Part Nine (of 22) – Musical Instruments in Natyashastra
Role of instruments in Samgita
1.1. The term Samgita in the early Indian context meant a composite art-form comprising Gita (vocal singing), Vadya (instrumental accompaniments) and Nrtta or Nartana the limb movement or dance (Gitam, Vadyam, Nrtyam Samgita-mucchyate).
1.2. Samgita was also called Gandharva–vidya (the art of the Gandharvas) because the celestial beings, the Gandharvas, loved to sing and dance to the accompaniment of instrumental music. And the term Gandharva, therefore, often, meant Music in general.
1.3. Natyashastra explains the Gandharva music as that which is governed by the combination of Svara (tonal structure); Taala (time-units); and, Pada (text), in association with various musical instruments (Gaandharvam trividham vidhaat svara-tala-pada-atmakam). Thus, song, Veena, flute and drums all contributed to Gandharva.
Naradiyashiksha (1.4.12) gives the etymology of the term Gandharva by splitting it into three elements. It explains Gandharva Gana as made of: Ga – the song (giti geyam vidhuhu); Dha – playing on the Veena by skilful use of fingers (karupya vadanam); and, Va- other instruments and gestures (veti vadhyasya sanjnya); and says ‘this indicates Gandharva (ye Gandharvasya nirochanam).
1.4. Later, Someshvara (twelfth century) in his Mansollasa says that the instruments enhance the beauty and grace of dance and music performances, and for this reason, they have a pre-eminent place in both dance and music.
Vadyen rajte geetam ch nrityam vadyavarjitam!! Tasmadvadyam pradhanam syadvitnrityakriyavidho!
1.5. Thus, Instrumental music was very much a part of the Samgita; and, it also enjoyed an important part in the play-production. Instruments from behind the screen or on the stage were played to accompany various songs; to heighten the effect of the mood suggested by the scene; to better articulate different gestures; and, to accompany dance and dance-like movements.
2.1. Bharatha used term Atodhya Vadya to denote musical instruments. In the Natyashastra (NS: 28.1), Music instruments are classified under four broad categories based on their acoustic principles: Tata (stringed); Avanaddha (covered or percussion); Susira (hollow or wind-blown) ; and Ghana ( solid – like cymbals). This classification given by Bharatha was accepted as a standard format, in the later times, for study of instruments. And, it is valid till date.
Thus, the term Tatha included all stringed instruments; Anaddha included all that were covered or were struck like drums; Sushira includes all wind instruments like the flute and the Shanka; and, