is said to be governed by the combination of Svara (tonal structure); Taala (time-units); and, Pada (text), in association with various musical instruments (Gaandharvam trividham vidhaat svara-tala-pada-atmakam). Thus, song, Veena and flute all contributed to Gandharva. Dattilam explains it in a similar manner, calling it Avadhana, conscious (samyag baddha) melodic employment of Svara, Taala and Pada. And yet, the scholars reckon the Gandharva Samgita was essentially vocal. The objective of the Gandharva songs (Stuti pada-s) was to praise of Shiva (Shiva-stutau prayojani) and to please the gods (atyartham iṣṭa devānā).

4.2. In Gandharva, the Svara, Taala and Pada had hierarchical positions (Gāndharva yan mayā prokta svara-tāla-padātmakam). Svara and Taala enjoyed prominence.  However, Svara and Taala do need the substance (vastu) or the form of Pada – the text – as their base.  Bharata, therefore, says that Pada serves as an aid to Svara and Taala (Pada tasya bhaved vastu svara-tālānubhāvakam).  Padas were, perhaps, modified to suit Svara and Taala. In other words, lyrics of a song were subject to Svara (melody) and Taala patterns.  Specific examples of modifications of Pada are listed in Dattilam: changing Agne to Ognayi; disjoining syllables – Viyate to Vo Yi to Ya Yi; stretching a syllable – Ye to Ayi; repetition of words – Ya YiYa Yi; unwarranted break in Pada – Gunano havyadataye to GunanohaVyadataye; and insertion of meaningless sounds – Au, Ho, Va, Ha, U, Eha, Aho-i, Oha-i etc. These were the practices carried forward from Saman singing.

4.3. However, between Svara and Taala, Gandharva assigned a secondary position (angāngi-bhāva) to Taala; and the prime position to Svara. Taala was governed by rigid rules measured by time-units (matra), having a fixed number of delineations, by the strikes of hand-held cymbals (Ghana).  In Gandharva, no deviation was allowed from the set pattern. The main task of Taala was to provide fixed measurement of time to the notes; and, to maintain Saamya (coming together) a point of resolution that provides a sense of balance. (It could perhaps be akin to Sam of Hindustani Music..!)

5.1. According to Matanga, Svara is the sound which has musical quality that creates melody. When the interval between the notes (Sruti) is raised or lowered, the musical quality gets altered. And, such musical sound is different from other sounds. Thus, Sruti and Svara-s are vital elements of a song. The difference between the two is that the former has no resonance, while the latter has it.

5.2. Abhinavagupta explains the term Svara as derived from the root Sva of the expression Svabhavadi-gana. And, Svara has both Sabda (sound) and Upa-taapa (warmth of feeling) – śabdopa-tāpayo. He goes on to say; the mind ordinarily grasps plain sounds. But, a Svara has the power to infuse various emotions into the sounds and to influence the mind. And, thus, the Svara has resilience to assert itself over mundane noises and stray thoughts.

5.3. Dattilam  as in Natyashastra (28.24) says Svaras are seven starting with Shadja (Dattilam .11) ; and they are  of four types:  Vadi (sonant); Samvadi (consonant); Anuvadi (assonant) and Vivadi (dissonant).

chaturvidha tva meteṣāṃ vijñeyaṃ gānayoktṛbhiḥ । vādī caivātha saṃvādī vivādī cā anuvādyapi ॥ NS.88. 22॥

Vadin is the note that produces the melody. As Vadin is repeated often, the other notes are used in relation to it . For instance; the two Svara-s,  with an interval of eight or twelve Sruti-s between them, are called Samvadi of each other. Ni and Ga are Vivadi (discordant) to other Svaras. The Svara following a Vadi Svara is called Anuvadi.

Svarah shadja adayah sapta gramau dvau shadja madhyamau / kechid gandharam apy ahuh sa tu nehopalabhate //  (Dattilam .11) //

Dattila explains these terms:”Vadin is the king (Swamin); Samvadin is the minister who follows him (Amatya); Vivadin is like the enemy who disrupts (Satru), and should be sparingly employed; and, Anuvadi denotes the retinue of follower (Parijana).”

Abhinavagupta adds a word of caution; and remarks that Dattila’s analogy just as any other analogy is rather brittle; and, should not be pressed very hard.

*****

Sruti

6.1. Before going into the other elements of Gandhara Music we may talk a bit about its concept of Sruti.

Bharata refers to Sruti in his statement: Jatibhih Srutibhiscaiva svara gramatva-amagatah (NS 18, 5-6) – through Jaatis and Sruti-s the Svara attains the state of Grama.

6.2. Dattilam (9) mentions that the notes in the higher register (Tara) are on the upper end of the Veena (Uttarottara-taras tu venayam); and the notes in lower register are on its lower end (adharottarah). The difference in sounds (dvani visesha) so produced is understood as Sruti (Sruti samjnitah); and, that difference can be perceived only through practiced listening (iti dvani visesas te sravanah). ‘And, with these Sruti-s one sings all the songs’ (Dattilam.10)

Uttarottara-taras tu venayam adharottarah / iti dhvani visesa te  svara varna ca chrutisamjnitah//9// te bhyah kamscid upadaya giyante  svara giti su / adriyante ca ye tesu svaratvam upalabhya te //10//

6.3. Prof. Dr. Ramanathan explains that Sruti, here, is the unit of measure (pramana) of Svara-s, and also the basis on which Svara-s were classified into Gramas. Thus, what is important in a Grama is the number of Sruti-s that link the Svara.

6.4. Abhinavagupta points out: In fact it is for the very purpose of classifying the Gramas that the concept of Sruti was formulated (Grama-vibhagarthm eva Sruti-kirtanam); else, it had no existence in performance .

(evam gramadvayam tadupayoge ca Sruti; sadbhave svaranam Sruti niyama pramanya bhidhaya)

6.5. Dr. Ramanathan explains: In the ancient system, Svara was conceived not merely as a sound of fixed pitch position, but also as comprehending the entire tonal range between itself and its previous svara.  The interval which separated one Svara from another was measured in terms of Sruti-s.

6.6. Sruti is, thus, a distinctly cognizable, audible sound-interval (not a precise mathematical or physical measure) that separates one Svara from its next. The listening acumen of the musician is the sole guide to measure the rise or fall in Sruti. And, this is achieved only by diligent practice (Sad-abhyasa) , as  Abhinavagupta says –  Sruteh Sabdasya Srotragr -Ahyasya utka.

[Naradiyashiksha remarks: one who is not able to distinguish between the Srutis cannot be called a teacher – Srutinam yo visheshajno na sa acharya uchyate – (Nar,Shi 1.7.9) ]

6.6. According to Bharatha, Sruti is basically an interval. And, Svara is measured in terms of Sruti. When you call a Svara as Dvi-srutika, it means that two Sruti-s are separating a Svara from its previous Svara. Similarly, the terms Tri-srutika and Chatus-srutika mean that there are three and four Sruti intervals, respectively, between a Svara and the previous Svara. Let’s say; when one speaks of Tri-srutika in relation to Ri  it would mean that it is the third distinctive sound from Sa ; and also that it is three Srutis away from Sa.

Bharatha adds that the lowering or raising could be done by loosening or tightening of the strings in the case of stringed instruments.

[Dr. Ramanthan comments : While Bharatha explains Sruti as the unit of interval, Dattila (9-10) understands it as the pitch positions or sounds that can be distinguished from one another.]

6.7. Abhinavagupta explains the term Sruti, in his unique manner, as the sound (sabda) produced (prabhavita) when struck at appropriate position (śruti-sthāna-abhighāta) on the Veena. And, the note produced afterwards continuously by resonance is Svara. And says, when the Sruti is exact (anuraana) it transforms into resonant sweet flow of sound pleasing to the ears and to the heart (snigdha-madhura). Here, Anuraana is the physical aspect of Sruti; while snigdha-madhura is its aesthetic beauty.

Gandharva depivtion in art

***

Gandharva – Music elements – Jaati, Murchana and Grama

Jaati

8.1. The Gandharva songs were rendered in melody-forms or modes called Jaatis, which perhaps, did not allow much scope for elaboration.

The Jaati-s were formed by Svaras which in turn were made of measurable units of intervals (Sruti).

8.2. Natyashastra mentions eighteen Jaati-s. Of these, seven are called Shuddha Jaati-s. These are the Jaati-s which have the Svaras (notes) after which they are named, such as: Graha, Amsa and Nyasa. To this, Dattila adds Apa-nyasa. The Nyasa of Shuddha Jaati is Mandra.

The Shuddha–Jaati had all the seven Svaras. When any one or more of these were dropped, excepting the Nyasa (final note),  the Shuddha Jaati would become Vikrta (modified).

