RSS

The Art of Painting in Ancient India – Chitrasutra (2)

18 Sep

[ This is the second in the series of articles I would be posting on the art of painting in ancient India with particular reference to the Chitrasutra of Vhishnudharmottara purana.   This article covers certain general aspects discussed in Chitrasutra text. ]

1. The Text

1.1. The Vishnudharmottara Purana or the Vishnudharmottara (as it is usually referred to) is a supplement or an appendix to the Vishnu-purana. It is generally believed to be a later insertion into Vishnu Purana. The   part three of the Vishnudharmottara gives an account, among other things, of the then – known branches, theories, methods, practices and ideals of Indian painting. The text deals not only with its religious aspects but also, and to a far greater extent, with its secular applications. It initiates the aspirant into a world of joy and delights that only the colors, forms and representation of things — seen and unseen — can bring forth.

1.2. The Vishnudharmottara asserts that it is but a compilation ; and , is an attempt to preserve the knowledge that was hidden in older sources. Sadly, all those older texts are lost to us. Vishnudharmottara is thus the earliest exhaustive treatise available to us on the theory and practice of temple construction, painting and image making in ancient India.

1.3. Chitrasutra is that part of the Vishnudharmottara which deals with the art of painting.  Its compiler described it as “the legacy of the collective wisdom of the finest minds”. Explaining why he took up the compilation; he said , he was prompted by his concern for the future generations; for their enlightenment, delight and quality of life .

He said it was his firm belief that paintings are the greatest treasures of mankind as they have the aura and power to beneficially influence the minds and lives of the viewers.

1.4. In that context Chitrasutra makes some amazing statements:

*. Great paintings are a balm on the troubled brow of mankind.

*.Of all arts, the best is chitra. It is conducive to attainments in life such as dharma-artha -kama ;  and has the virtue to liberate (emancipate) an individual from his limited confines

Kalanam Pratamam Citrm;  Dharma-Artha- Kama- Mokshadam/ Manglya Pradam Dotad gruhe yatra Pratishtitm

*. Wherever it is established- in home or elsewhere- a painting is harbinger of auspiciousness.

*. Art is the greatest treasure of mankind, far more valuable than gold or jewels.

*. The purpose of art is to show one the grace that underlies all of creation, to help one on the path towards reintegration with that which pervades the universe.

*. A painting cleanses and curbs anxiety, augments future good, causes unequaled and pure delight; banishes the evils of bad dreams and pleases the household -deity. The place decorated by a picture never looks dull or empty.

1.5. The Vishnudharmottara is dated around sixth century AD, following the age of the Guptas, often described as the Golden Age of Indian Arts. It is perhaps the world’s oldest known treatise on art. However, not much is known of its author, as is the case with most Indian texts .

Vishnudharmottara follows the traditional pattern of exploring the various dimensions of a subject through conversations (Samvada) that take place between a learned Master and an ardent seeker eager to learn and understand. Chitrasutra too employs the pretext of a conversation between the sage Markandeya and king Vajra who seeks knowledge about image making (shilpa).

2. Concepts

2.1. King Vajra questions “How could one make a representation , in painting or image , of   a Supreme being who is devoid of form , smell and emotion ; and destitute of sound and touch?”. Markandeya explains ”The entire universe should be understood as the modification (vikriti) of the formless (prakriti) . The worship and meditation of the supreme is possible for an ordinary being only  when the formless is endowed with a form; and, when that form is full of significance. The best worship of the Supreme is, of course, contemplation of the formless with eyes closed and all senses subdued  in meditation.”

2.2. With that, the life in its entirety becomes a source of inspiration for artistic expressions. In another passage, Chitrasutra cites the nature that envelops the artist as the source of his inspiration. The text, therefore, mentions that, as in dance so in painting, there has to be a close relation with the world around us; and, reflection of it in as charming a manner as possible

And, as regards the skill required to express those emotions in a visible form, the text suggests that painter should take the aid of Natya, because an understanding of Natya is essential for a good painter.

Yatha nritte , tatha chitre  trailokya-anukritis smrita / drishtayas cha tatha bhava angopangani sarvasah / karas cha ye maya nritte purvokta nripasattama / ta eva chitre vijneya nrittam chitram param matam // 3.35.5-7 //

2.3. The Chitrasutra commences with a request by king Vajra to sage Markandeya seeking knowledge about image-making.

The sage then instructs that without the knowledge of music one cannot understand Natya. And, without the knowledge of Natya one can scarcely understand the technique of painting.–“He who does not know properly the rules of Chitra (painting)” declares the sage “can scarcely discern the essentials of the images (Shilpa)”.

 one who does not know the laws of painting (Chitra) can never understand the laws of image-making (Shilpa); and, it is difficult to understand the laws of painting (Chitra) without any knowledge of the technique of dancing (Nrtya); and, that, in turn, is difficult to understand without a thorough knowledge of the laws of instrumental music (vadya); But, the laws of instrumental music cannot be learnt without a deep knowledge of the art of vocal music (gana).

3. Chitra and Natya

3.1. That does not mean, the positions of the dancers have to be copied on murals or scrolls. What it meant was that the rhythm, fluidity and grace of the Natya have to be transported to painting . The Chitrasutra says “it (Natya) guides the hand of the artist, who knows how to paint figures, as if breathing, as if  the wind as blowing, as if  the fire as blazing, and,  as if the streamers as fluttering. The moving force, the vital breath, the life-movement (chetana)  are to be explicit in order to make the painting come  alive with rhythm and force of expression . The imagination, observation and the expressive force of rhythm are the essential features of painting”.

The Chitrasutra recognized the value and the significance of the spatial perspective.

*.“He who paints rolling waves, darting flames, smokey streaks; fluttering banners and Apsaras floating in the sky , indicating the direction and movement of the wind, should be considered a great painter”

Taranga- Agnisikha- Dhuman ; Vijayantya -Apsara -adhikam vayu-gatya likhed yas tu vijneyas sat u chitrakrit // 3.43.28

*.“He who knows how to show the difference between a sleeping , an unconscious and a dead man ; or who can portray the visual gradations of a highland and a low land is a great artist “

Suptam cha chetanayuktam , mritam , Chaitanya-varjitam / nimnonnata-avibhagam cha yah karoti sa chitravit // 3.43.29

3.2. The Shilpa (sculpture) and Chitra (painting) are closely related to Natya (dance) in other ways  too. The rules of the iconography (prathima lakshana appear to have been derived from the Natya-shastra. The Indian sculptures are often the frozen versions or representations of the gestures and poses of dance (caaris and karanas) described in Natya-shastra. The Shilpa and chitra (just as the Natya) are based on a system of medians (sutras), measures (maanas), postures of symmetry (bhangas)   and asymmetry (abhanga, dvibhanga and tribhanga); and on the sthanas (positions of standing, sitting, and reclining). The concept of perfect symmetry is present in Shilpa and chitra as in Nrittya; and that is indicated by the term Sama.

3.3. The Natya and Shilpa shastras developed a remarkable approach to the structure of the human body; and delineated the relation between its central point ( Nabhi, the navel), the verticals and horizontals. It then coordinated them, first with the positions and movements of the principal joints of neck, pelvis, knees and ankles; and, then with the emotive states, the expressions. Based on these principles, Natya-shastra enumerated many standing and sitting positions. These, demonstrated the principles of stasis, balance, repose and perfect symmetry; And, they are of fundamental importance in Indian arts, say, dance, drama, painting or sculpture.

3.4. Another aspect of the issue is that painting as a two-dimensional form, can communicate and articulate space, distance, time and the more complex ideas in way that is easier than in sculpture. That is because , the inconvenient realities of the three dimensional existence restrict the fluidity and eloquence of the sculpture.

The argument here appears to be that making a sculpture is infinitely harder than making a painting.

4. Painting in ancient society

4.1. According to Chitrasutra, all works of art including paintings played an important role in the life of its society. The text mentions about the presence of paintings as permanent or temporary decoration, s on walls of private houses, palaces and of public places. Apart from wall paintings, the floors of the rich homes and palaces were decorated with attractive patterns and designs inlaid with precious stones.

4.2. Paintings had relevance in the private lives too.The  polite education of a Nagarika  the educated urbane man of town included knowledge and skill of several arts in addition to erudition in literature, rhetoric, grammar, philosophy and allied subjects. Painting was rated high among these Vaiharikasilpas or vinoda-sthanas seats of pleasure or hobbies or arts for one’s own pleasure, enjoyment and amusement. The gentleman   of leisure and culture , painted for pleasure or in earnestness; but, of course, not for earning a living.

[Sometimes, a gentleman of leisure who had learnt the art as a leisure pastime  had to use it to earn a livelihood when bad days had fallen upon him . The Samvahaka in Mrichchakatika was one such hapless character who bemoans his lot (kaleti sikshita jivikaya samvritta )… It was therefore said that , in any event, it is safer to learn some art as it might come in handy in your lean days – who knows…!!! ]

Vatsayana describes the tasteful set up and arrangement in the room of a typical urban gentleman of pleasure who evinces interest in literature, dance, music and painting. The articles  in his room  would include  a vina   hanging from a peg on the wall (naaga-danta vasakta vina);   a painting board (chitra palakam) ; a box-full of colors and brushes (vatika tulika samgraha) ; a cup for holding liquid colors casually kept on the window sill ( alekhya –varnaka-paatram) ; and, books of verses (kurantaka maala).

Nagadantavasakta vina; chitra-phalakam; vartikasamudgakah; yah kaschit pustakah ; kurantakamalascha – Kamasutra 4.10

Tatoham aasangam alekhya -varnaka-paatram  gavakshad aksipya.. Padataditaka

The courtesans too were proficient in fine arts such as music, dance, painting poetry as also in body-care techniques.  Even a calculating courtesan would madly love a talented painter, though impoverished. Somadeva’s Katha-sarit-sagara narrates number of delightful stories of such young and impetuous courtesans.

