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MN Roy: brief outline of life-events and thoughts – Part 17

MN Roy: brief outline of life-events and thoughts – Part 17

Continued from Part 16

Western Women in leftist and national movements (3)

Evelyn Leonora Trent (1892-1970)

Evelyn  Trent  Roy

Evelyn Leonora Trent (1892-1970) consistently described as bright, young and attractive, and as ‘a very competent and dedicated person’; was born in Salt Lake City, Utah as the youngest of the eighth children of the English-born mining engineers Lemartine Charles Trent of California and Mary DeLome McLeod of Florida. Evelyn attended High School in Auburn, California. Later, she joined Girls’ Polytechnic High School in Los Angeles in 1908 and completed the course in 1911.

Then, in 1912, she joined Stanford University, California. Her brother Edwin Walter was already in that university. Stanford was a prestigious university, though conservative in certain respects. When Evelyn was studying, women in USA did not have the right to vote.

Evelyn Trent was very active in Stanford University between 1912 and 1915. She belonged to Alpha Phi Sorority (a sisterhood of outstanding women supporting one another in lifelong achievement). David Jordan Starr was the Chancellor of the University. He was a scientist and a peace lover. Evelyn, a brilliant student, was among his favourite students. Evelyn and her close friend Ethel Rae Dugan, an Irish-American, were friendly with Jessie Louise Knight, the wife of David Jordan Starr.

Evelyn was in women’s athletic association as one of the directors. She was also in fencing sport and tennis club. She was the associate editor of Quad, Stanford University annual, during 1914 and 1915. Evelyn took English as her main subject ; and philosophy and French as her optional. During her second year, Evelyn acted as Ethel, the Duchess of Carbondale, in a three act Comedy “On the Quiet” by Augustus Thomas. Her histrionic ability made a deep impression on the viewers ; and , her performance was rated as very high.  

Evelyn discussed Tagore with  the Bengalis in the University .  While continuing her studies, Evelyn also taught poor children an hour a-day. Evelyn wondered that while millions of dollars were poured on munitions and war, why  very little was done to help needy children in desperate conditions; and wrote about her thoughts to her mother and also in the University magazine. 

Evelyn completed her graduation and started applying for jobs in the early part of 1916. She wanted to earn through her writings; and, wished to bring focus on problems of unemployment, poverty and other economic issues.

It June 1916, Narendranath Bhattacharya disguised as Rev. C. A. Martin , a Roman Catholic priest on his way to France for pursuing further theological studies in the University of Notre Dame, came to the campus of the Stanford University to meet Dhangopal Mukherjee  ( younger brother of the revolutionary Jadugopal Mukherjee  and  a contact for Bengali revolutionaries). It was on the campus of the Stanford University, at the suggestion of Dhangopal Mukherjee, that Narendranath Bhattacharya took on the name Manabendra Nath Roy (M N Roy) . And, that name stuck to him for the rest of his life.

During those days, Dhangopal Mukherjee and Ethel Rae Dugan (Evelyn Trent’s friend) were in love and were dating.  Roy met the young and attractive Evelyn Trent at Dhan Gopal’s residence in the University Campus, Ramona,  Palo Alto. Ethel was also present. Soon thereafter Roy and Evelyn started dating, and fell in love. At that time, Roy was about twenty-nine and Evelyn was about twenty-four years young.

During the early part of 1916, Evelyn who had just completed her graduation started applying for jobs. After meeting Roy in Palo Alto, Evelyn changed her plans, stopped applying for jobs. Instead, she planned to go to Europe along with Roy.

M.N. Roy, then, was in touch with Germans; but, he could neither get the promised money nor arms from the Germans. At one stage, M.N. Roy planned to go to Germany in U-53 submarine. Evelyn wanted to join him. Evelyn’s parents were shocked, and were  totally against their young, innocent and bright daughter getting mixed up with an unknown Hindu fugitive. Evelyn’s involvement with Roy seemed to them a terribly bad idea  ; too dangerous and scary. Evelyn’s parents were horrified at the thought  of their daughter running away with a stranger on German submarine.  It was also too risky and totally improper. Hence, Roy and Evelyn dropped the plan.

Evelyn, then, applied for a passport to visit European countries. Those were the days of the First World War and the American Government was not willing to issue passports to its citizens. Evelyn requested David Jordan Starr, her teacher and the Chancellor of the Stanford University, for a recommendation letter to the State Department. He sent her that letter, as requested. Even before receiving that letter, Evelyn had applied for the passport. She thanked David Jordan Starr for his letter and said that she would keep his letter as a memento.

Roy rented a house, near to the University campus, on the Ramona street, to be in touch with Dhangopal.  Roy stayed in 245 Ramona Street, Palo Alto for about six months. But, the police by then had began to suspect that Roy might be that elusive ‘Brahmin Revolutionary and Dangerous German Spy’ they were looking for . Following that alarm bell, Roy and Evelyn Trent together hurriedly moved to New York.

Roy and Evelyn were without money and a regular place to stay. For fear of police surveillance , they had to change their accommodation frequently. Initially they stayed in 2117 Daly Avenue in New York; then moved to 239 E 19th St; and later rented an apartment in 19th West 44th St. in New York. And, sometimes they had to stay apart to avoid police-attention. Since Roy did not have a permanent address, he gave a Ceylon restaurant (672, 8th Ave) as his ‘care of address ‘ to receive his mail.

At that time, Walter Edwin, Evelyn’s brother was also in New York; but was reluctant to help his wayward sister. Hence, Evelyn was forced to go in for odd jobs; and, she was , for a while , employed by American Society in 131 E. 23rd St.  By about that time, Roy met Lala Lajpat Rai, the legendary Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary; and attended some of his meetings. Lajpat Rai was impressed with the Roys; and employed Evelyn for a couple of months as his Secretary and also paid her some amount as a token help.

It is not clear when exactly during 1917 that Roy and Evelyn got married. But, in any case, Evelyn‘s parents and her brother were against her relation with Roy. The Hindu groups in New York too despised Roy for having married a foreigner and a non-Hindu. Life in New York had become very difficult because of lack of money, bad relations with Indian nationalists and constant scrutiny and survey by American and British Intelligence agencies. And, at the end, they had to seek shelter in the residence of Lala Lajpath Rai.

Lajpath Rai later wrote that Roy and Evelyn, in particular, had to face much hostility and humiliation both from Hindu nationalists and Evelyn’s family. Lajpath Rai sympathized with their plight and allowed them to live in his house. He also helped them with $ 350, out which $50 was payment due  to Evelyn for some work she did for him , as secretary.

The British Intelligence and the American police were keeping a watch on Roy’s movements.  The net was closing in over the USA -Pro – German revolutionaries and also on the revolutionaries of Indian origin. They were systematically were rounded up.  Things came to a head when the British spies broke into Roy’s room while he was away and seized some letters and papers.  Roy, at that time, was on the Campus of the Columbia University to where he had gone after attending a meeting addressed by Lala Lajpath Rai.   On the next day , that is on 7 March 1917 , Roy was eventually arrested

Roy had to spend a few hours of the night (7 Mar 1917) before he was released in the early hours of the morning and asked to appear before the Grand Jury in the Town Hall, a few hours later. The Grand Jury indicted him for violating the immigration Laws of the USA and pending trial released him on bail on his personal surety.

Roy however had no intention of returning to the trial. Roy left the court determined not to return. He was desperate to escape attention and arrest. He knew that he would be taken to San Francisco and tried there as a conspirator. But, his worse fear was deportation to India for standing trial which would result in long imprisonment or death sentence for the many acts of terror he had committed in India until 1915.

It was then, prompted by Evelyn, that Roy seriously considered escaping to Mexico. They had heard from their socialist friends about Mexico; the social revolution brewing there; and establishment of socialism in one its parts – Yucatan. Mexico, to them, appeared as the Land of Promise.

Evelyn and Roy soon travelled by train from New York to San Francisco, a distance of about 3,300-miles. And, during 1917 the journey might have taken nearly a week’s time.  

Evelyn Trent then approached her teacher and friend, Dr. David Starr Jordan, President of the Stanford University, at Palo Alto, for help. Dr, Jordan was prepared to make it easy for Roys to find a refuge in the neighboring Mexico; and, he readily gave them a letter of introduction to the Governor of the  State of Yucatan , General Salvador Alvarado  , a powerful person in Mexican politics . That indeed was an immense, immeasurable help. Roy’s biographers wonder, there is no reason why Dr, Jordan , a President of an University,  would have anything to do with a dangerous Indian fugitive who had violated American laws and was still at large evading both British and American police , and helped him to escape , had  he  not been impressed with young Roy and his mission. But, it is very  likely that Dr. Jordan was primarily trying to rescue one of his favorite students and a family-friend from a bad situation that was getting worse.

Evelyn and Roy slipped into Mexico under their assumed names of Senorita and Senora Evelyn and Manuel Mendez, in the last week of March 1917.

Soon after securing a safe place at Cordoba 33 in Mexico City, Evelyn along with Roy took lessons in Spanish from Enrique Guardiola, a teacher of Spanish. And, in about two moths time they had learnt enough Spanish not only to write articles and pamphlets in Spanish but also to speak it fluently. They began to contribute articles to El Pueblo (The People), the almost the official daily of the Mexican Government. 

After Roy came into some big-money, thanks to the Germans, they moved into a more spacious house at Merida 186, Colonia Roma, Mexico City. It was Evelyn who was primarily responsible for an almost  total transformation in Roy as a person; bringing about remarkable changes in the personal life, the habits, the interests; and, the general outlook of Roy. The Mexican experience was for Roy a sort of liberation from pre-conceived notions of culture, nationalism etc. In Mexico for the first time he had a home of his own where a woman who adored him and shared his ideals, brought him new insights and experience of happiness. The period of about two and a half years (March 1917 – November 1919) that Roy and Evelyn lived in Mexico were perhaps the most wonderfully delightful  and magical years in their life.

While in Mexico, Evelyn skillfully managed his household, his social life and his political career. She also managed his finances and bank accounts, juggling with several aliases like–Martin, Roy, Allen, Trent etc.

Evelyn took up educational programmes for under-privileged children. And, when Roy formed ‘The Friends of India League ‘ , for propagation of India’s freedom ,  Evelyn became  its  Director. Evelyn in her letters to her mother, who at that time was in Washington D C , wrote about her desire to work for an Indian Revolutionary Party; and , wished that the wasted American millions should pour into India to build schools, factories and Universities.

Along with Roy, Evelyn got busily involved with the Socialist movement in Mexico. She contributed to El Heraldo de Mexico. From August, 25, 1919 to September 4, Roy organized the marathon session of the National Congress of the Socialist Party of Mexico. Roy and Evelyn chaired most of the sessions.

Evelyn was also one of the founder members of the Communist Party of Mexico (Partido Comunista Mexicano- PCM), the first recognized Communist Party formed outside Russia

When they decided to accept Lenin’s invitation to attend the Second Congress of the Communist International to be held in Moscow during spring of 1920, Evelyn and Roy left Mexico in November 1919 to Berlin on their way to Moscow.  They travelled under Mexican diplomatic passports provided by the President Carranza, in which their names were given as Senor and Senora Roberto Alleny Villa Garcia.

While in Berlin, on the way to Moscow, Evelyn came into contact an Indian group known as Berlin Committee fighting for India’s freedom with assistance from Germans. She also established links with August Thalheimer, the German Marxist activist and theoretician. Thalheimer was one her close friends; and kept in touch with him even during her later years.

Before leaving Berlin for Moscow, Roy along with Evelyn, drafted what he called as the Indian Communist Manifesto. The manifesto was signed by Roy, Abani Mukherjee and Evelyn Trent.

Evelyn and Roy along with Charles Philips (Frank Seaman) ,invited as official delegates of the Communist Party of Mexico , participated in the Second World Congress held at Moscow from 19 July 1920 to 7 August 1920, spread over fifteen sessions. Evelyn, while at Moscow, came into contact with various other Indian leftist and nationalist leaders such as, MPBT Acharya, Virendranath Chattopadyaya and also with Agnes Smedley, who was indeed the  driving force of their delegation .

They attended a rally in Petrograd. Evelyn was reporting her views and experiences to her mother through letters and personal messages. She was all praise for the social conditions in the Soviet Union.

Thereafter, Evelyn accompanied Roy on his mission in Tashkent during 1920-21; and managed his affairs in setting up a Military School in Tashkent.

Evelyn was one among the seven signatories to the document establishing the Communist Party of India (CPI)  at Tashkent on 17 October 1920. Thus , Evelyn Trent was one of  the founder members of the Communist Party of Mexico as also among  the founder member of the Communist Party of India at Tashkent.