śuddhā vikṛtāścaiva hi samavāyājjātayastu jāyante । punarevāśuddhakṛtā bhavantyathaikādaśānyāstu ॥ 46॥

[It is also said: When a Svara leaves its own place and or the Sruti-s specified for it and assumes another place or contains other Sruti-s, it becomes Vikrta. For instance; When Rsbha assumes the four Sruti-s of Shadja it becomes Vikrta.]

By the combination of the two or more Jaatis the eleven Samsargaja–Vikrta would be formed.

(In Ramayana only seven Jaatis were mentioned .They, perhaps, were derived from Ga Grama).

8.3. Natyashastra (28.66) lists ten characteristics of a Jaati:

: – Graha – It is the initial note –Adi-Svara– used at the beginning of a song;

: – Amsa – It is the prominent note (key note ) in the song ( According to some, it is another name for Vivadi Svara). The melodic expression of the song depends on it;

: – Tara – It is the high register; the upper limit of the notes to be used. It is the fourth note from Amsa which belongs to middle sthana;

:- Mandra –It is the low register; the lower limit of the note to be used;

: – Nyasa – It is the note with which the song ends;

:- Apa-nyasa– It is before the final note (penultimate) . It is note with which a section of the song ends –Vidari;

:- Alpatva – It is the use of a note or notes in small measure. It is twofold: by skipping over the particular note or notes; and by non-repetition;

:- Bahutva – It is of two kinds: by using the notes fully or by repeating it often;

:- Sadavita –Six notes are used omitting one;

:- and, Audavita -Five note are used dropping two.

daśakaṃ jātilakṣaṇam –
grahā aṃśau tāra mandrau ca nyāso’ apanyāsa eva ca । alpatvaṃ ca bahutvaṃ ca ṣāḍava auḍuvite tathā ॥ 66॥

*

[Dattilam (55) also lists the ten characteristic of Jaati as: Graha, Amsa, Tara, Mandra, Sadava, Audavita, Aplatva, Bahutva, Apa-Nyasa and Nyasa

Graha amsau tara mandarau ca sabda baudubite kramat / alpatvam ca bahutvam ca nyaso apanyasa eva ca //55//]

**

[Later, Sangita-ratnakara (1.7.29-53) adds three more lakshana-s : Samnyasa, Vinyasa and Antara-marga.

Samnyasa the final note of the first part (Vidari) of a song is described as ‘a note which is not dissonant (Vivadi) with the dominant note (Amsa); and, which concludes (samapti-krt) the first part (Vidari) of a song.

Vinyasa, the final note of the pada (a division of a song) is explained as a note that is not dissonant (Vivadin) with regard to the dominant note (Amsa). And, it stands at the end of the verbal-theme (Vidari-bhaga-pada-pranthe).

Antara-marga is an intermediate note which occurs in the midst of the notes practiced rarely (madhye-madhye alpatva yujam). It brings in variety (vichitratva-kariny) and is practiced without repetition and with isolated omissions. And, as a rule it occurs in the modified (Vikrta) Jaati (krta sa antara-margah syat prayo vikrta Jaatishu).]

The Amsa being the prominent (key) note in the Jaati was often used in combination with its Samvadi (consonant) and Anuvadi (assonant) Svaras.

[In the later times, the music of the Jaatis with its many varieties gave rise to the Raga system.]

Murchana and Grama

9.1. Murchana is described as the ordered or the sequential arrangement of the seven Svaras. The term Murchana is derived from Murch – to increase or to pervade. Natyashastra says that Murchanas are so called because seven notes are used in order (kramayutah) in their fixed positions. Narada in his  Shiksha  said: tana-raga-svara-grama- murcchana tu lakshanam- (II. 1) – Murcchana  is that which comprises – tana, raga,svara and grama

Later, in Gandharva, Murchana came to be understood as an arrangement having a gradual Aroha (ascent) and Avaroha (descent) of the seven Svaras (notes). Different musical expressions were derived from the Murchanas by permuting the seven Svaras in any number of ways. Of such rearrangements, the one where the seven Svaras were placed in their sequential order was called Krama. And, the one where the Svara-sequence was not in the order was called Kutatana. The logical method of computing Krama and Kutatana was called Prastara.

9.2. As said earlier; it was on the basis of Sruti-s that the intervals of the Svaras in a Jaati were measured. Abhinavagupta explains Grama as jaati-samudaya (collection of Jaatis). Jaati, again, refers to class of melodic types, which were constructed out of Murchanas.

