I have heard that Upanishad Brahmendra was one of the teachers of Saint Tyagaraja; and also that he wrote commentaries on Upanishads. I am unable to find information about him, his life etc. Can you please post something on him? Namaskar. Vasudev-anand
Sri Upanishad Brahmendra
1.1. Yes, as you mentioned, not many details of Sri Upanishad Brahmendra’s life are known; and, I reckon there are no major biographies either. I have also not seen a picture or a sketch of the Yogin. [I read somewhere of an old sketch on the Mutt walls in Kachipuram where he is depicted in a kaupina. But, I have not seen the Mutt or the sketch]. I understand that the Journal of the Music Academy, Madras, way back in the fifties published The Life and works of Upanishad Brahman written by the well known scholar Dr. V Raghavan; but, that does not seem to be available now, either in print or on the net. However, I came across a brief paragraph about Sri Upanishad Brahman in Prof. SK Ramachandra Rao’s Tantra of Sri Chakra, besides some references to the sage in other works. The following is based on those bits of information.
It is said; the Sri Rama Yantra (resembling Sri Chakra) carved on a Saligrama is worshiped in the Mutt.
I wish someone more knowledgeable responds, presenting a fuller picture.
Adistanam of Sri Upanishad Brahmendra
2.1. Sri Upanishad Brahmendra Yogin or Upanishad Brahmendra Saraswati or Upanishad Brahmam a scholar of great merit and a sanyasin, renowned for his unprecedented performance of producing commentaries on all the 108 Upanishads listed in the Mukthiko-panishad, was one of the savants of the eighteenth century. He is reckoned along with Sri Sadashiva Brahmendra (1653? -1753) the renowned Avadhuta, the author of Atma Vidya Vilasa and other Advaita texts and also the composer of sublime kirtans, songs in celebration of various deities; as also with Bhaskararaya Makhin (between 1690 and 1795) the celebrated commentator of Bhavanopanishad a revered text of the Sri Vidya tradition . The Karnataka Music Trinity: Saint Tyagaraja (1767-1847), Sri Mutthuswamy Dikshitar (1775 – 1835) and Sri Shyama Sastry (1762 – 1827) too were contemporaries of Sri Upanishad Brahmendra. What was more remarkable was that all those giants lived, at one time, in and around the Cauvery delta, say within a radius of about a hundred miles.
3.1. As regards his early life, it is said that his initial name was Sivarama. He was the son of Sivakamesvara (Sadashiva) Avadhani and Lakshmi Devi of Vadhulasa gotra. His father was a learned scholar who intended to comment on all the Upanishads but, for some reason, could not achieve his ambition. Later in his life, Sri Upanishad Brahmendra towards the end of his vyakhya commentary on Mukthiko-panishad mentioned that he as a dutiful son was trying to fulfil his father’s ambition; and all his works were a tribute to his departed father.
Sivakamesvara Avadhani is said to have hailed from Brahmapuram on the banks of the river Palar.
3. 2. There is no definite information about his date of birth or death. In any event, Sri Upanishad Brahman lived a very long (nearly one hundred years) and a very active and fruitful life. Some biographies of Sri Thyagaraja mention that Sri Upanishad Brahman was younger to Rama-Brahman (father of Sri Thyagaraja) by about twenty-five years; and elder to Sri Thyagaraja by about twenty years. When Sri Thyagaraja last met Sri Upanishad Brahman at Kanchipuram , on his way to Tirumala-Tirupathi, in the year 1839, the former was about seventy-two years of age; which meant that Sri Upanishad Brahman was at that time about ninety-two years old. By putting together these bits of information one can surmise that Sri Upanishad Brahmendra was born around the year 1747.
3.3. By about the age of twenty-five, Sivarama was initiated into Sanyasa by his guru Sri Vasudevendra Sarasvati and assigned the name: Ramacandrendra Sarasvati. Under the Dasanami order of sanyasins, the Sarasvati sampradaya has two branches: Ananda – Sarasvati and Indra- Sarasvati. Ramacandrendra Sarasvati belonged to the latter order. And, all the sanyasins of the Kanchi-Kamakoti Peeta belong to the Indra-Sarasvati order.
4.1. Soon after his initiation into Sanyas, Ramacandrendra Sarasvati wandered for some time as Parivrajaka (wandering monk); and then settled in Thanjavur which then was the cultural capital of South India , because of the encouragement and patronage extended to arts and culture by its Maratha kings. During his stay at Thanjavur, Ramacandrendra Sarasvati devoted himself to propagation of Upanishad ideals and philosophies. His discourses on Vedas, Upanishads and Ramayana were well attended and highly appreciated. Around this time, Ramacandrendra Sarasvati launched his monumental and almost life-long project of writing commentaries on all the Advaita oriented Upanishads listed in the Mukthiko-panishad. His involvement in this task was so complete he came to be recognized and respected as Sri Upanishad Brahmendra Yogin or Sri Upanishad Brahman. His original Sanyas-ashrama name virtually faded into background.
4.2. The year 1779-80 was a restless and politically uncertain period in the state of Thanjavur. The British East India Company which had been scheming since 1749 to take over the State of Thanjavur finally succeeded. And, in October 1799 the East India Company assumed absolute sovereignty of the State by deposing Raja Serfoji II. The deposed Raja bereft of power and purse was allowed to retain only the capital and a small tract of surrounding villages.
4.3. With the loss of royal patronage and support, most artists and intellectuals migrated out of Thanjavur and drifted into other cities and states in search of livelihood. Upanishad Brahman too did not stay long thereafter in Thanjavur; but went on a pilgrimage to North India. On his return, say, towards the end of the year 1780, he settled down in Kanchipuram and established his own mutt at a place then known as Agasthya-ashrama .The Mutt later came to be known as Sri Upanishad Brahmendra Mattha. Sri Upanishad Brahman resumed his work on the commentaries.
5.1. Sri Upanishad Brahmendra was a prolific writer who produced several scholarly works based in Advaita philosophy in addition to commentaries on Bhagavad-Gita and Brahma Sutras.
[please click here for Brahma Sutra Bhashya Siddantha Sangraha edited by Pandit Sri V Krishnamacharya ; Adyar Library, 1949]
Apart from those texts , his independent works include: treatise (vritti), study of the origin, nature and validity of knowledge (Paribhasha), advices to aspirants (updaesha), minor dissertations explaining the basic concepts (prakaranas), hymns (stotra) addressed to various divinities, and songs(Divya nama samkirtanam). On the subject of Bhakthi and reciting the name and glory of the Lord he wrote treaties extolling the virtues of their practice (Nama-siddantha). He is said to have evolved the method of contemplation on the Pranava (AUM), its esoteric quality of sound (pranava-nada).
5.2. Sri Upanishad Brahmendra yogin’s fame rests mainly on the monumental sets of commentaries he wrote on all the 108 Upanishads listed in the Mukthiko-panishad. He was the first scholar in the Advaita tradition to have provided commentaries on all those listed Upanishads.
[A short explanation appears necessary here. It is not as if there are only 108 Upanishads. The exact number of Upanishads is not known; there are as many Upanishads as one can list. According to some, there are more than 360 Upanishads which include the major and the minor ones; the ancient and the not so ancient; some well known and some hardly known. Even Bhagavad-Gita is listed as an Upanishad, as it is regarded the essence of all Upanishads. Srimad Ananda-thirtha (Sri Madhwacharya) quotes from Brahma tattva and Vishnu Upanishad which now are hardly known.
As per tradition, about thirteen Upanishads are considered major Upanishads; and they represent the core of the Upanishad wisdom. They are of doubtless antiquity and constitute the first tier of the prasthana-traya (the set of three principal texts), the foundations of the Vedic heritage; the other two tiers being the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad-Gita. Sri Shankara commented on ten of those major Upanishads (Ishavasya, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Taittireeya, Aithreya, Chandogya, Brihadaranyaka, Mundaka and Mandukya); and cited the other three (Kaushitaki, Svethavatara and Jabaala) as being authoritative.
Over the centuries, varieties of texts gave themselves (or were tagged) the suffix-Upanishad – to their title. That was perhaps meant to provide those texts a halo of authority and an elevated position in the hierarchy of traditional texts. The thoughts in most of such texts were neither fresh nor universal. Many of those texts were theistic and sectarian in their approach; and were, therefore, classified according to their affiliations, such as Vaishnava, Shaiva and Shaktha etc. All such Upanishads are enumerated in the Charana-vyuha section of Atharva Veda, to which they are affiliated. That section itself has a supplementary character about it.
Mukthiko-panishad itself a minor Upanishad of recent origin , affiliated to Shukla-Yajur Veda, lists 13 major Upanishads , 94 minor Upanishads and lists itself as the 108th Upanishad. In the Muktikopanishad , Lord Sri Rama , as the Supreme Brahman, imparts to his disciple Hanuman the essence (Brahmavidya) of the Upanishads (Vedanta) and their nature . Towards the end, Sri Rama says : I am the visible form of the pure and changeless Brahman. Meditate upon Me to attain Jivanmukthi. ]
5.3. At the end of his gloss on Muktikopanishad , Sri Upanishad Brahmendra mentions that he completed the huge task in the year Prajothpatti , Dhanrus masa (Margasirasa) , Ekadasi , Asvini , Tuesday (According to some , this works out to 17 – December – 1751 . But, I am , however, not very sure. Sorry).
Sri Upanishad Brahmendra’s commentaries are considered authoritative, and are therefore held in high esteem in the Advaita tradition. It is said he harmonizes (samanvaya) the different shades of Advaita doctrines spread across various texts; and weaves them together into a philosophical framework consistent with the spirit of Upanishads, Brahma sutra, and that of Sri Sankara.
5.4. As a precaution against the possible unauthorized insertions into his texts, Sri Upanishad Brahmendra took care to mention at the end of each of his works the number of stanzas it contained. The total numbers of such stanzas, it is said, add up to about 45,000.A very impressive and valuable contribution to Advaita School.
Manuscripts of his commentaries and his other works are now said to be preserved in the Adyar Library. And, all his commentaries were published by the Adyar Library, Madras during the period 1920-1953.