While she was in Moscow, Evelyn Trent taught in the Communist University of the Toilers of the East and in International Political School.  She collaborated with M.N. Roy in the organizational and intellectual development of the international communist   movement in the Soviet Union, Mexico, Europe and in India.

Evelyn wrote series of articles on their newly started journal The Vanguard of Indian Independence   (later re-named as Masses of India) attacking the Gandhian approach to the British, predicting that Gandhi would eventually compromise with the British. She published her writings under her assumed name Santi Devi. Her mature writings written with understanding and clear analysis influenced the course of events in Communism, in Indian national movements and on the Indian National Congress. Her articles on Gandhian politics and economics were regarded by many as ‘the best-argued critiques ever published in Communist literature’.  In 1923, she wrote for the Labour Monthly attacking the Indian Congress session at Gaya held in 1922. In the same year (1923) her article ‘Mahatma Gandhi: Revolutionary or Counter-revolutionary?’  was published in the Labour Monthly of September . Some of her articles were later reproduced in a book titled ‘One Year of Non-Cooperation from Ahmadabad to Gaya’.

Please Check Evelyn Trent-Roy Archive for writings of Evelyn Trent.

And, for writings of M N Roy, please click here.

After the not-so-happy Fifth Congress, Roy returned to France by August 1924 after about six months of stay in Switzerland. Evelyn stationed in France was editing and managing  the Journal The Vanguard. She was also guiding Comite’ Pro-Hindou a group headed by Henri Barbusse which did propaganda work in favour of Indian Independence.

And, in the following January (on 30 January 1925) Roy and Evelyn were arrested in Paris, due to to British pressure brought to bear upon the French Government. Evelyn was released and allowed to stay in France. Roy, however, was deported to Luxembourg.

In July 1925 the Roys attended a meeting of Indian and French Communist to plan for the Congress of the Oppressed Nationalities. Here they had strong disagreements about the British Communist Party over its interference in the affairs of the Indian Party.

It was around this time in 1925 or early 1926 that Roy and Evelyn decided to end their relationship. They were separated for ever. The exact dates and reasons for separation are not clear.

 **

Evelyn’s latter dated 13 March 1927 addressed to their mutual friend Henk Sneevliet (Jack Horner) makes a most poignant reading. The separation was very painful to her; she was totally distraught. She desperately tried to contact Ray and longed to be with him again. But, here letters and pleadings did not evoke any response from Roy. She wrote:

I blame my husband for nothing. He could not help what happened, any more than I could. I only wish he might have been more frank and open so that together we could have discussed everything and decided on a course to follow, instead of sending me off in ignorance of his real feelings and desires.

*

Had he wanted me to come back, I would have come, if only to be true to him and the work. It was very hard for me to believe or to realize that he did not want me or need me. That he wanted me to stay away. I only fully knew these seven months after I left him, and it was then that I went to get my divorce.

*

I received a divorce six months ago, as it appeared to me absolutely necessary to do so, before I could take up my life again in any direction. I hesitated a long time before taking this step – waited over six months and wrote many letters to R. offering to return and resume our former relationship.

It was only after receiving his categorical reply to remain in this country or go to China, but not to return there, that I decided upon what course to follow.

 Life appeared to me very difficult – almost impossible to resume in the old channels I had left nine years before.

She longed to go back to her parents and to her earlier environment. But again she was lonely and not accepted

My mother & father were glad to see me, but did not welcome my ideas, and part of my family refused to have anything at all to do with me. Most of my old friends from school and college also turned away from me. I found myself almost alone, except for a very few who remained loyal to the past, without in any way understanding or sympathizing with my viewpoint.

*

These are my people. I understand them, and it is in this environment I can grow and develop normally, as a human being. Above all, I was so weary of being hunted from place to place, from country to country, of having to hide and always to be surrounded by a terrible fog of suspicion and fear, and to have others suspect and fear me. All this had become intolerable.

*

I found myself alone. I had not the heart, even if I had possessed the strength, energy and enthusiasm, to begin all over again in the movement here.

*

All my work had been for India. Many stories were circulated about me – from external and internal sources. Had I attempted to be active I would have been deported at once. There was no possible way to prevent it for I had no rights here at all.

At first I thought it would be impossible for me to abandon my former life and work and just to live like this – it is still difficult – but it has been forced on me by a good many circumstances. I could not remain in the Indian work, that was sure even before my divorce. My position had become very difficult.

If I had ever been in India, or could ever go there, it might have been different, but always it had been pure theoretical abstraction to me. The only living link was my husband. When this link was broken, only the abstraction remained, and I was so tired of abstract theories. I had to come face to face with realities and to learn something about every day, practical living.

The result is, I have held aloof from everything, seen no one and done nothing but attempt to regain my mental and physical strength and to solve the first problem of all – to earn my living somehow or other.

*

The life after return from Europe had become very difficult for her, especially during the first 18 months after her return

I was in a state of complete mental and physical collapse. The very thought of politics sickened me. I could not concentrate my mind long enough to read a newspaper or book. I was restless, unhappy and frightfully disorientated. I belonged neither to my old life or the new one I had left it for. Then there was the personal heartache.

Besides all this, I had to meet the slanderous gossip and malicious tongues of various nationalist factions in this country, who very effectually poisoned the minds of all those liberal and semi-radical people I have turned to for help and friendship. They heard such frightful things against me that one and all turned away from me.

I was accused of being a spy, a renegade, a defalcator of funds, of having abandoned my husband and the movement after having bled them dry, etc. etc.

*

My activities abroad had been such as to render it very difficult for me to obtain work for which I was adapted by education and training. I had lost my citizenship and this fact closed a good many avenues of employment as well as made my position extremely uncertain.

**

Their separation was so complete that never thereafter did they meet or correspond. And, there is not a single word or reference to Evelyn in Roy’s Memoirs.

Evelyn was  keenly following Roy’s  Memoirs published as  serial in Radical Humanist Weekly from India during 1953-54  was curious to know what  Roy said of her. But, to her utter disappointment, there was not a word about her.

The separation was very painful to both. Roy’s party work in Europe suffered a great deal, because till then Evelyn had been managing and editing Vanguard/ Indian Masses; writing articles in Inprecor.  She was his secretary assistant and co-worker.

And, from 1925 onwards the name of Evelyn did not appear in any of the “documents of literature relating to Indian Communism” . Her  vanishing act was  complete as far as Indian leftist circles were concerned.