Syamilaka provides the instance of Kusumavatika , a courtesan who passionately fell in love (mahan madanonmadah) with Chitracharya (master painter) Sivasvamin , mainly for his for his masterly in the art , though he was poor.

Janita evasmatsvami yathasmatsakhya kusumavatikayah chitracharyam sivasvamin prati mahan madanonmadah iti- Padataditaka

There were also Shilpini-s the court maidens in the service of the princesses. These talented Shilpini-s were well trained (prauda) painters who excelled in delicate drawing of portraits (viddha-chitra); and, they were often commissioned with the task of carrying the portraits they had drawn of their princess to distant courts to show them to the eligible princes for seeking alliance in marriage. And, sometimes such portraits were sent round several Royal Courts for view of suitable princes and their parents. The katha-sarit-sagara carries numerous such tales.

Kautilya deems it a responsibility of the state to support art-masters that spread knowledge among youngsters.

Malavikagnimitra mentions that Chitracharyas who combined the theory of the art with proficiency in dance performance were respected  on par with Natyacharyas  in the kings court.

It is said; Nagarakas (city dwellers), connoisseurs of art, accomplished courtesans, painters, and sculptors among others studied standard texts on painting. Such widespread studies naturally brought forth principles of art criticisms as in alankara-sastra.

Education in fine arts like music, dance and painting was considered essential for unmarried maidens of affluent families. The ancient stories are replete with instances of young lovers exchanging paintings as loving gifts.

The art of  painting – chitra kala– was recognized as an essential part of the curriculum in the upbringing of children of “good families”.

4.3. While on the subject , I may mention that Chitrasutra  regards the Alekhyas or paintings as mangalya-lekhyas – auspicious in homes; and , it  observes:  the pictures which decorate the homes (including the residential quarters of the king- rajnaam vasagriheshu ) should display sringara, hasya and shantha rasa. Only such paintings that depict moods of laughter, fun, playfulness love and peace should be seen at homes. They should exude joy, peace and happiness; and brighten up the homes and lives of its residents.

The pictures that depict  horror; and ,  the ones that evoke fear, rage, disgust and sorrow  and cruelty ; as also those that show battle scenes, death, cremation / burial grounds, heart rendering episodes, wretchedness, glorifying evil and base motives, inauspicious themes should be forbidden and  never be displayed at homes where children dwell.

Further, the text mentions that the pictures which show a bull with its horns immersed in the sea; men with ugly features or those fighting or inflicted with sorrow due to death or injury; as also the pictures of war, burning grounds as being inauspicious and not suitable for display at homes.

But, the text says, the pictures of all types of depictions and rasas could be displayed at court-halls, public halls,  galleries and temples.

[ Sringara, hasya, shantakhya lekhaniya griheshu te // parasesha na kartavya kadachid api kasyachit / devavesmani kartavya rasas sarve nripalaye / rajavesmani no karya rajnaam vasagriheshu te , sabhave’smasu kartavya rajnam sarvarasa grihe, varjayitva sabham rajno devavesma tathiva cha / yuddha-smashana -karuna -mrita-dukkha-aarthakutsitan / amangalyamscha na likhet kadachid api vesmasu // ]

photo16Gopalas returning Home

4.4. Icons were generally classified into four categories: painted on the wall, canvass, paper, wall or pot (chitraja) ; molded in clay or any other material like sandal paste or rice flour (lepeja, mrinmayi, or paishti); cast in metal (pakaja, lohaja, dhatuja); and carved in stone, wood or precious stones (sastrotkirana, sailaja, daaravi or rathnaja).Early icons were made in clay or carved wood; and such images were painted over.

Hallow figures (sushira) of gods, demons, yakshas, horses, elephants, etc, were placed on the verandas of houses , on stages and in public squares etc. as pieces of decoration . Such hallow images were usually made of clay, cloth, wood or leather .

Paintings were classified  as those drawn on the ground- like rangoli, floor decorations etc (bhumika); those on the wall- like murals and frescos (bhitthi); and portrait (bhava chitra).The first two were fixed (achala) and the third was portable

4.5. The patas (poster like paintings) were commonly displayed in public squares. It is mentioned, such paintings were employed as a means and method of communicating with the towns people. The messages displayed picturesquely on the patas could be understood by all- lettered and unlettered alike.

The art, thus, entertained educated and enlivened common people.

5. Art Appreciation

5.1. As regards the deities depicted in art, it is explained; in the Indian tradition a deity is a Bimba the reflection or Prathima the image of god, but not the god itself. Bimba is reflection, like the reflection of the distant moon in a tranquil pool. That reflection is not the moon but is a suggestion (prathima) of the moon. In other words, a deity is an idea, a conception or his/her mental image of god, translated to a form in lines, color, stone, metal , wood or whatever ; but, it is not the god itself.

The Chitrasutra says, those qualities that we admire in a divine being are within us. And,  when we respond to those images brought to us in art, we awaken those finer aspects that are latent in us. When we are filled by that grace, there is no space left for base desires and pain; we have become that deity.