Association with music
6.1. Sri Upanishad Brahmendra was well versed in music. Although an Advaitin by conviction, he was intensely devoted to Sri Rama, his Ishta-devatha. He followed the Divya– nama-samkirtana, the Bhajana form in worship of Sri Rama. He is credited with number of Bhajana-samkirtanas, devotional songs set to music, singing the glory of the Lord.
6.2. He explained Divyanama-samkirtana, the recitation of the sacred name of the chosen deity (Istadevata) as Upaya the means for attaining the ultimate (Upeya) the Brahman. Then, Sri Rama just as the symbol (pratika) Om, according to him, would no longer be a nama of a rupa (form) but will be the very essence of the supreme divinity. Thus, Divya-nama or nama-chit (name –consciousness) is the means (sadhana) and also the end (sadhya). He asserts that the quote “Om eti ekaksharam Brahma” (Bhagavad-Gita: 8.13) gives expression to the identity of the symbol or the name (abhidana) with the object of contemplation (abhideya). Sri Upanishad Brahmendra Yogin explained these concepts in his work Upeya -nama – viveka where he attempts to synchronize Advaita with Bhakthi.
6.3. Sri Upanishad Brahmendra was an integral part of the tradition that was in vogue during those times when the sanyasins based in Advaita ideology also cultivated Bhakthi (devotion) and Sangitha (music). Apart from Upanishad Brahmendra the two other Advaita-sanyasins – Sri Narayana Thirtha and Sri Sadashiva Brahmendra – excelled in practice of Nada-vidya as a part of their Sadhana. This was followed by Sri Tyagaraja who had a great affinity towards Upanishad Brahmendra. Sri Tyagaraja too, like his ideal, lovingly adorned Sri Rama in hundreds of his songs; and he too later in his life took to sanyasa – bringing together devotion, music and knowledge of self (jnana– vairagya). They all asserted that Bhakthi was the means (sadhana) to realize the goal (sadhya) of attaining unity with God or Brahman.
6.4. Besides this , there arose, in the Cauvery delta , a movement – Bhajana Sampradaya – that firmly believed in the power of the sacred name (Namasiddantha).It asserted the faith that recital of the holy name in loving devotion and giving expression to that through soulful music (nama samkirtana) was the most potent means for liberation. The movement cut across the distinctions of caste (varna) and the stages of life (ashrama). It brought into its fold householders, men, women and children of all sections of the society. Sri Sridhar Venkatesha Ayyaval, Sri Bhodendra Sarasvathi and Sri Bashyam Gopala Krishna Sastry renowned as the triumvirate of Bhajana tradition were the prominent leaders of the congregational devotion (Bhajana mandali) practices. They were followed by Sri Venkataramana – Sadgurusvami who strengthened and gave a form to the Bhakthi and Bhajana-paddathi movement.
Influence on Sri Tyagaraja and Sri Mutthuswami Dikshitar
7.1. The influence of Sri Upanishad Brahman on Sri Tyagaraja and Sri Mutthuswami Dikshitar was significant. Sri Upanishad Brahman and Sri Tyagaraja shared the intense fervour of devotion to their Ista-devatha Sri Rama and to his nama-samkirtana, singing the glory of the Lord. Sri Upanishad Brahman and Sri Mutthuswami Dikshitar shared the principles of Advaita philosophy, the use of its terms in their songs and the adoption of classic Sanskrit as the language of their music.
7.2. While he was living in Thanjavur (prior to 1780), he (then known as Ramacandrendra Sarasvati) used to conduct discourses on Ramayana and also lead chorus-singing of the devotional songs he composed in praise of Sri Rama. It is said, the boy Thyagaraja who was in his early teens, say of ten-twelve years, used to attend, along with his father (Ramabrahmam), the musical discourses and Bhajans conducted by the Sanyasin. (Thiruvayaru where the Ramabrahmam family lived is just 13 Km from Thanjavur).
7.3. The musicologists and experts opine that the traces of Ramacandrendra Sarasvati‘s influence can be found in the Divya-nama-samkirtana songs composed by Sri Thyagaraja. They point out the similarities in the structure of songs and in the word-play (pada-jaala) employed by Sri Thyagaraja and his inspiration, Ramacandrendra Sarasvati.
(e.g.,Kanakambara; Kanakavasana; Celakanaka; Hatakacela;Bhaktha-chandana; Sakalonnata; Rajavandya; Sitamanohara; Rajivaksha; Ranabhima; Jitakama; Navanitasa; Sara-sarastara; Mruduvacana; Niramayanga; Nadapradipa; Nadasadhana; etc.)
Further it is said; Sri Tyagaraja’s songs: Dhyaname varamaine; Gangasnaname; and Kotinadula which emphasize that the real snana and thirtha (the bath and the holy waters of the pilgrimage) are verily in the contemplation on the name of the Lord and not in the rivers , were inspired by Sri Upanishad Brahmendra‘s Tarangas in his Sri Rama Taranga . It is also mentioned that this work of Sri Upanishad Brahmendra was in turn influenced by the songs in most enchanting opera Krishna-Leela-Tarangini of Sri Narayana Thirtha (1650 -1745).