**

After her break from Roy, the British Intelligence lost track of Evelyn by 1927.  Evelyn moved back to  her parent’s home in Auburn , California in 1927.She was a columnist on International affairs  for San Francisco Chronicle specially on the events in  India, Afghanistan, China , Japan    and the Asian region. Later she moved to New York where she worked as a freelance journalist; she wrote on subjects related to Aviation for Herald Tribune flying all over America and Europe gathering material on commercial aviation.

She kept in touch with the minority Left groups in USA led by Jay Lovestone. In 1931 Evelyn wrote an article to their journal Revolutionary Age , touching on MN Roy’s arrest in India , giving details of his early history and describing  how  he had returned to India after along exile, daring to brave British imperialism face to face. She called upon “American liberal intellectuals, radicals and workers’ to protest Roy’s arrest.

In 1935 Evelyn moved back to California and wrote for Sacramento papers. In 1936 she married a writer Dewitt Jones. After his death in 1949 , she returned to live in her family house in Auburn California. In 1956 she worked for the Placer County Welfare Department. She retired in 1962. And Evelyn Leonora Trent-Jones died in 1970.

Evelyn possessed great love and empathy for human beings and spent her life writing about social injustices and the need for greater humanity and awareness. Her contributions and examples will live on forever in the work she has left behind, some of which are lodged in the Hoover Institute at Stanford University. 

***

Many researchers tried to talk to Evelyn to ascertain the reason for her separation from Roy; but, were not entirely successful.

Shibnarayan Ray, Roy’s biographer met Evelyn in 1957-58. She said that parting with Roy was friendly but  ‘sad on her part.. Quite sad’. She retained her admiration for Roy and interest in his work and writings. She cherished her life as revolutionary in Mexico, Moscow and Berlin. But, she preferred her communist past to be not made known’

On the question of Roy silence on her in his Memoirs , she defended Roy stating that the climate prevailing at that time (1950 early)  in USA was highly prejudiced against anything Left. And   ‘any mention of her communist past could have led to witch-hunting and caused her much harassment and trouble ‘.

 

Later, in 1970, several research scholars on political science interviewed Evelyn through   Robert  C. North, the political science professor in Stanford  University ;   but were not successful.  Evelyn preferred to remain anonymous and silent..

Dr Innaiah Narisetti, a Journalist from India, interviewed the son of Evelyn Trent`s sister, Diven Meredith in Los Angeles, during 1990s. He also corresponded with Evelyn’s nieces who sent Dr Innaiah some rare photos and some material about Evelyn. Dr Innaiah gathered some rare material about Evelyn Trent   from the Hoover Institute in Stanford University; the National Archives, Washington DC; and, The Institute of Social Sciences at Amsterdam. Please check his research work: Evelyn Tremt Alias Shanti Devi

***

Evelyn Trent Jones was an extraordinary woman who lived an amazing life. A successful journalist, she travelled worldwide on behalf of the early communist movement with her husband M.N. Roy. She played an important role in shaping the life and thought of M. N. Roy in the early stages. She also played a great role in the International politics and also in developing the Indian Communist movement.

Evelyn was not only politically and intellectually an important figure in the early history of Indian Communism; but was also one of its founding members. She had a special concern for India. Her mature writings written with understanding and clear analysis influenced the course of events in Communism, in Indian national movements and on the Indian National Congress.

It is rather sad, she is not remembered with love and gratitude in India and by the Communist Party; and , none celebrated her centenary in 1992.

EvelynTrentaliasShanthiDevi600

 

 Continued

In

The Next Part

Sources and References

  Evelyn Tremt Alias Shanti Devi by  Dr Innaiah Narisetti

The White Woman’s Other Burden: Western Women and South Asia During British Rule by Kumari Jayawardena

Age of Entanglement by Kris Manjapra

Many pages of the Wikipedia

Socialism of Jawaharlal Nehru by Rabindra Chandra Dutt

India & the United States: Politics of the Sixties by Kalyani Shankar

How Stalin’s daughter defected in India-

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-15936172

The Lives of Agnes Smedley by Ruth Price

http://www.sacu.org/smedley.html

The Pictures are from Internet

 

 

 
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Posted by on January 18, 2016 in M N Roy

 

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MN Roy: brief outline of life-events and thoughts- Part 04

MN Roy: brief outline of life-events and thoughts- Part 04

Continued From Part 03

 In the United States of America

After series of disappointments, failures and aimless wandering as a fugitive over the whole of South East for about eighteen months, Narendra Nath set sail to USA in pursuit of his  incomplete mission to secure German arms to fight the British in India, which he termed  it as the pursuit  the Golden Fleece.

Narendra Nath, thus, travelled to America primarily to negotiate an Arms deal and to secure funds from Germany to fuel the Indian revolutionaries. The Germans had promised that arms would be routed to India through the resident Indians in California. During those days, the West Coast of USA was an active hub for revolutionary activities attempting to secure Indian Independence through armed uprising against the British Rule. The Germans also provided support to the revolutionaries.

early Indian immigrants to USA 1909

Courtesy Janos

[The core of the revolutionaries in California was allied with Ghadar Party founded by Punjabi Indians resident in the United States and Canada (Ghadar = revolt or rebellion). The Ghadar Party, initially named as the Pacific Coast Hindustan Association, was formed in San Francisco  during 1913  under the leadership of  Lala Har Dayal, Sant Baba Wasakha Singh Dadehar, Baba Jawala Singh, Santokh Singh and with Sohan Singh Bhakna as its president. The members of the Party were Indian immigrants mainly from Punjab; and, many among them were students, traders and farmers. The Party enjoyed wide support among the large Indian community residing in California, including the prosperous Sikh cotton growers in the Imperial Valley. Though predominantly Sikh, the party included members and leaders of many religions desiring to work for Indian Independence. The party quickly gained support from Indian expatriates, even from outside the United States, such as:  Canada, East Africa and Asia.

gardar01

After the outbreak of World War I, many Ghadar party members in USA and Canada returned to Punjab to agitate for rebellion alongside the Babbar Akali Movement. The Party was eventually dissolved in 1919.]

With the help of Japanese intelligence, on 25 May 1916, Naren boarded the ship named Nippon Maru departing from Yokahoma (Japan) in Tokyo Bay, South of Tokyo and destined to San Francisco, California.

He had used the French-India passport given to him by the Germans in China. And, with the help from Japanese, he had obtained an American Visa to travel to USA on his way to Paris, France.