5.2. When we view sunrise or a great work of art, Chitrasutra says, we experience beauty (ananda) as we let dissolve our identities and attachments; and become one with the object of beauty. It is a moment that bestows on us the grace that underlies the whole creation. Art, it said, is a liberating experience.

6. Elements of painting

6.1. While discussing the elements of a painting, the Chitrasutra says “ The masters praise the rekha‘s –lines (delineation and articulation of form); the connoisseurs praise the display of light and shade; women like the display of ornaments; and , the richness of colors appeals  to common folks. The artists, therefore, should take great care to ensure that the painting is appreciated by everyone”.

Rekham prasamsaniya -acharya; vartanam apare jaguh / striyo Bhushanam ichchhanti; varnadhyam itare janah // 3.41.11

Talking about lines, Chitrasutra favors graceful, steady, smooth and free flowing lines; but not the crooked and uneven lines. It was said; while the free flowing, continuous, smooth and graceful line are soothing to the eyes (Rekha-nivesotra yad ekadharah), the broken lines offend the eyes. A good painting must be graceful, free of crooked lines.

idam cha paurandram avaimi karma Rekha-nivesstra yad eka-dharah // karma parinata-rekha mamsalair anga-bhangair laghur api likhiteyam drisyate purna-murtih 

The text appears to hold the view; while delineation, shading, ornamentation and coloring are the decorative aspects (visual) of a painting, the rekha, the lines that articulate the forms are its real substance.

Its Masters valued the effects best captured by least number of lines. Simplicity of expression symbolized the maturity of the artist. The artist and the art critics appreciated the best effect in a picture captured by the minimum of lines composing the figure. In the Viddhasalabhanjika , there occurs a remark of the vidushaka  (court jester) that the painting looks complete with even a minimum of drawing : api laghu likhiteyam drisyate purnamurtih

Incidentally, the main characteristics of the Ajanta paintings are the use of free flowing lines for delineating beautiful figures and their delicate inner feelings; together with use of shading different parts of the body to produce three dimensional effects in the images. The other was use of proper colors at times contrasting and at times matching to create magical effects. These were precisely the principles that Chitrasutra emphasized.

6.2. The text says  in another context, when a learned and skilled artist paints with golden color, with articulate and yet very soft lines with distinct and well arranged garments; and graced with beauty, proportion , rhythm and inspiration, then the painting would truly be beautiful.

6.3. The elements that contribute to help a picture to attract  a spectator are merits like delicacy  of line , sweetness of execution , symmetry , likeness to the original , foreshortening , suitable background , spirited and life-like deportment of the figure and so forth ; and, the  defects that  repel the viewer  are like : coarseness of line work , weak and vague drawing , lack of symmetry , color-muddling , inappropriate pose, lack of emotion, vacant look in the figure , smudgy execution, life-less portrayal , disproportionate limbs , disheveled hair and so on

Durbalyam, sthula rekhatvam , avibhaktatvam  eva cha / varnanam sankaras, chatra chitradoshah , prakirtitah / sthanam pramanam bhulambho madhuratvam vibhaktata / sadrisyam kshayavriddhi cha gunastakam idam smritam / sthanahinam gatarasam sunya drishtimalimasam / chetanarahityam yat syat tad astakam prakirtitam // lasativa cha bhulambo slishyativa tata nripa / hasativa cha madhuryam sajiva iva drisyate//sasvasa iva yachchitram tachchitram subhalakshanam/ hinangamalinam sunyam baddha-vyadhibhayakulaih // vrittam prakirnakesaischa sumangalyair vivarjitam / pratitam cha likhed dhiman napratitam kathanchana // 3.43.17-23

6.4.  The renowned scholar Sri C. Sivaramamurti , quoting another Shilpa text Upamiti-bhava prapancha-katha  mentions : For a critical appraisal of a picture  of excellent drawing composed of fine lines the brush strokes of which are almost imperceptible under a delicate coat of bright color , it is essential to project an excellent treatment of an illusion of relief on a flat surface technically styled chiaroscuro , appropriate ornamentation , systematical representation of limbs composing an ideal body , a proper shading of the figures by a mode of stippling and a proper  representation of emotion in the heart by an expression of it in the eyes , are all essential factors that go to make a good picture.

Tatas samarpito bandhulayasam dviputasamvartitas chitrapatah , pravighatya cha nirupito harikumarena /  yavad drishtam alikhitam ekapute suvibhakto ujjvalena varnakramena nimnonnata avibhagena samuchhitena bhushanakalaapena suvibhaktha avayava archanayati vilakshanaya bindu vartinya abhinava Sneha rasotsukatyaya parasparam harshotphulla-abaddha-dristikam samruddha-prema-ati bhanduraikataya-alanghita-chittanivesam vidyadharam -mithunakam iti , //  Upamiti-bhava prapancha-katha

These qualities, while composing a picture, essentially, stress the importance of the virtues of the purity of line-work; arrangement of ornamentation; appropriate manipulation of color; and, clarity in the expression of emotions. It is said; the emotion is the most significant aspect of a painting, the true depiction of which sets apart a Master from the rest

Abhihitam anena aho ranjitoham anena chitrarara-kaushalena , tatha – atra suvishuddha rekha . saghatadi bhushanani , uchitkrama varnavichchhittih pari-sphuto bhava-atishayah – iti / dushkaram cha chitre bhava-aradhanam / tad eva chabhimatam ati-vidagdhanam / tasya chaatra prakashah paripusto drishyate // Upamiti-bhava prapancha-katha 

The master-stroke of the painter, which makes great art distinctive; and which, independent of color and line, adds vitality to the picture is praised by scholars and connoisseurs

6.5. It is said; a great painter tries to represent the ideal. The faults that meet his eyes he ignores and represents only the good things in life. It is in his power to better the universe at least in his picture.