7.4. As regards Sri Mutthuswamy Dikshitar, he too met Sri Upanishad Brahmendra. After about seven years of stay and study at Varanasi, Sri Dikshitar on his way back home to Thiruvarur, stayed for some time with Sri Upanishad Brahmendra in his mutt at Kanchipuram. This is said to have taken place in the year 1809 when Sri Dikshitar was about thirty-four years of age; and Sri Upanishad Brahmendra was about sixty-two. During his stay, Sri Dikshitar set to music Rama Ashtapadhi a collection of stanzas composed by Sri Upanishad Brahmendra adoring the glory of Sri Rama. This musical composition is, sadly, lost now.
Dr.V. Raghavan observes that some of the expressions of Advaita-nature used by Upanishad Brahmendra are echoed in Dikshitar’s compositions . For instance ; Avidyakarya; Mayakarya; Vikalebara-kaivalya ; and Bhutabhautika etc. Similarly, he points out that certain phrases used by Dikshitar resemble those of Upanishad Brahmendra:
Bhava-roga-vaidya(Bhava-rug-vaidya);and, Ramaniya-hrudayavidita (Ramaniya-hrid-vibhava).
Association with Sri Thyagaraja
8.1. When Sri Upanishad Brahmendra and Sri Thyagaraja first met in Thanjavur just prior to 1780, the Sanyasin was a young man of thirty-three years and his admirer was a lad of thirteen. They did not meet again for a very long time. When they met again at Kanchipuram in 1839, after a lapse of nearly sixty years, both had grown into old men; Upanishad Brahmendra was in ripe old age at ninety-two and Thyagaraja too was old, he was seventy-two.
8.2. How this meeting came about is described in fair detail in a weblog page titled manaku teliyani mana tyAgarAju, meaning our Thyagaraja that we do not know. The article is basically about Sri Thyagaraja and references to meeting with Sri Upanishad Brahmendra are incidental to the narration. The article in Telugu language is written in Roman script; and, it makes a very tedious reading. I wish an English translation too was posted.
9.1. It is mentioned that one Kovvur Sundaresa Mudaliyar a wealthy merchant and a Dubash (interpreter as also one who acted as steward, banker and general agent) of the British East India Company at Madras, called on Sri Upanishad Brahmendra at Kanchipuram in order to pay his respects. During the course of their conversation Sundaresa Mudaliyar learnt that the Swamin was well acquainted with Ramabrahmam (father of Thyagaraja). He then went on to describe in laudatory terms the musical genius of Sri Thyagaraja. Sri Upanishad Brahmendra too had heard of the sublime music of Sri Thyagaraja. His conversation with Sundaresa Mudaliyar revived old memories and he longed to see the boy he knew, now grown into a musical celebrity. Sri Upanishad Brahmendra, at the instance of Sundaresa Mudaliyar, decided to send an invitation asking Thyagaraja to visit him at Kanchipuram.
9.2. In his letter, Sri Upanishad Brahmendra mentioned that though he was very desirous of listening to Thyagaraja’s divine music he was unable to visit Thiruvayaru as he was in no position to travel long distances because of his ’extreme age’. And, he said, he would appreciate if Thyagaraja could visit him at Kanchipuram and let him have the pleasure of listening to sublime music. The letter “Sri-mukham’ (a formal communication bearing the official seal and insignia of the Mutt) was sent to Sri Thyagaraja through Thanjavur Rama Rao who was acting as a sort of manager and caretaker of Thyagaraja after the demise of his (Sri Thyagaraja) wife Kamalamba.
[It is said; that srimukham along with some of Thyagaraja’s compositions, in his own writing on palm leaf, are preserved in the Saurastra Sabha at Madurai.]
10.1. The invitation from Sri Upanishad Brahmendra threw Sri Thyagaraja into a dilemma. He could not refuse the invitation from one whom he considered almost a guru (guru-samana) and a very senior person; but, at the same time he was most unwilling to leave his home and his daily worship (Rama-panchayatana) of his beloved deity Sri Rama. He was restless for a couple of days. It is said, it was during these stressful days that Sri Thyagaraja sang the kriti in Todi Raga “koti nadula danushkoti lo undaga, etiki tirugadave O manasaa’; meaning when millions of rivers are merged in danushkoti (the ocean) why do you wander aimlessly, Oh my mind. However, after his disciples assured and promised to conduct regularly the daily puja of his deity Sri Rama, without fail, Sri Thyagaraja agreed to make the trip.
10.2. According to the travel plans arranged and finalized by the Manager Thanjavur Rama Rao, Sri Thyagaraja and party would first visit Sri Rangam; then on to Kanchipuram to call on the sage Sri Upanishad Brahmendra honouring his invitation ; and from there to Tirupthi-Tirumala to have the darshan of Lord Venkateshwara . The return journey would be via Madras, Tiruvattiyur and Lalgudi. Each of those places is a celebrated centre of pilgrimage.
10.3. In the summer of 1839 when Sri Thyagaraja was seventy-two years of age, he departed from Thiruvayaru after attending to the seven-day Chaitra-maasa Saptastana Utsavam celebrations at Panchanadeeswara (Shiva) temple. The travel party included about twenty disciples; and during most of the journey Thyagaraja was carried in a palanquin.
11.1. After worshipping Lord Sri Raganatha at Sri Rangam, the party reached Kanchipuram when the Dolothsavam of the Lord Varadaraja swami was in progress. Sri Thyagaraja was delighted; and in ecstasy he burst forth into the song ‘Varadaraja Ninnukori vacchiti’ (Swarabooshani).
11.2. When they first met (c. 1780) in Thanjavur, Sri Upanishad Brahmendra, youth of thirty-three was in the prime of life; and Sri Thyagaraja a lad of twelve was just on the threshold of life. And, when they met again at Kanchipuram (1839) after about sixty years, both had grown into ripe old sages glowing with mellow joy; Sri Upanishad Brahmendra was about 92 and Sri Thyagaraja was about 72.During those long years both walked the path of life with singular devotion in pursuit of their aspirations and ideals. Both achieved success substantially. The meeting at Kanchipuram was between two blessed and enriched persons sharing mutual regard and admiration.
11.3. Sri Upanishad Brahman was greatly delighted by the musical excellence and pure devotion of Sri Thyagaraja. He enjoyed every moment of Thyagaraja’s stay with him; and is said to have remarked it was worth waiting almost a lifetime for enjoying the delight (raga –sudha) of Sri Thyagaraja’s music. The travel party after a stay of about two weeks at the Sri Upanishad Brahmendra Ashram left for Tirupathi by way of Walajapet where Sri Thyagaraja’s disciple Venkataramana Bhagavatar was waiting anxiously to receive his Guru.
11.4. This was the only elaborate tour that Sri Thyagaraja took in all his life; and, Tirupathi was the farthest place in North that he reached. The trip which basically was undertaken to honour the invitation extended by his guru-samana Sri Upanishad Brahmendra turned out a great success; and musically highly productive. It was a blessing and a boon to Karnataka – music. It gave birth to series o compositions, kriti-groups popularly called kshetra-kritis. They are musical gems; remarkable for their soulful music, inspired rich lyrics and complex structure. The music lovers are in eternal debt to Sri Upanishad Brahmendra and the creator of sublime music Sri Thyagaraja.
12.4. At each of the places and temples he visited, Sri Thyagaraja composed inspired kritis singing the glory of its presiding deities: Varadaraja (Sri Rangam); Kamakshi (Kanchipuram); Venkateshwara (Tirupathi); Kovur (Sundareshwara); Lalgudi (Saptharisheeswar and Srimathi). For details : please check Kshetra Kirtanas.
12.5. It was a tradition in those days for the musical composers of merit to compose and sing songs in honour of the presiding deities whenever they visited a prominent temple-town. Such compositions were classified as Kshetra kirtanas. Sri Thyagaraja followed that sampradaya the time honoured practice. Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar too followed this practice. He, in addition, built into his kritis brief references to the temple, its architecture, its rituals and its deity. Amidst these details he skilfully wove the name of the raga (raga mudra) and his own Mudra, signature. All these were structured into well-knit short kritis of grand music glowing with tranquil joy.
References and sources
The Tantra of Sri Chakra
By Prof.SK Ramachandra Rao
Manaku teliyani mana tyAgarAju – 4
Full text of T_T_D_ monthly bulletin vol viii
March 19, 2015 at 5:00 am
It is a very well-written and informative article about the Scholar-Sannyasin.
March 19, 2015 at 5:01 am
Dear subrahmanian v , Thank you for the appreciation.Wish you and your family a very Happy Deepavali.Warm Regards
March 19, 2015 at 5:01 am
I was intrigued by this. “Under the Dasanami order of sanyasins, the Sarasvati sampradaya has two branches: Ananda – Sarasvati and Indra- Sarasvati.”
I had also read that Sri Ramanuja was initiated in to the Dattatreya order of Sanayasins.
then there are all the Sadhus of Kumbha mela from various Akhadas. Are they different?
What are these orders of sanyasins and what are their beliefs?
Please illuminate if possible.
Also most villages in South Karnataka has a Muneswara temple with a bearded Sanyasi figure. They say this God is different from Shiva. Are they worshipping Agasthya?
March 19, 2015 at 5:01 am
Dear Sribilash, your comment raises number of issues. Let me take up the last thing first.
A. Muneswara in the South Indian context is basically a deity from folk tradition who guards boundaries of populated areas. He likes wide and free spaces. He is a Kshetrapala, as one of the aspects of Bhirava or Virabhadra who instills fear into those who breach his territory or do not venerate him. Munesvara in the Mysore region is also described as the bother of Doddamma and Svaramma. Munesvara, here, is similar to Aiyanar of Tamil Nadu. Munesvara is also worshipped as fertility god. Apart from fearsome figures, Munisvara is represented by a block of stone or s stump of wood.
B. Dear Sribilash, You mentioned that Sri Ramanuja was initiated into the Dattatreya order of Sanyasins. I have no particular knowledge about this fact. We may consult someone well versed in Srivaishnava tradition like Shri NKRavi.