The passport was issued in the name of Martin Charles Allen; and, it described its holder as a 25 years male, single, Roman Catholic missionary;  Bengali by birth, a native of Chandernagore, as such a French citizen, and lived at Pondicherry only for a few years with the object of coming closer to France ; Nationality: French. Permanent address: Church, Pondicherry, India; height 6 foot. Dark, brown eyes, beard; Place of birth: Haites; City: Ionainis. Final destination: Paris.

The purpose of the Visa was to travel to Paris (Via USA) for advanced theological studies in Notre Dame University.

roy-mn as Father Rev Martin

The bearded Roman Catholic priest Rev. Father Charles Martin Allen, clutching thick Morocco bound Bible and posing as a seminary student landed in San Francisco on 15 June 1916. (Naren at that time was about 28 years old although his passport mentioned his age as 25 years). Nippon Maru was scheduled to land at San Francisco on 14 June 1916, but was delayed by one day.

On his arrival, Rev. Charles Martin Allen stayed in Bellevue hotel in San Francisco.  

The British Secret Service (particularly, Mr. GC Denham, an Intelligence Officer of the Central Criminal Intelligence Department) perhaps had an inkling of his flight to USA. It is believed that throughout his stay in USA, Narendra Nath was shadowed by British Intelligence. The morning after he landed in San Francisco, the local newspaper carried the headline screaming: ‘Mysterious Alien reaches America. Famous Brahmin Revolutionary or Dangerous German Spy !  ?’.

At the same time, there were also other reports in the local press.

The local Press The San Francisco Examiner that called on him at Bellevue hotel, reported: “Rev C.A. Martin, a native of Pondicherry, India, is at Bellevue. The visitor who is a Roman Catholic has spent the last two years as a missionary and a student in China. He is en route to Paris where he will enter one of the Seminaries. He describes the condition in China as one of “unlimited chaos”

hotel-bellevue-in-san-francisco

Any sort of publicity was not welcome to Naren. Therefore, after a couple of days in Bellevue, he quckly moved out to meet his contacts in USA. And , there on the campus of the Stanford University , Palo Alto , he met the young Dhangopal Mukherjee  ( younger brother of the revolutionary Jadugopal Mukherjee  and  a contact for Bengali revolutionaries) ; the ‘young and attractive’  Evelyn Trent ( his future wife) a graduate student at Stanford University ; Prof  Arthur Upham Pope a professor of Philosophy at UC Berkley;  and Dr. David Starr Jordan(1851–1931)  , Chancellor and the Founding President  of the Stanford University.

Stanford was also the place where Lala Har Dayal had lived and established contacts with the Anarchists. And, Dhangopal had also come under his influence for a while. And, Prof. Arthur Upham Pope who had met Har Dayal in 1911 had become an ardent advocate of India’s freedom; and, had also developed links with Indian revolutionaries.

It was there on the Campus of the Stanford University, Palo Alto in 1916 that, on the suggestion of Dhangopal, Narendra Nath Bhattacharya formally assumed the name Manabendra Nath Roy; and, that name stuck to him for the rest of his life.

It said; the surname Roy was chosen since it did not signify a caste –name such as Bhattacharya; and that it would also help cover his tracks as an exile. And, yet Manabendra Nath sounded almost similar to Narendra Nath.

 [MN Roy in his Memoirs said that the change in name enabled him to turn back on a futile past and look forward to a new life of achievements. And yet, he could not give up his mission of securing arms for revolution in India. It continued to haunt him even while he was in USA and Mexico. It was only after he found that Germans were really not earnest about broad-based revolution; and more particularly on his realization of the power of the ideas over arms that he finally gave up the search for arms. And, he had also lost faith in arms uprising.

Even in case he had succeeded in despatching arms to India it would have been futile. Because, by about 1917-18 the struggle for Independence had taken political turn; and, the police repression had almost driven out insurgent outfits. ]

Soon thereafter, Roy rented a house nearby and stayed there for about six months at Ramona, Palo Alto.  

While in Palo Alto, Roy found that there were some American intellectuals and academicians in the Universities who had considerable interest and sympathy for India. At the University of California, Berkley, there were at that time several such academiciansHe also gained friends among the pacifists who were opposed to imperialism. For the first time, Roy came in contact with persons free from nationalism and its obligations.

At the time that Roy was staying at Ramona, Palo Alto, he was not aware that his landlady Mrs. Noble was the mother of the Police Chief of Palo Alto. In the beginning the police did not know who Roy was; but they had begun to suspect.

Lala_Lajpat_Rai_photo_in_Young_India

Following that alarm bell,  Roy and Evelyn Trent  together hurriedly moved to New York , in January 1917 , where they met Lala Lajpat Rai  ( 1865 -1928) * the legendary Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary, renowned as  Punjab Kesari (the Lion of Punjab) and one among the famous Lal Bal Pal trio ( Lala Lajpat Rai; Bala Gangadhar Tilak ; and  Bipin Chandra Pal ).

 

* [Lala Lajpat Rai lived in USA for about twelve years from 1907; and, returned to India in 1919. On his return, he actively participated in Freedom Movement and in bringing about social reforms. He founded the Servants of the People Society, which worked for social reform and for India’s freedom. And, Lala was also active in the Labour movement. He presided over the first session of the All India Trade Union Congress in 1920. He went to Geneva to attend the eighth International Labour Conference in 1926 as a representative of Indian Labour.

He was not only a good orator but was also a prolific writer. His journal Arya Gazette was devoted mainly to subjects related to the Arya Samaj.  His other magazines: Bande Mataram and The People, carried articles regarding the Freedom movement.

And, while he was leading a non-violent protest against the Simon Commission, he sustained serious injuries in a police-action on 30 October 1928. Though he recovered for a while, he eventually succumbed to the injuries; and, died three weeks later on 17 November 1928.]

Lala Lajpat Rai-Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak-Bipin Chandra Pal

Roy’s visit to New York was significant in many ways: he fell in love with Evelyn Leonora Trent (1892 – 1970) and married her; he came in contact with many Socialists and he himself became a socialist; and it was in the New York City public library that he gained acquaintance with writings of Karl Marx and his doctrine; learnt about Marxism and began to develop a deep interest in its doctrine.

Evelyn fell in love with dark, thin tall, handsome, bright, dark eyed and very poor Indian; and, asked him to marry her. Roy and Evelyn got married in 1917 at New York.  And, they resided, for some months, at 2116, Daley Avenue.