It is also said that Grama is the resort  in which the Murchana-s reside.

9.3. In the Gandharva, the Murchana arrangement was under two parent scales or Gramas: Madhyama (Ma) and Shadja (Sa) – Jatibhih Srutibhis chaiva Svara-Gramatvam agatah- NS.28.24-26. ‘Here there are 22 Sruti intervals’.

The Jaati-s were, initially, grouped under three Grama-s (group or cluster) known as Gandhara (Ga); Madhyama (Ma) and Shadja (Sa).  The Ga Grama, it appears, went out of use quite early. And, out of the other two Gramas (Sa and Ma), fourteen Jaatis were formed.

9.4. The term Shadja means ‘giving birth to six’. And, it refers to the first defining note of the Grama – Sa. Once this note is fixed, the placement of other six notes is determined. The Shadja Grama is the collection of the seven Svara-s namely:  Shadja (Sa), Rsabha (Ri), Gandhara (Ga), Madhyama (Ma), Panchama (Pa), Dhaivata (Dh) and Nishadha (Ni).

The Madhyama Grama also has seven Svaras (Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni) ; but , the sequence or the order of the two Gramas differ.

Under each Grama, the intervals between two consecutive Svaras (measured by Sruti) also differ.  For instance ; Sa Grama has Srutis as : Sa (4), Ri (3), Ga (2) , Pa(4) , Dha (3) and Ni(2). And, the  Ma Grama has :  Sa(4) , Ri(3) , Ga (2), Ma (4) , Pa (3), Dha (4) and Ni(2).  And, therefore the Murchana obtained from one Grama differs from that of the other.

[You may notice: the Pa note of Ma Grama is one Sruti lower. Therefore, the interval between Pa and Dha of Ma-Grama becomes longer, that is four Srutis. ]

As can be seen; the interval of two Srutis is the smallest; then, there are intervals of three Srutis and four Srutis. Natyashastra gives the number of Srutis in the Grama as 22. But, they were not named. Dr. Ramanathan remarks: Though the number of Sruti-s is said to be 22; this number has no sanctity attached to it. What is important in the Grama system is the number of Sruti-s within a Svara.

Murchanas

10.1. It is said; there were four types of Murchanas: Purna (full), the heptatonic with all the seven Svaras; Shadava (hexatonic) with six Svaras; Audava (Pentatonic) with five Svaras; and, Tanas or Sadharani-krta (including overlapping notes, like Kakili Nishada).

kramayuktā svarā sapta mūrcchanetyabhisajñitā apañ ca svara kāstānāḥ, āavau uvitāśrayā 28.32 sādhāraaktāś caiva kākalī samalak antara svara sayuktā mūrcchanā grāmayordvayo NS.28.33

Natyashastra mentions: The variety of Tanas and Murchanas, thus arising, provide enjoyment to the listeners and to the musicians, as well. They do help the singer in improving his voice registers (sthana-prapti).

As said earlier; the Svaras of the Murchanas of the Shadja Grama are seven (Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni). If the commencing Svara (initial note – Graha) is changed, but the intervals between the Svara (Sruti)  is kept unchanged, it then is called Graha–Bedha. It was through this method, it is said, Murchanas were derived from Gramas.

Each of the seven Murchanas of the Shadja Grama is called by a name. They are:(Uttaramandra; Rajani; Uttara-ayata; Shuddha-Shadja; Matsarikruta; Ashvakranta; and, Abhirudgata).

aje cottaramandrā syādṛṣabhe cābhirudgatā aśvakrāntā tu gāndhāre madhyame matsarīk 28.29

Sa-Ri-Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni Uttaramandra
Ri-Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni-Sa Rajani
Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni-Sa-Ri Uttarayata
Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni-Sa-Ri-Ga Shuddha-Shadja
Pa-Dha-Ni-Sa-Ri-Ga-Ma Ashvakrantha
Dha-Ni-Sa-Ri-Ga-Ma-Pa Matsyakrantha
Ni-Sa-Ri-Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha Abhirudgata

The Murchanas of the Madhyama Grama were also seven (Sauviri; Harinasva; Kalopanata; Shuddha-madhyama; Margi; Pauravi; and, Hrsyaka).

atha madhyamagrāme -sauvīrī hariāśvā ca syātkalopanatā tathā śuddhamadhyā tathā mārgī pauravī hṛṣyakā tathā madhyamagrāmajā hyetā vijñeyā saptamūrcchanā 28.31

Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni- Sa-Ri-Ga Sauviri
Pa-Dha-Ni-Sa- Ri-Ga-Ma Harinasva
Dha-Ni-Sa-Ri- Ga-Ma-Pa Kalopanata
Ni-Sa-Ri-Ga- Ma-Pa-Dha Shuddha-Madhya
Sa-Ri-Ga-Ma- Pa-Dha-Ni Margavi
Ri-Ga-Ma-Pa- Dha-Ni-Sa Pauravi
Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha- Ni-Sa-Ri Hrsyaka

 

The Murchanas of the two Gramas add up to fourteen.