Whatever that is not beautiful can be made different in painting ( yad yat sadhu na chitre tat tad anyata syat kriyate

The Guna (merits) and the Dosha (blemishes), the proper portrayal of Rasas, emotions, suggestive imports, styles of execution are all elaborated in in the Chitrasutra, the standard text on the principles of painting in ancient India.

The text at various places airs its clear opinions on what it considers auspicious (good) and “bad “pictures. To put some of these in a summary form :

*.Sweetness, variety, spaciousness of the background (bhulamba) that is proportionate to the position (sthana) of the figure, resemblance to what is seen in nature and minute and delicate execution are the good aspects of a chitra.

*.A painting drawn with care pleasing to the eye, thought out with great intelligence and ingenuity and remarkable by its execution, beauty and charm and refined taste and such other qualities yield great joy and delight.

*.Chitrasutra mentions: proper position, proportion and spacing; gracefulness and articulation; resemblances; increasing or decreasing (foreshortening) as the eight good qualities of a painting.

*.A picture in which all aspects are drawn in acceptable forms in their proper positions, in proper time is excellent.

*.A painting without proper position, devoid of appropriate rasa, blank look, hazy with darkness and devoid of life movements or energy (chetana) is inauspicious.

*.Weakness or thickness of delineation, want of articulation, improper juxtaposition of colors are said to be defects of painting.

*. In a picture one should carefully avoid placing one figure in front of another.

*.A painter who does not know how to show the difference between a sleeping and a dead man or who cannot portray the visual gradations of a highland and a low land is no artist at all.

*. A picture shaded only in some parts and other parts remaining un-shaded is bad (adhama)

*. Representation of human figures with too thick lips, too big eyes and testicles and unrestrained movement are defects.

[There was even a down-to-earth or rather a harsh discussion on what is ‘good’ and what is ‘beauty’ in a painting.

Nilakanta Dikshita (Ca. 16th-17th century) , known for his wit and quick repartee , in his Vairagya-shataka poses a mute question: ‘What is beauty?’. He says there cannot be a single definitive answer to that question; as it differs from person to person. And, at times, what one appreciates and adores as ‘beautiful’, the others might find it utterly ridiculous.  At the end, the question remains unresolved.: ‘A dog delights in the curl of the bitch’s tail; the pig finds joy in the rotund belly of the sow; the monkey jumps with great excitement at the sight of his mate’s toothy chuckle; a donkey can hardly restrain itself when drawn by the loud bray of his sweetheart; and, a human male goes agog bursting into song and dance at sight of lumps of flesh on a woman’s chest. What is called ‘beauty’ is not in the thing; but, is in the feeling that it evokes. Each one rushes after his own sense of beauty – Loko bhinna ruchihi.

[ Svanah pucchanchala-kutilatam; sukurah kukshiposham ; kisa danta-prakatana-vidhim; gardhabha ruksha gosham. . ! ; martyah vakshassvaya -thum api cha strishu dristva  ramante tat saundaryam kim iti phalitam tattadajnanato anyat ..]

There are varied sorts of people who inhabit the earth. Among them are countless who are devoid of education, not to talk of aesthetic sensibilities, who are incapable of appreciating art. Only a few, cultured connoisseurs (sah-hrudaya , rasika) freed from prejudices are blessed with the gift of true art appreciation. An artist intensely desires his work to be appreciated. Some eagerly offer their creation or handiwork (hastochchyam) to the view of royal connoisseurs  and wealthy patrons with deep humility. But, sadly , mere wealth does not guarantee true appreciation of art.

But, at the same time, the painter too has his own favorite among his creations. Thus, there is a wide range even among art-lovers.]

6.6. Chitrasutra cautions against  inconvenient painting stance or a bad seat;  sloppiness and bad temper ; thirst and absentmindedness – as such distractions might affect the quality of the painting.

Durasanam , duranitam , pipasa cha anyachittata / ete chitra-vinasanasya hetavah parikritah / – 3.48.13

6.7. Vishnudharmottara regards art creation  (Chitra-yoga)almost as worship of the divine. It asks the artist to approach his task with reverence. While preparing to paint the deities, it advises the artist to be restrained; wear proper apparel; offer salutations to his Guru, to his elders;  to contemplate on their Dhyana-slokas; sit, facing East, in a serene attitude of peace and joy in his heart; and, commence his task with diligence and great devotion.