[

Evelyn  Trent  Roy

Evelyn was a great asset to Roy, supporting and moulding him.  She later became his political collaborator; and accompanied him to Mexico and Russia. She co-authored with Roy a couple of books; and, she edited and wrote from time to time in Leftist journals under the pen-name Shanti Devi. Socialism and Marxism together with Evelyn Trent’s influence totally changed the further course of his life. Roy and Evelyn, the two worked closely for some years. And, Evelyn, along with Roy played an important role in the formation of the Mexican Communist Party; the exile communist party of India in Tashkent; and in the International Communist movement.

Roy and Evelyn lived together for about eight years before they parted ways silently in 1925.  But, strangely, Roy did not mention even a word about Evelyn in his Memoirs. Several years later; when the house of Evelyn Trent was burnt down in 1963,  in its  remains was found a photograph of Roy with an inscription on its back: To my Goddess from her  loving worshipper“]

Evelyn had, in fact, married Roy, a Hindu revolutionary and a fugitive, much against the wishes of her family. They did not accept Roy or their daughter’s marriage with him. There was therefore no support from Evelyn’s family.Her brother in particular who strongly opposed her marriage with Roy made it difficult for them to live in one place.  The Hindu groups too despised Roy for having married a foreigner and a non-Hindu. Life in New York had become very difficult because of lack of money, bad relations with Indian nationalists and constant scrutiny and survey by American and British Intelligence agencies. The Roys’ had to move from place to place to avoid harassment. After their house on Daley Avenue   , they stayed in 239 E 19th St. and later rented an apartment in 19th West 44th St. in New York. Roy had given the Ceylon Restaurant as his care of address (672, 8th Ave) to receive his mail. And, sometimes they had to stay apart to avoid police-attention. And, at the end, they had to seek shelter in the residence of Lala Lajpath Rai.

Lajpath Rai later wrote that Roy and Evelyn, in particular, had to face much hostility and humiliation both from Hindu nationalists and Evelyn family. Lajpath Rai sympathized with their plight and allowed them to live in his house. He also helped them with $ 350, out which $50 was payment to Roy for some work he did for Lajpath Rai.  He had also Evelyn as secretary for a short period  and paid her some amount as a token help.

***

It is said; at a meeting of socialists, Lala Lajpath Rai spoke eloquently about the poverty of Indian peasants. One of the audience remarked: what difference does it make if Indian farmers are exploited by native capitalists or by foreign imperialists? Rai replied, saying: it does make a difference whether one is kicked by ones brother or by a foreign robber. Roy who was present at the meeting was not impressed with Lajpat Rai’s reply.

The questions asked by the audience in these meetings made Roy wonder whether exploitation and poverty would cease in India with the attainment of independence. He realized that revolutions take place out of the necessity of the times and its urges. He came to believe that India needed a social revolution not mere national Independence. It began to dawn on him that the old methods of insurgence were not leading anywhere. Further, he began to ponder that the aim of Imperial Germany was to replace the British Imperialism in India; and, all the Imperialist powers are alike and vie with each other for dominating backward countries.  He began to doubt the scheme of armed revolution in India with German help. And, it dulled his keenness to secure arms from Germans. The socialist concept of revolution appealed to him better. He began to think of revolution as an international social necessity. And, it strengthened his resolve to go deeper into socialism.

Although Roy was in contact with some Indian revolutionaries who were in league with Germans, his stay in New York helped him in forging association with American socialists..

His gaining familiarity with socialism started with his coming into contact with many American socialists and other radicals.  He took keen interest in the study of socialism; and came to accept it wholeheartedly. While in New York, Roy wrote an essay ‘A Critique of Pacifism’ which basically said that colonization was the cause of the war and the liberation of the subject peoples was the way to durable peace. He, among other things, analyzed the economic causes of war. Roy’s essay appealed to American Radicals; and it paved his way to into their organization

 Roy did not suddenly leap on to socialism. He went through several phases of experiences. Roy, in fact, began his study of socialism, with the intention of combating it; but, at the end, he discovered that he had himself become a socialist. The change came about gradually and painfully.

In a way, Roy continued to be revolutionary even after conversion to Socialism. The revolution he now came to envision was the re-structuring of the Indian society and ushering in a new social order. It went beyond overthrowing British Rule in India. The social revolution, in his vision, involved all segments of the society, not merely a band of some inspired brave fighters.

The transition from nationalism to socialism was a big leap. It marked his departure from the ideals that he cherished in the past, inspired mostly by the writings of Bankimchandra. Yet, it could be said that his nationalist phase – romantic, adventurous, idealistic and constricted – did not go in vain. It later helped Roy in a gaining a perspective of a near-ideal political order that was away from nationalism, dictatorship and the sort of parliamentary democracy that was then in practice. 

The socialist way of thinking helped Roy in getting over his outlook as a nationalist. Communism, to him, seemed to offer effective means for achieving the goals of Socialism. He developed an interest in the works of Marx and his doctrine through his studies in New York Public Library. However, at this time, his conversion to communism was far from complete. That had to wait till his indoctrination by Michel Borodin in Mexico.

His transformation into a Communist under the tutorship of Borodin was rather quick, though, initially, he had some difficulty in accepting the materialism of Marx. It was only after Borodin explained the intricacies of Hegelian dialectics as the key to Maxims that he could accept the doctrine.

***

By about mid February 1917, America was seriously gearing up to join the war against Germany. The American and British intelligence as also the local police in several parts of USA (particularly in California, New York and Chicago) intensified their vigil against pro-German activities. On April 4, 1917, the U.S. Senate voted in support of the measure to declare war on Germany. The House concurred two days later. On April 6, 1917, the Congress declared war against Germany.

After America’s entry into War, any type of pro-German activity or links with Germans became virtually impossible. Roy thereafter went underground to escape arrest and a possible deportation to India. It was during this period that Roy re-wrote his famous easy; ’ An open letter to His Excellency Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America: The way to durable peace’. This letter was afterwards published on April 17, 1917 when Roy and Evelyn had already crossed over to Laredo on Mexican side of the border. 

 [The letter was later translated into Spanish and published in Mexico as El Camina Para La Paz Duradera del Mundo with insertion of extra passages criticizing the Monroe Doctrine which made Mexico a virtual colony of the USA.]