The Gandhara Grama also gave rise to seven Murchanas. However, it was obsolete by the time of Natyashastra.

**

[The explanations by about the seventh century seemed to be slightly different.

Matanga (7th century), in his Brhaddeshi, described   Murcchana as  the elaboration of ‘the seed form of the raga’ (murcchamoha-samucchrayayoh) . And, he said , such elaboration is  possible when the seven Svara-s  of a Raga manifest in the processes of  ascent (aroha) and descent (avaroha).

The Murcchana-s , according to Matanga,  evolved from the Gramas as their base. And, twenty-one Murcchana-s evolved from the three main Gramas-Shadja, Madhyma and Gandharva. Each Murcchana possessed a special unit of aesthetic sentiment.

Matanga said: Murcchana were of two kinds: one, having seven Svaras and the other having fourteen Svaras (sa- Murcchana dvi-vidha; sapta-svara-Murchanat  dvadasha-svara-Murchana cheti).

The Murcchana with Seven Svaras  was divided into four parts: Purna, Shadava, Audava, and Sadharana, The Purna contained  Svaras (hexatone ) ; Shadava , six Svaras (heptatone ) ; Audava , five  Svaras (pentatonic ) ; and the Sadharana , two displaced (vikrita} Svaras :  antara-gandhara and kakali-nishada.

The Murcchana with Twelve Svaras manifest in three registers (Sthana): low, medium and high (Mandra, Madhya and Tara).]

*

[As regards the Gandharva Grama which went out of use quite early, Naradiyashiksha and Sangitaratnakara mention the names of its seven Murchanas as: Nandi, Visala, Sumukhi, Chitra, Chitravati, Sukha and Aalapa.

According to Shri KV Ramachandran the noted music-critic of yester years, the high pitched Ga Grama was used for gods and heavenly beings, Narada, Urvashi etc. That perhaps explains why Ga Grama came to be associated with heaven in the later works.

And, in a similar manner the Jaati, Grama, Murcchana etc system of Music based in two Gramas (Sa and Ma) came to an end by the time of Sarangadeva (13th century). Thereafter,  the scholar-composers derived the Ragas only from Sa Grama ; and discarded the Ma Grama . It was said; Ma Grama had become defunct as its Panchama was but a mere variety of Madhyama.

For instance; Ramamatya (16th century) derived all the Desi Ragas from Sa Grama.  Pundarika Vittala (16th century) also said that all Ragas are derived from Shadja-Grama . And, Venkatamakhin (17th century) who followed him said that Ma Grama does not seem to exist. And, he recognized only the Sa Grama. According to Venkatamakhin, all the Desi Ragas originate from Sa Grama.]

10.2. In the Gandharva Music, it is said, the Murchana of one Grama could be derived from the other. Thus, if the Panchama (Pa) of the Shadja Grama is lowered by one Sruti, it would result in Madhyama Grama. In a similar manner, Murchana of Madhyama Grama could be converted into Shadja Grama by lowering its Daivata (Dha) by two Srutis.[ The Daivata that is so lowered is now named Gandhara (Ga). Then Nishadha (Ni) and Shadja (Sa) would be called Madhyama (Ma) and Panchama (Pa), respectively.]

Abhinavagupta comments: In Gandharva, dropping of notes in two Gramas, as also on the basis of Amsa notes, was governed by definite rules. For instance; Daivata (Dha) was indispensible in Shadja Grama; and, in Madhyama Grama, Panchama (Pa) could never be dropped from any Jaati.

10.3. In addition, there was also the practice of using one or two Svaras more (in addition to the seven) in a Murchanas. Such additional (overlapping) Svaras were called Sadharana Svaras. [It’s too cold in winter and too hot in summer. But, there is also a comfortable season which is neither cold nor hot; it is neither summer nor winter.  It is between the two seasons. And, this is the Sadharana Kaala – the common season. And, so are the Sadharana Svaras.]