Chitra-yoga viseshena svetavasa yatatmavan / brahmanam pujayitva tu svati vachya pranamya cha / pramukho devata-adhyayi chitra-karma samacharet – 3.40;11.13

6.8. Chitrasutra also mentions six limbs (anga) of painting as: rupa-bheda (variety of form); pramana (proportion); Bhava (infusion of emotions); lavanya-yojanam (creation of luster and having rainbow colors that appear to move and change as the angle at which they are seen change); sadreya (portrayal of likeness); and varnika-bhanga (color mixing and brushwork to produce the desired effect)

Roopabhedah pramanani bhava-lavanya-yojanam |
Sadrishyam varnakabhangam iti chitram shadakam ||

(i). Rupa-bheda consists in the knowledge of special characteristics of things – natural or man-made. Say, the differences in appearances among many types of men , women or natural objects or other subject matter of the painting.

(ii). Pramana: correct spatial perception of the objects painted and maintaining a sense of harmony, balance and a sense of proportion within the figure and also in its relation to other figures; and to the painting as a whole. The sense of proportion also extended to the way major figures are depicted by placing at the center and surrounding them with lesser figures in smaller size symbolizing their status Vis a Vis the main figure. The Indian artists were guided more by the proportions than by absolute measurements. The proportions were often symbolic and suggestive.

(iii). Bhava: consists in drawing out the inner world of the subject; to help it express its inner feelings. It takes a combination of many factors to articulate the Bhava of a painting; say , through eyes, facial expression, stance , gestures by hands and limbs, surrounding nature, animals , birds and other human figures. Even the rocks, water places and plants (dead or dying or blooming or laden) are employed to bring out the Bhava. In narrative paintings, the depiction of dramatic effects and reactions of the characters from frame to frame demands special skill.

Since colour is a major medium in painting, the emotions and moods are expressed through manipulating colours, their density, tones, lines, light, shades etc. The ingenuity, imagination and skill of the artist discover their limitations here..

(iv). Lavanya –yojanam: Creation of grace, beauty, charm, tenderness and illuminating the painting and the hearts of the viewer. It aims to uplift and brighten the mood of the figures, the viewers and the surroundings.

(v). Sadrushya: Achieving credible resemblance to objects of the world around and to the persons. The resemblances are not mere general but extend to details too. And ,

(vi). Varnika-bhanga : Artistic manner of improvising color combinations, tones and shades. It also involves delicate and skillful use of brushes and other aids. It represents the maturity of the artist’s techniques and fruitfulness of his experience.

Auchitya, the most appropriate expression of a theme, as either in poetry or in art, is a very relevant aspect of any creative activity. The painters took special care to adhere to the basic principles of that factor. It was said; a thing in its right place is beautiful; and, in a wrong place, it is just ugly. A piece of precious diamond that has fallen into one’s eye is nothing but a speck of dust that has to hurriedly removed.

The merit of a painting is enhanced or diminished by arrangement of figures and the background in a picture appropriately; avoiding ill-advised depictions.

7. Types of presentations

7.1. The first requisite for a painting is bhu-labha or bhu-lambha the preparation of a proper, smooth, white surface to paint. It could be a canvas (pata), board (phalaka) or a wall (bhitti).

The paintings were executed on various surfaces: wall paintings (bitthi), pictures on board (phalaka), on canvas (pata), on scrolls (dussa-pata) and on palm leaf- manuscripts (patra). The last mentioned, i.e. the scrolls were often in the shape of lengthy rolls facilitating continuous representations. The Chitrasutra instructed that the surface chosen should suit the purpose of the proposed painting; and, in any case, it should be smooth and well coated (anointed). That would help achieve a better presentation of the painting.

7.2. As regards the shapes of the boards and scrolls, Chitrasutra mentions four types: sathya – realistic pictures in oblong frames; vainika – lyrical or imaginative pictures in square frames; naagara -pictures of citizens in round frames; and misra –  mixed types.

7.3. It is explained in the text ; a painting which bears resemblance (Sadrishya) to the to things on earth with their proper proportions in terms of their  height, their  volume (gatra),  appearance etc. is the “true to life”(sathya) category of painting. The resemblance should not be mere general; but, it should extend to details, such as all parts of the tree, creeper, mountains or the animals. While a painting that is rich in details, in display of postures and maintaining strict proportions; and when placed in a well finished square format is called vainika. It obviously is the delight of the connoisseurs. The nagara depicts common folks with well developed limbs with scanty garlands and ornaments. And, misra is the compound of the other three.

The text again cautions that an artist should not aim to copy.  He may depict the resemblance but, more importantly, he should aim to bring out the essence or the soul of the object.

7.4. The concern of the artist should not be to just faithfully reproduce the forms around him. The Chitrasutra was referring to what is now termed as the “photographic reproduction”. It suggested; the artist should try to look beyond the tangible world, the beauty of form that meets the eye. He should lift that veil and look within. The Chitrasutra suggested to him to look beyond “The phenomenal world of separated beings and objects that blind the reality beyond”.