In his  letter to President  Woodrow Wilson , Roy had  compared Indian revolutionaries to the American revolutionaries of the eighteenth century ; and in doing so, tried to justify the seeking of German assistance by certain, mainly militant, section of the Indian nationalists. He compared their efforts to that of La Fayette who secured French help in the American Revolutionary War. Roy pleaded that whatever efforts that Indian revolutionaries made either through Germans or others was for securing independence of their Motherland from foreign rule; and, it certainly was not against the interests of the American nation, in any manner.

The British Intelligence and the American police were keeping a watch on Roy’s movements.  The net was closing in over USA -Pro German revolutionaries and also on the revolutionaries of Indian origin. They were systematically were rounded up.  Things came to a head when the British spies broke into Roy’s room while he was away and seized some letters and papers.  On the next day that is on 7 March 1917 Roy was eventually arrested.  Roy, at that time, was on the Campus of the Columbia University to where he had gone after attending a meeting addressed by Lala Lajpath Rai.

Roy had to spend a few hours of the night (7 Mar 1917) before he was released in the early hours of the morning and asked to appear before the Grand Jury in the Town Hall, a few hours later. The Grand Jury indicted him for violating the immigration Laws of the USA and pending trial released him on bail on his personal surety.

Roy however had no intention of returning to the trial. Roy left the court determined not to return. He was desperate to escape attention and arrest. He knew that he would be taken to San Francisco and tried there as a conspirator. But, his worse fear was deportation to India for standing trial which would result in long imprisonment or death sentence for the many acts of terror he had committed in India until 1915.

Roy had to choose between Canada and Mexico. It was then, prompted by Evelyn, that he seriously considered escaping to Mexico. He had heard from his socialist friends about Mexico; the social revolution brewing there; and establishment of socialism in one its parts Yucatan. Mexico, to him, appeared as the Land of Promise.

Evelyn and Roy soon travelled by train from New York to San Francisco, a distance of about 3,300-miles. And, during 1917 the journey might have taken nearly a week’s time.  

Prof._David_Starr_Jordan

Evelyn Trent then approached her teacher and friend, Dr. David Starr Jordan, President of the Stanford University, at Palo Alto, for help. Dr, Jordan was prepared to make it easy for Roys to find a refuge in the neighboring Mexico; and, he readily gave them a letter of introduction to the Governor of the  State of Yucatan , General Salvador Alvarado  , a powerful person in Mexican politics . That indeed was an immense, immeasurable help. Roy’s biographers wonder, there is no reason why Dr, Jordan , a President of an University,  would have anything to do with a dangerous Indian fugitive who had violated American laws and was still at large evading both British and American police , and helped him to escape , had  he  not been impressed with young Roy and his mission.

It is likely that Dr. Jordan was primarily trying to rescue his favorite student from a bad situation that was getting worse.

 The Mexican border was just about thousand miles away from San Francisco; and was not closely watched. Roy and Evelyn gave a slip to the police; and took the train from San Francisco to Laredo, Texas, a distance of about 1,800 miles. Evelyn Trent and M N Roy crossed the border at Laredo (one of the oldest crossing points along the U.S.-Mexico border) and entered Mexico by crossing over the bridge across the Rio Grande and reached the town of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, in the last week of March 1917 (distance of about 13 Kms across the border).  They entered Mexico under their assumed names of Senorita and Senora Evelyn and Manuel Mendez. From Nuevo Laredo, they travelled long (about 1,200 Kms) to reach Mexico City.

***

The ten months that Roy spent in America were very tense and hurried. He also had to face poverty and suffer contempt and distrust from the Hindu nationalist groups in USA. Roy and Evelyn had also to endure harassment from Evelyn’s brother. Further, they were closely watched by the British and American Intelligence. The couple grew more anxious and tense by each passing day.  They realized that they no longer were safe in America. That fear was confirmed after Roy was arrested along with several other Indian freedom fighters.

Roy later said that his stay in USA was too brief and too hurried to react to that country.

But, his stay in America had a brighter side too. It was here that he acquired a new identity that stayed with him for the rest of his life. He gained good friends who helped him in his distress and even rescued him from utmost danger. He transformed from a diehard nationalist to a socialist; and also gained familiarity with Communist doctrine, in which he later became an acknowledge authority. It was in America that Roy realized the power of ideas over that of arms. It transformed him into a catalyst for social change and political re-alignment. That was a huge change, because Roy had come to America basically to secure arms and money from Germany to fight against the British Rule in India.

And, above all, the biggest good that happened to Roy in America was falling in love and marrying Evelyn Leonora Trent, bright, intelligent and full of love. Evelyn became Roy’s trusted friend, ardent supporter, political collaborator and a guide.  She accompanied Roy to Mexico and Russia; and was of great help to him in his political and literary work. The collaboration continued until they separated in 1925. Socialism and Marxism together with Evelyn Trent were the greatest influences in Roy’s life; they together totally changed the course of his life and the ways of his thinking.

***

However, an unfortunate victim of being Roy’s friend while he was in America was Prof Arthur Upham Pope, a professor of Philosophy at UC Berkley. Roy and Prof. Pope became friends while Roy was in Palo Alto. And, they continued to be friends even after Roy’s escape to Mexico.  Prof. Pope remained his main contact in USA.

Prof. Pope had to pay a heavy price for his sympathy and support to MN Roy. After  the Hindu-German-Conspiracy case  was instituted in San Francisco , Prof Pope was investigated ;  and , he came under severe criticism for his relation with the ‘ a Hindu revolutionary, a ruthless man steeped in crime, and one of the most violent revolutionaries that India had ever produced’. The prosecution Attorney for the Northern California District wondered why a professor in a prestigious University should have had connection of any sort with such a person.

Prof. Pope was interrogated during the San Francisco trial. He was pressurized to resign from his Professorship in UC Berkley and later from his teaching job in Amherst College. He had also to give up his next job in the War Department because of his connections to MN Roy who was in league with the enemies, the Germans and Japanese.

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Before ending this part, let me say a few words about the The Hindu–German Conspiracy (also known as the Indo German plot or US Vs Bopp, Ram Chandra et al) – described, at that time, as the longest and most expensive trial ever held in the United States.

As said earlier, following America’s entry into the War, all types of activities that had links with Germany came under severe scrutiny. The British Intelligence was also hugely interested in blocking anti British activities launched from America and such other places. They were also keen on arresting and deporting those terrorists who had escaped from India and taken shelter in America.