In the Murchana, the additional Svaras between two Svaras – (Sadharana Svara) are not separate individual Svaras, but are chosen from among the seven. They are resorted to only when the respective Grama-Svaras are weak. And, Sadharana-Svara is weaker than the Grama-Svara, and therefore it cannot become the commencing Svara of a Murchana. [It is said; there would also be Murchanas with Sadharana Svaras (with Antara Ga and Kakili Ni) of two scales.]

Taana

11.1. Apart from the Seven-Svara Murchanas and Murchanas with Sadharana Svaras, there were also some Murchanas which had only six Svaras (Shadava) or five Svaras (Audava). And, these were called Taanas (from the root tan = to spread out), which formed the basis for various musical forms.

For instance; Sa Grama will have four Taanas when Sa, Ri, Pa and Ni are dropped successively. Similarly, there will be three Taanasin Ma Grama when Sa, Ri and Ga are dropped successively.

As regards Audava Taanas, Sa-Pa, Ri-Pa and Ga-Ni are dropped in Sa Grama; and Ga-Mi and Ri-Dha are dropped in Ma Grama.

Matanga says that the five-note Audava Taana could be obtained generally by omitting the Samvadi (consonant) Svara; and, in some cases it may be obtained by omitting the Anuvadi (assonant) Svara also.

In all, the Murchanas of the two scales would be 35.

[Taana-s are said to be twofold: Shuddha and Kuta. when Svaras are sung in a regular order it is Shuddha; and. when sung in an irregular order it is Kuta.

Matanga explains the difference between Murchana and Taana as the difference in the order (karma): the former has an ascending order while the latter has descending order. The purpose of both the Murchanas and the Taanas are was to provide pleasure to the listener as also to the performer. Perhaps, I think, these (Murchana and Taana) variations related to Veena plying than to human voice. ]

11.2. How the notes are to be omitted for the sake of Taana is given in Taana-kriya on the Veena (Dattilam. 36). The Taana-kriya, the technique is twofold (Taana-kriya dvidha tantryam) – Pravesika and Nigraha.  Pravesika (entering) is raising the lower note or lowering the higher note. Nigraha (abstaining) is not touching the string (asamsparka tu nigrahat) , i.e.  , not producing the middle note as the middle note would denote Murchana. The Ma-note of the Veena may never be omitted as it was essential for indication of Murchana-s of the two Grama-s.

(Taana-kriya dvidha tantryam praveshena nigrahat tatha I tatra pravesho dhvanyaikyam asamsparka tu nigrahat II)

Veena

 

[The scanty information posted here about Murchanas, Gramas and Jaatis was, roughly, according to Natyashastra and Dattilam. In the later centuries, just before  the time of Matanga‘s Brihad-desi ( 6th  to 8th century) , the concept and the method of deriving Murchana, as also the  connotation of Jaati and its further evolution  had changed much.

And, by the time of Brihad-desi, the concepts of Grama, Murchana and Jaati had all but gone. After this period, the Ragas came to be regarded as the melodic-base of the songs. Initially, the Ragas were treated as janya-s (derivatives) of the Jaatis. But, in due course the relation between Ragas and Jaatis tapered out, and then ceased. Similarly, the Svaras that gave form to Ragas came to be described in terms of Shuddha or Vikrta Svaras; and, the relation between Svaras and Gramas of the past was also lost.]

gobo(1)

 

Gandharva – Music forms

12.1. The following were said to be the song- formats of the Gandharva Music (Giti): Gitaka; Nirgita; Jaati-gita; Kapala-gana; and, Kambala-gana. Of course, all these forms vanished long ago. And, even historically, the scholars are not sure of their origins. Each of the four forms seemed to have come from a different tradition. The relation or the link between the forms is also rather hazy or uncertain.

12.2. Among these, Gitaka and Nirgita type were said to be songs with definite structure. The Jaati-gita, on the other hand, was said to be a song-type with no specified format. Kapala-gana and Kambala-gana were said to be simpler songs.

[In another context, it is said: the relationship between the Gana and the Veena playing is called Giti (when Veena playing is not accompanied by singing, it is A-giti). Abhinavagupta explains: every type of Giti can be played on Veena, And, there are three types of Giti:   Tatva , Anugata and Ogha. When the Gana is prominent and the Veena follows Gana completely , it is Tatva; When the Veena follows Gana in some part and then shows its own craftsmanship , it becomes Anugata; and , when the playing techniques becomes A-nibaddha and the Karanas become more prominent  and the Gana becomes secondary then the Giti becomes Ogha . Thus in the rendering of the Giti, Veena performs an important role.]

Gitaka

13.1. As said; Gitaka is a well structured song format. There were major divisions or groups of Gitaka-s, each group having seven song-forms. The seven forms of the first Division were (Sapta-rupa): Madraka; Aparantaka; Ullopyaka; Prakari; Ovenaka; Rovindaka; and, Uttara. And, the seven forms under the second Division were: Asarita; Vardhamana; Chandaka; Panika; Rik; Gatha; and, Sama.

13.2. Every Gitaka, in turn, had two sections: Vastu and Anga. The different forms of Gitaka were classified according to the variations of their Vastu (section of the text) and Anga (styles of rendering the texts). The other distinguishing features were: Svara; Taala; and, Pada.

13.3. The ways of rendering the Gitaka had components (Anga) such as: Upavartana:– the end portion of a section of the text rendered in double speed; Prastara :- the concluding portion of one  section is repeated as the opening of the following section; and, Shakha-Pratishaka:-  certain sections are to be rendered twice – each in a different style- the first rendering is called Shakha and the other was called  Prati-shakha.

14.1. In the Gitaka, the terms such as Svara; Taala; and, Pada have their own connotation. And, they do not carry the meaning that we now associate with those terms.

For instance; Taala in a Gitaka does not mean rhythmic patterns or beats; but, it is the measure of time-span (duration) of the Gitaka. The sections of the Gitaka were divided into smaller time-units, marked by specific action by hands (kriya), either by making sound (Sa-sabda) or without sound (Ni-sabda). These were said to be four-fold, each.

Nishabda: (a) Avapa: contracting fingers with the palm turned upwards; (b) Niskrama: spreading the fingers with the palm turned downwards; (c) Viksepa: moving hands swiftly as in Niskrama; and, (d) Pravesha: taking back the hand pointing downwards.

Sa-sabda: (a) Samaya: clapping by the right hand; (b) Taala: clapping by the left hand; (c): Sannipata: clapping with both hands together; and, (d) Dhruva : movement of the hand with the snapping of the fingers according to threefold Kaala.

[It is said; cymbal plying with its neutral yet audible sound, usually, accompanied the hand gestures during Gandharva, for attainment of Saamya (the moment of precise coordination of Taala, Svara and Pada).]

14.2. Similarly, Svara was not mere notes. It is, here, related to Taala (as explained above). The melodic-lines of the song were broken into segments to match the Taala (time-units) or the duration assigned to that section..

14.3. Pada, the verbal elements of the song were also important. The object of the songs was to praise Shiva (Shiva-stutau prayojani). The duration of each section of the Gitaka and that of the meaningless syllables (jham, tum, tha, ka etc) employed were also prescribed.

Nirgita

15.1. Nirgita, also called Bahirgita or Shska, too had elements of Svara, Taala and Pada.  The Nirgita was a song form (Gita) suitable for dance (Nrtta) consisting vocal part (Dhruva) and instrumental part (Vadya). The instrumental part of the song (Veena- vadya-prayoga) was more prominent as compared to the verbal part (Dhruva-prayoga).The Vadya part was characterized by specific strokes (Karana) on the Veena.  According to Abhinavagupta, the Svaras that are produced by striking (praharavishesha janyah) the strings of Veena in a specific manner is called Dhatu.

15.2. The Dhatu-s had four elements: Vistara (high pitched), Karana (low pitched), Aviddha (duration of the note) and Vyanjana (different ways of employing each finger), each of which had its variations. Such variations depended on whether the stroke was made on the upper end (uttaramukha) or lower end (adhara) of the Veena; the number of strokes made on the strings; the time span (guru and laghu); and, their sequences.

Pada, here, meant both the verbal text (Dhruva-prayoga) and the passages of instrumental play (Vadya-prayoga).

15.3. As regards Taala in Nirgita, it has the same connotation as in Gitaka. The entire time-span of the verbal composition (Dhruva) is broken into smaller segments; and each is measured in time –units (kaala pramana). The instrumental part of Nirgita was, however, free from restrictions of Taala.

Jaati-gita

16.1. Jaati-gita seemed to be simple songs with no marked division or refrain ( in contrast to Gitaka) . Jaati-gita songs were based in one or the other Jaati, class of melodies. They were perhaps illustrative representation of a Jaati group.  For instance; a Gita based in Shadja-jaati represented the Shuddha variety of the Jaati.

Jaati-gita too had elements of Svara, Taala and Pada.

16.2. The Svara aspect of Jaati-gita-s exhibited the characteristics of the jaati-s to which they pertained. The Tala organisation ( time-management) of the Jaati-gita was not as complex as that of the Gitaka and Nirgita. The Pada aspect of the Jati-gita-s was also fairly simple. The text consisted of Stuti pada-s addressed to Siva.

Kapala-ganas

17.1. Kapala-ganas were simple songs just as the Jaati-gitas, without any sectional organisation. They were based on melodic structures called Kapala-s. The seven Kapala-s were derived from Shuddha variety of seven Jaati-s.

The Pada of Kapala-ganas were all in praise of Shiva, particularly the Kapala adorned form of Shiva; and were interspersed with loud Hoonkara and sounds such as : Hum, Ha, Hu , Avu etc.

The Kambala–gana

18.1. The Kambala–gana, just as the Kapala-gana, was based in derivatives of Jaati known as Kambala. The Kambala-gana were said to be derived from Panchami-jaati. And, in their structure they resembled the Kapala-ganas.

 rangoli

 

19.1. The Gana of the Natyashastra had its roots in Gandharva Music. Several of the Gandharva – songs were adopted into Drama. For instance; in the Purvanga, that is during the preliminaries before the commencement of the Drama per se, the Gandharva songs of the type Nirgita were sung , to the accomniment of instruments, offering prayers to Shiva. This was flowed by a song in Gitaka format ; and by a Tandava dance of Shiva or a Lasya of Shiva and Devi to another Gitaka-song. Thereafter, the Sutradhara (Director and Stage-Manager) and his troupe enter the stage move in a rhythmic  dance like steps   and sing Gandharva-songs praying to the gods for successful enactment and completion of the play. However, during the entry and exit or at important junctures Dhruva  songs were sung.

Tandava2 lasya

 

Some say that Gandharva or the sacred Music Marga performed during worship, in due course, gave place to Gana, the songs that were not so rigidly bound and were meant to entertain.

But, Abhinavagupta strongly refutes such a view; and, asserts that Gandharva and Gana flourished side by side even during later times. Though Gana owed to the Gandharva, there were differences between the two. In his commentary on the 33rd chapter of Natyashastra, Abhinavagupta draws a four-fold distinction between Gandharva and Gana Music-s.

According to Abhinavagupta , the two differ in their : in Svarupa –  structure and ways of employing Svara, Taala and Pada; in Phala –  the  benefits or the objectives ;  the one is in praise of Shiva and pleasing gods  while the other strives to gladden the hearts of  the audience in a theatrical performance;  in Kaala – the context or the occasions of their rendering , one is for worship and the other is for entertainment; and , in Dharma – in their distinctive nature and functions.

[Gāndharvasya ki lakaam? uktam adhyāyacatuṣṭayeu muninā |tathāpy anusandhāna-vandhyam mahā-bhāgam bodhayitum anusandhīyate |svara- tāla-pada-viśeātmaka pravtti-nivtti-pradhāna-dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-phala-sāma-veda-prabhavam anādi-kālavttim anyonyoparañjanā-guatā-vihīna gāndharvam iti svarūpa-phalāt kālād dharmāc ca bhidyamānam avaśyam gāna-vailakaya bhedaika-sampādanam]

lotus

In the next part of this series,

Let’s talk of Gana with particular reference to

 The Music of Natyashastra.

 

References and Sources:

I gratefully acknowledge the following

Wonderfully well researched works:

Grama – Murchana – Jaati by Dr. Premalatha Nagarajan

Gandharva Form by Prof. Dr. N. Ramanathan

Abhinavagupta’s contribution to the solution of some problems in Indian Musicology by Shri Jaideva Singh

And

Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music edited by Emmie te Nijenhuis

Studies in the Nāyaśāstra: With Special Reference to the Sanskrit Drama in performance By Ganesh Hari Tarlekar

Sonic Liturgy: Ritual and Music in Hindu Tradition by Guy L. Beck

Sruti in Ancient, Medieval and Modern Contexts by Prof. Dr. N. Ramanathan

http://carnatic2000.tripod.com/sruthi.htm

Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music  edited by Emmie te Nijenhuis

 Pictures are from Internet

Next

… Music in Natyashastra

 
Leave a comment

Posted by on April 24, 2015 in Music, Sangita

 

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,