Next:

 Chitrasutra continued

 

Sources and References:

Greatfully acknowledge  Shri S Rajam’s sublime paintings

Citrasutra of the Visnudharmottara Purana by Parul Dave Mukherji

Stella Kramrisch: The Vishnudharmottara Part III: A Treatise On Indian Painting And Image-Making. Second Revised and Enlarged Edition ; (Calcutta University Press: 1928)

https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/dspace/bitstream/1887/2668/1/299_022.pdf

Technique of painting prescribed in ancient Indian Texts

The Painter in Ancient India by  Dr. C. Sivaramamurti

I gratefully acknowledge the illustrations of Shri S Rajam

 

 
 

Tags: , , , ,

26 responses to “The Art of Painting in Ancient India – Chitrasutra (2)

  1. sreenivasaraos

    September 18, 2012 at 5:00 pm

    Thank you Dear marksackler .Regards

     
  2. sreenivasaraos

    September 18, 2012 at 5:01 pm

    Dear nonoymanga , thank you .Regards

     
  3. sreenivasaraos

    September 18, 2012 at 5:04 pm

    Dear marktoner1 , Thank you. Regards

     
  4. sreenivasaraos

    September 18, 2012 at 5:14 pm

    Thank you Dear mrhipps .You are welcome .Regards

     
  5. sreenivasaraos

    March 20, 2015 at 3:55 am

    hello srinivasaraoji,
    another exposition of your brilliant acquaintance with our culture. most lucid.impeccable.
    i am proud that the beautiful classial-type paintings you have reproduced here are by my uncle (mother’s elder brother) mr.s.rajam who lives in chennai (41, nadu strret, mylapore, chennai 4). he is a great carnatic singer too. he is 89 years old and spends at least 3 hours every day to paint!
    cheers, and regards!
    vs gopal

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      March 20, 2015 at 3:55 am

      dear shri gopal,

      thank you for reading and for the comments.

      i propose to post a series of about six-seven articles on the art of painting in ancient india with particular reference to the chitrasutra of vhishnudharmottara purana. the one you just read and commented was the second in that series. the earlier one was about painting in ancient india and influence of chitrasutra on the artists of ajanta.

      i hope to conclude with an article on the legacy of chitrasutra by tracing it to temples of panamalai ,kailasanatha ( kancheepuram), sittannavasal ,brihadeesvara , and vijaynagar. at the end of it i hope write about of shri rajam as the one, in the recent times, who truly inherited, protected, nurtured and kept alive the ancient tradition.

      i fondly remember your post on shri rajam which you wrote with love, admiration and justifiable pride. you are blessed.

      kindly read the earlier post and follow the rest too. please let me know.

      regards

       
  6. sreenivasaraos

    March 20, 2015 at 3:59 am

    sreenivas:

    what wonderful advice on the types of painting to decorate a home ?

    the pictures which decorate the homes (including the residential quarters of the king) should display sringara, hasya and shantha rasa. they should exude joy, peace and happiness; and brighten up the homes and lives of its residents. pictures depicting horror, sorrow and cruelty should never be displayed at homes where children dwell.

    also

    we admire in a divine being are within us. when we respond to those images brought to us in art, we awaken those finer aspects that are latent in us. when we are filled by that grace, there is no space left for base desires and pain: we have become that deity.

    there are echoes of advaita even in idol worship

    by the way sreenivas: i do not find ravi varma’s paintings stiff and photograph like representations. they are nearer the actual than some of the metaphoric paintings in indian art, but that is the influence of modernity on ravi varma and working with real live models.

    also, in moghul art and in rajasthani and kangra paintings the third dimension was not stressed and most times ignored. i look forward to visiting ajanta to see the third dimension depicted.

    incidentally, the main characteristics of the ajanta paintings are the use of free flowing lines for delineating beautiful figures and their delicate inner feelings; together with use of shading different parts of the body to produce three dimensional effects in the images.

    also,

    correct spatial perception of the objects painted and maintaining a sense of harmony, balance and a sense of proportion within the figure and also in its relation to other figures; and to the painting as a whole.

    thoroughly enjoyed the reading !

    rgds, girdhar

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      March 20, 2015 at 3:59 am

      dear shri gopal,

      thank you for the comments and the appreciation.

      yes, raja ravi varma added a new dimension to the indian painting tradition. he introduced some western concepts in the composition and shading of the images. his works became the visual idioms of indian mythology. and, they remain very popular in india and elsewhere.

      criticism leveled against his works was that he created portraits with a rather static realism; and they lacked dynamism in terms of space and movement. and, that his portraitures did not evoke imagination in the viewers. it was also said; his works depended more on color and ornamentation rather than on the vitality of lines, contrary to the tradition of chitrasutra.

      well, i have a open mind on this issue. one can say raja ravi varma pioneered a new and his own tradition in indian painting. i was trying to present both sides of the issue.

      what you mentioned about kangra painting is right; they appear to lack depth and trhree dimensional presentation. they depended more on the grace and beauty of its subjects.

      please read rest of the articles too.