**

The Hindu–German Conspiracy  was a series of plans formulated between 1914 and 1917 to initiate a rebellion against the British Raj during World War I. That was considered an opportune time to attack the British rule in India. It was planned as a multipronged attack centered on the nationalist rebel groups in India. The other Indian groups based outside India that were involved in the plan were mainly the Ghadar Party in the California region of USA and the Indian independence committee in Germany. The attack plan which came to be labeled as conspiracy had the support of foreign forces such as the Irish Republican movement, the German Foreign Office, and the German consulate in San Francisco. The Ottoman Turkey was also involved to some extent.

The ambition of the plot was to foment unrest and trigger a Pan-Indian mutiny in the British Indian Army from Punjab to Singapore . It was planned to be executed in February 1915 with the hope of overthrowing the British Raj from the Indian sub-continent. 

The mutiny  that was planned in February was thwarted when British intelligence infiltrated the Ghadar movement; and, arrested key figures. Mutinies in smaller units and garrisons within India were also crushed.

The other segments of the plot were also busted. Such failed plots included the 1915 Singapore Mutiny ; the Jugantar-German plot led by Bagha jatin; the German mission to Kabul; and,  the mutiny of the Connaught Rangers in India. The efforts to subvert the British Indian Army in the Middle-Eastern theatre of World War I did not also come through.

The British intelligence having an efficient and a wide network spread over its vast empire successfully thwarted several plots and sub-plots of the Indo-Irish-German conspiracy. It also had the support of the American intelligence agencies which arrested key figures in the aftermath of the Annie Larsen affair in 1917.

The criminal cases filed against the conspirators were tried at Lahore in India and in San Francisco in USA as the Hindu German Conspiracy Trial.

The trial at San Francisco was brought mainly due to pressure from the British Government. It presented over two hundred witnesses brought from several parts of the world. It is said; the trial cost the British Indian Government over $ 2.5 Million. The US government had also to incur substantial expenditure of $ 450,000.

**

[The trial which lasted 155 days, was a media spectacle; and, was covered widely in Washington Post, The San Francisco Examiner and other papers. Even after the trial was over the Case continued to be discussed in America: The Hindu Conspiracy, 1914-1917,” The Pacific Historical Review 17 (1948): 308-09; Karl Hoover, “The Hindu Conspiracy in California, 1913-1918,” German Studies Review 8 (1985): 258-59. Please also click here.

On the Indian side, Lajpat Rai, N.S. Hardiker, Mrinalini Sen, and Ananda Coomaraswamy, later wrote articles in the monthly journal titled Young India.

On December 5, 1917, Marshall Woodworth an Attorney sent his poem (Weaving the Noose) on the trial to John Preston, the lead prosecutor in the case:

It looks as if the noose were tied
The sword of Justice at their side

All that’s to come will knit the knot
And bring to light a devilish plot

As fear can neither fight nor fly
What they’ve contrived is doomed to die

When whispering conspirators are noosed
The days of vengeance are unloosed

Now some are seen to look behind
And not a few will change their mind

The Bard of Avon truly said,– where death doth dwell,
A perjured refuge is a living hell]

**

 In the trial which commenced in the District Court , Northern District ,  California in San Francisco on November 12, 1917, charges were framed against one hundred and six defendants (including thirty-six Indians) , German Consulate officials besides American businessmen and professionals. The Note presented by John Preston , the lead prosecutor , Northern District Court of California, First Division cited three basic violations of the neutrality law    : providing and preparing means for a military expedition against the state or territory or the colony with whom the United States was at peace; twenty-eight counts of conspiracy to violate neutrality law; and, violations of the military expedition law prohibiting enlistment to fight against a foreign army with which the United States is at peace.

The Indian Nationalists – centered in San Francisco, Chicago and New York, in contact with each other and with German Consul and agents – were accused of taking “advantage of American neutrality to plot on American soil against the allies” at “the expense of the laws and hospitality of the United States. The charge also mentioned that in a nationwide conspiracy financed by the Kaiser and promulgated through the Berlin Foreign Office to ferment rebellion  and revolt in India  and to aid Germany in the prosecution of war by compelling Great Britain to divert essential troops from Europe in order to put don  insurgence elsewhere.

MN Roy was also listed as one of the co-accused. The charges framed against him included his attempts to procure  arms through SS Maverick to fight British in India ; his illegal entry into San Francisco under a false name , his contacts with the German agencies and Hindu conspirators and so on.  The charges against Roy also mentioned that he had attempted to flee to Germany by the submarine Deutschland to obtain a big deal in arms with a South China party. The scheme fell through when Federal authorities took action against conspirators in New York.

 But, by the time the trial commenced, MN Roy had fled USA and slipped into Mexico. Nevertheless, Roy was indicted on the charges framed against him.

The accused Indians presented their position in terms of the ideals of the American Revolution. The defence attorneys attempted to argue in favour of the accuseds’ beliefs by placing them squarely within American ideals; and quoted from liberty appeals in the writings of by Patrick Henry, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and President Woodrow Wilson.

On the last day of the trial on 23 April, 1918, the court room witnessed a bizarre scene. Ram Singh, one of the accused belonging to a faction of the Ghadar Party shot dead another co-accused Ram Chandra belonging to the rival faction of the Ghadar Party on the grouse that Ram Chandra was misusing the Party funds and diverting the funds to his own use. Ram Singh too was promptly shot and killed by the US Federal Marshal present in the court room.

This unfortunate incident contributed to marring the defence position. A week later, the judge found the defendants guilty of violating the neutrality of the United States. Of the twenty-nine Indians found guilty, there were “students and revolutionists, several of them highly educated”. They were sentenced to serve from twenty-two months to sixty days.

The Presiding District Judge Rudkin, while announcing the verdict against the convicts observed: if your propaganda continues after you are released you will doubtless be deported and disposed of the hated British Government, as you term it.

The British felt that the sentences were absurdly light; and were outraged. The Calcutta High Court thereafter ruled that the San Francisco defendants could still be tried under the Indian Penal Code on their return to India.

80px-Ghadar_di_gunj

 

 

Continued In

 Next Part

Sources and References

1, M N Roy by V B Karnik, National Book Trust, 1980

  1. M N Roy, A Political Biography by Samaren Roy
  2. Haj to Utopia: by Maia Ramnath
  3. Trials that Changed History: From Socrates to Saddam Hussein by M.S. Gill
  4. Political Philosophy of M.N. Roy by Dr. Prakash Chandra, Sarup & Sons, 1992
  5. Numerous pages from Wikipedia
  6. All pictures are from Internet

 

 
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Posted by on January 13, 2016 in M N Roy

 

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