Since you mentioned Dasanami, Sri Ramanuja and Sanyasa etc, let me say briefly concerning these. Generally, the initiation (Diksha) into Sanyasa follows the tradition of the Order to which the Acharya-Guru, the one who initiates, belongs. You may find that the initiation rituals under the Dasanami Order of the Vaishnavas are almost similar to the procedures that Sri Ramanuja is said to have gone through.
First. Under the Dasanami Vaishnava – Tridandin –pancha samskara tradition the initiation procedures (yogapatta ) involve five steps (1) tapa-samskara: being adorned by heated brands with the emblems of Narayana, the cakra (to the right arm) and Sankha (to the left arm);(2) pundra samskara; applying a tilak of white clay to the forehead, arm, chest and stomach;(3) Mala or Kanti samskara; receiving a hara or a string of tulsi beads; (4) nama samskara : receiving a new name along with the name of that order , together with the name of Vishnu associated with that month; and (5) Mantra samskara: receiving the kharaar mantra from the guru, whispered thrice into his ear, while both are covered under a cloth.
If after a six-month trial the disciple’s conduct is found satisfactory, then he is initiated into Sanyasa .The Sanyasa rites , broadly, consist two major aspects .One, renunciation rites proper through which the candidate abandons all identities and attachments to his family, possessions, ceremonial fire (Agni at home) and other symbols of his former life. The other is the Diksha which is modeled after Vedic initiation (upanayana), with some significant variations; the Guru playing the central role. During this ritual the candidate is presented with: (i) a cloth to cover his head; (ii) two loin-cloths (kaupina); (iii) a cloth (acal ) to cover the loin-cloth; (iv) Kamandalu the water pot; and (v) Tridanda of Bilva or palasa wood measuring up to reach the end of his hair on forehead (kasha-agra). A sacred thread and an axe-head are attached to the danda; and the entire danda is covered with a cloth. The candidate touches the danda held by the Acharya –guru who pronounces a mantra meaning that henceforth, the Sanyasin accepts the danda of knowledge The Acharya-guru then cuts the top-knot (Shikha) of the initiate, and performs abhisheka over the initiate’s head with a conch shell. After this ritual , the candidate is instructed by the Acharya –guru in the significance of Om, praisha mantra and paramahamsa mantras; and the significance of the Mahaviakya.
Technically, the initiating guru is not considered the candidate’s ‘real’ guru. He is merely the witness guru, Sakshi guru, to the event of the candidate becoming a disciple of Adi Guru Dattatreya, the Lord of Yogis.
In the Vaishnava –Dasanami traditions, the recitation from scriptures, from Purusha-sukta, and from Vishnusaharanama is followed by Atma-shraddha and Ashrama Sveekara (acceptance of the fourth stage of life) which begin with praisa mantra— recited in three different modulated pitches —and viraja-homa ceremony.These are meant to erase his past identities and give him a new form as also for the purification of all the parts of the body, the five elements and their corresponding gunas, pancha kosha the five sheaths: the mind, speech and the atman, and pay homage to the Vedas. After the Oblations to Agni the new-sanyasin burns his wooden utensils in the household fire, donates his metal vessels to his guru, and deposits the fire in himself, reciting thrice “ayam te yonih” and “ya te agne yajniya”, taking in the warmth of the fire.
After a night of chanting and initiation, following the performance of the viraja-homa the Sanyasin goes to the river with the Acharya -guru, where he bathes, discards his sacred thread, throwing it into the river, and calls on the Sun and Moon, Wind and Fire, Earth and Sky, Heart and Mind, the morning and evening Twilights, and all the gods to witness his resolution to become a Sanyasin. Afterwhich the initiate faces the east, performs an oblation to the waterand asks that all creatures be free of fear of him. He gives blessingsto his (past) sons and relatives, telling them that he belongs to no one andno one belong to him. He takes vows of ahimsa, truthfulness (satya), notstealing (aparigraha) , continence (asteya) , liberality, non-anger, waiting upon the guru,avoidance of carelessness, ensuring cleanliness and purity in food habits.
[The Tridanda has a special position in the Dasnami Order. It is almost the alter-ego of the Sanyasin. The dandas are given one of five sizes depending on the height of the Sanyasin. The tallest Sanyasins are given dandas with fourteen knots (known as Anant), and successively shorter Sanyasins with, respectively, twelve knots (Gopala), ten knots (Vasudeva), eight knots (Narayana) and six knots (Sudarshana) . As previously mentioned, a sacred thread and an axe-head are attached. The receipt of the danda from the guru is one of the central features of the traditional Brahmanical rites of initiation into Sanyasa. Once initiated into Sanyasa the danda should never be further away from its holder than the distance a calf would wander from its mother; within the hearing distance of the calf‘s cry. He is asked to ensure that at no time should the danda come into contact with anything impure. On his death the axe is used break open the Brahma-randra atop his skull (in case it had not opened naturally); and is buried with him in his Samadhi. There is also a tradition of non-Dadins, the Paramahmasas, those who do not carry a Danda.
The Srivaishnava sampradaya into which Sri Ramanuja was initiated follows a similar procedure. It is said that a Srivaishnava Sannyasi should always possess the following five things; yajnopavita (sacred thread), tridanda (holy staff), jalapavitra, kaupina and kati vastra (the covering cloth). The tridanda is made of three staves of bamboo tied together with a rope made of the hair of the cow’s tail, four angulas in length. The tridanda should be mentally divided into five parts and that the five vyuha forms of the Lord Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and finally Lord Narayana. The ascetic should meditate on these five forms of Lord Vishnu and whenever the tridanda is placed down. The tridanda is therefore Vishnu- rupa and has to be carried always. A tridandi Sannyasi is believed to be none other than Lord Narayana. A tridandi implies of exercise restraint over his speech, mind and body.When a Sannyasi dies he is to be buried in a pit along with his tridanda and covered with salt.]
C. Compare the Dasanami renunciation rites as mentioned above with the events in Sri Ramanuja’s life. It is said; Sri Mahapurna initiated Sri Ramanuja into Srivaishnava tradition near the Vishnu temple at Madrantakam on the banks of the lake in the shade of a flowering Bakula tree. The rites involved impressing Sri Ramanuja with the sign of Lord Vishnu’s cakra and that of His shankha; and, whispering the Vaisnava mantra into his ear.
And six months later at Kanchipuram, Sri Kancipurna, initiated Sri Ramanuja into Sanyasa and handed him the tridanda of Vaisnava sanyasa, ; and into the surrender of thoughts, words, and deeds to the service of the Supreme Godhead Narayana. He was given the Sanyasa name Yatiraja. At the completion of the ceremony, Yatiraja in his saffron robes, glowed just as the rising sun.
D. As regards the Dattatreya connection to Srivaishnava tradition, it is said there is a continuity of Dattatreya within the Srivaishnava tradition. It is believed that after taking shelter in Melkote (near Mysore) Sri Ramanuja directed the restoration of Tiru-Narayana-Swamy temple; and renewed his Sanyasa on the stone marking the renunciation of Dattatreya. And, again during the year 1971 the Swamin at the Yadugiri-Yatiraja-Mutt at Melkote formally appointed his successor at the ceremony performed at Dattatreya temple. The successor was handed over the tridanda and kashaya vastra (ochre robes) that were placed at the feet of Dattatreya. (Source: Gnanambal, K. (1971): ‘Srivaishnavas and their Religious Institutions’; Bulletin of the Anthropological Survey of India, Vol. XX, nos. 3 & 4, pp. 97–187).
We shall talk of the Dasanami Order of Sanyasins separately, (either as comment or blog-post) as this one is already quite lengthy.
March 19, 2015 at 5:22 am
Thanks for the note. Let me clarify here to become a vaishnava ( not a sanyasi ) the initiation procedure is as follows :
In order to qualify oneself to become a fit person to worship
Vishnu, one is required to go through the prescribed
initiation ceremony to be conducted by a qualified preceptor.
The sacrament known as pancha samskara comprises five simple
ceremonies: (1) tapa, or wearing the mark of the conch and
discus, the two weapons of Vishnu, on the left and right
shoulder blades of the initiate; (2) pundra or applying on the
forehead the mark in the shape of Vishnu`s feet; (3) nama or
naming the initiate as Vishnu dasa; (4) mantra or imparting
the esoteric Vaishnava mantras, and (5) ijya or formal
instruction of the mode of worship of God.
Details of the 5 cermonies above are available with me. I have not posted here as a comment – it is about 10 pages.
March 19, 2015 at 5:25 am
I found the blog to be intersting . I have given below the account pf Srimad.Ahoila Mutt’s Pontiff’s take over which may throw light on Vashnavite sampradayam of becoming a sanyasin.
Before ashrama sweekaram – initiation to sanyasam is compulsory. He must leave the Grihastaasramam.
On the following Amavasya day, due to sudden illness, the Jeeyar summoned and asked our Swami to do Abigamana Aradanai after which he addressed our Swami that he should henceforth take over the Abigamana Aradanai to Malolan. (Which means he should take over the mantle of the Peetam). When our Swami submitted “Adiyen Asakthan”, the Jeeyar ordered in the presence of all and Malolan “Na Utharam Vaktum Arhasi” (Accept without any pleas to the contrary !).
Send off by sishyas:
It was a sight for Gods to see when thousands of his Kalakshepa Sishyas thronged at his house at # 5, Srinivasa Iyer Street Extension, West Mambalam to give a historical send off to our Swami from Grihastaasrama to Sannyasaasrama. Our Swami ‘appeared’ to take it easy in spite of the fact that he had lived an enviably happy married life with a loving wife and three obedient sons and members of the family.
Send off by his wife:
More than the send off by the Sishyas, it is the one given by Swami’s wife who had lived with him devotedly for over 46 years that deserves special mention. Addressing our Swami she said “En Manathaik Kallaakki Konden; Neengalum Ungal Manathaik Kallaakkik Kollungal” meaning “I have made up mind; You make up yours”. Listening to these words, our Swami did not look back and left his home finally. The conflict of emotions surging in their hearts and the exemplary way in which both controlled their minds at that momentous moment beggar description. Indeed, Mami was an epitome of composure. But, the Mami who said she had hardened her mind could not bear the separation for long. She attained Paramapadam within a year and a half after our Swami took Sannyasam.
A prelude to the mega event:
Before the mega event, our Swami, wanted to visit Desikan Sannidhi at Thoopul and several other Divyadesams like Kanchipuram, Tirupati, Sriperumpudur, Tiruvaheendrapuram etc. Adiyen had arranged for a van to take the Kalakshepa Goshti members to accompany our Swami in his itenirary – an unforgettable experience indeed.
“I surrender at your feet”
On the day he arrived after the visits to various shrines, Srirangam wore a festive look. All the roads from the Rajagopuram to the Ahobila Matam premises were filled with a milling crowd, surging forward to receive our Swami. On reaching the Matam, our Swami paid obeisance to Azhagiya Singhar and told him “Tyaktvaa Putraamscha Dhaaraams Cha Bhavantham Saranam Gatah” – “Leaving wife, family and everything I surrender at your feet”
It was a Dwadasi day. The great day had arrived for performing Jeeva Sraddham. Under the patronage and immediate presence of Paravaakkottai Sri Goplala Desika Maha Desikan of Poundarikapuram Asramam, Ganapadi Vaduvur Desikachariar Swami, Sri Melpaakkam Swami and other Vidwat Sreshtas commenced the preparations from 8 a.m. onwards.
Around 3.p.m, Our Swami declared raising his hands over his head that from that moment, he had given up everything he deemed his own – wife, children, relatives, wealth (not much of it, though). When he was saying this, one could palpably see the limp in his throat choking his voice but at the same time one could also notice a firm determination to surrender everything at the feet of Malolan. Not a drop of tear from his eyes though tears rolled down from the eyes of the onlookers who were visibly moved.!
As required, the Swami had to fast and keep awake the whole night. Our Swami kept himself awake listening to the Kalakshepams of other Swamis and chatting with some of us. There were some media people who were asking him several questions like what he proposed to do in his new role. He replied that it would be sufficient if he could preserve the rich heritage bequeathed to him and he did not propose to do anything novel or revolutionary. When another reporter asked what he thought of the Kainkaryams the then Chief Minister was doing for the temples in Tamilnadu, he replied that it was too early to comment. Thus, was the night spent without rest for him (and for us too)
“Abishinchya nara vyaagram”:
Parvaakkottai Sri Gopala Desika Maha Desikan being the Seniormost of the Yathis (next only to 44th Jeeyar) both in point of age as well as date of assuming Sannyasa Asramam is hailed as “Vasishta” by all other Yathis of our Satsampradayam. As such, he had the honor of presiding over the whole function. He blessed our Swami with Vasishta Maharishi’s Sri Rama Pattabhisheka Slokam ” Abishinchya Nara Vyaagram” and sprinkled holy waters brought from many Punya Theerthams especially for the function.
Tridandam and kaashaaya dhaaranam
The most important appurtenance for a Sannyasi in our Sampradayam is the holding of Tridandam and donning the ochre robe. Around 12 noon, the Tridandam made of bamboo brought specially from Ahobilam (where Aadhi Vann Satakopar received Tridandam from Lord Nrisimha himself) and Azhagiya Singhar presented the robes to our Swami. Our Swami then proceeded to Kaveri (Kollidam) for Avabruta Snaanam.
Assuming as chinna jeeyar:
On return from the river, straight our Swami proceeded to where Azhagiya Singhar was lodged and fell at his feet three times. The Azhagiya Singhar took him to the Malolan Sannidhi and called him “Chinna Jeeyar” and presented him to Malolan, like a mother would present her baby to her husband! Thus, knighted as it were the two came to be recognized as “Periya Jeeyar”and “”Chinna Jeeyar”. Periya Jeeyar also presented him the Prasadams received from Tiruvallur, Ahobilam and other Divya Desams and told our Swami ” From today onwards, you take over the responsibilities of Tiruvaradana Kramams”. Thus, from day 1, our Swami assumed full charge of these Kainkaryams. Even Injimettu Azhagiya Singhar had to wait for 12 years from 1929 to 1941 before he could assume the Tiruvaradana Kainkaryam
The grand procession:
With Veda gosham reverberating, with Vaadhyams being played loud and clear, our Swami was taken in procession atop the elephant belonging to the Asramam to the special place allotted for him in the same premises. Thus, started the grand regime of Chinna Azhagiya Singhar with a bang.
Swami’s only regret:
Our Swami confided in a private conversation that he did not mind giving up all else. But, his only regret was that he would be missing the devoted Srothas who were attending his Kalakshepams with such keen interest. He openly expressed ” Where will I get such Srothas like you? Even if there are a few, my preoccupations with the affairs of the Matam will not let me take Kalakshepam classes a I have been doing “. But. Today, millions of Sishyas across the world are listening to his Pravachanams through Tele conferences What was our private privilege so far has now become public property and rightly so.