      regards

       
  7. sreenivasaraos

    March 20, 2015 at 4:00 am

    dear sreenivasa rao,
    i missed thgis ..
    some of the statements linking
    well being with painting
    spatial concepts with painting are quite intriguing..
    the statemnt that chitra depicts better the spatial concepts than
    shilpa is interesting..thanks…
    DSampath

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      March 20, 2015 at 4:00 am

      dear shri sampath,

      pardon me for the delay in responding. thank you for the comments. please also check the fifth one which talks about symbolisms, visualization and personification of objects, in art.

      regards

       
  8. sreenivasaraos

    March 20, 2015 at 4:01 am

    dear sreenivasarao s
    this was such an informative post a treasure for keeps … photos of the ancient paintings speak volumes of indian ways of life – their attachment to spirituality from aeon…
    thank you tons for the wonderful post
    ether

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      March 20, 2015 at 4:01 am

      dear ether, thank you for the comments and the recommendation. i am glad you read it. the article you just read dealt with certain concepts and theories about painting in india of about 6th century ad. these were also the principles that largely guided the artists of ajanta. regards.

       
  9. sreenivasaraos

    March 20, 2015 at 4:01 am

    shri rao

    it is a pleasure to read this part too. especially capturing one’s interest are sections 1.4 and 2.1

    on is able to discern the subtle details of the pictures you have posted here and realise that there is the ethereal quality in them despite not being “realistic” like ravi varma’s. indeed, they transcend this plane. yet another interesting note is that many of the pictures are of lord shiva/nataraja’s — going to show that he has been a favourite of artists/connoisseurs all through timeline.

    wonderful colourful and interesting presentation. thanks

    sadly, present day art seldom captures the ethos as in chitrasutra. the likes of mf hussain seem to interpret “freedom” to mean anything other than that of mental liberation!

    thanks for the input on the art of se asia. as you say, the indian theme with local flavour is seen all over — bright and pleasant they are!

    thanks and warm regards…

    Riverine

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      March 20, 2015 at 4:02 am

      dear riverine, thank you for reading and for the recommendation. i am glad you appreciated the subtle concepts and theories of the chitrasutra. regards

       
  10. sreenivasaraos

    March 20, 2015 at 4:02 am

    From: manjari dasi on 29 Jul 2009

    Dear Srivas ji,

    I stumbled upon your profile today and became delighted to read your in-depth overview of the citrasutra. I am an artist living in Vrndavan, UP and I thought you might be interested to see some things I have been working on. The painting in this message is entitled, “Gopi-Gita” and illustrates a segment of the rasa-panchadhaya from tenth canto of Srimad Bhagavatam. I hope you can enlarge it to view some of the details.

    Gopi-Gita by Manjari Dasi

    I studied art in America and I’ve been fortunate enough to study with Syamarani didi for the past six years in India. The style combines elements of Indian as well as western art. Her art can be viewed at http://www.bhaktiart,net.

    Thanks again for sharing your knowledge of the citrasutra for the public, like myself, to benefit from.

    Keep in touch

    Sincerely,

    Manjari

    jai sri radhe

    http://www.manjaridasi.wordpress.com

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      March 20, 2015 at 4:03 am

      Dear Manjari Dasi, Thank you very much for the lovely painting. Its concept and technique are both beautiful. You are a very talented and a devoted artist.I appreciates the gift of Love.

      As regards Chitra-sutra , I tried to trace the influence of the Chitra-sutra from post-Ajanta period to the present day , in a series of about fourteen articles. Please go through the series starting from:The Legacy of Chitrasutra- One.

      Please keep talking.

      Regards

       
  11. Nritya

    May 28, 2015 at 11:29 am

    Respected Sir,

    Thanks for the very informative series.
    Vishnudharmotara Purana mentions the dhyana shloka in shilpashastra.
    Have you ever come across this particular sholka.

    Regards,
    Nritya

     
  12. Nritya

    May 28, 2015 at 4:47 pm

    Thank you for the pointers !!

    Regards.

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      May 30, 2015 at 4:28 pm

      Dear Nitya , thank you.

      Please do read other articles in the series and let me know.

      Regards

       
  13. Best Performing art collage in India

    April 16, 2016 at 12:02 pm

    Really nice to see the Awesome piece of collection of water colour paintings

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      April 16, 2016 at 4:56 pm

      Thanks for visit and the appreciation

      I trust you read the articles

      Else , please do

      Thank you

      Regards

       
  14. ShagunRoyals

    April 19, 2016 at 9:16 am

    ThankYo Sir.
    Excellent blog. Tomorrow is my exam and your blog has helped me alottttt.
    ThankYo once again.

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      April 19, 2016 at 9:26 am

      Dear Shagun

      T am happy for you. Good Luck and do well in the exam

      I trust you read the entire series of six or seven articles

      BTW, which is the exam you are taking

      Obviously it seems to be art-related

      Tell me about it , at your leisure

      Cheers

       
  15. Raj hariom

    July 5, 2017 at 10:40 am

    sarvottam is very responsive website you can visit us over here.
    http://www.shreesarvottam.in/index.php

     

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

 
%d bloggers like this: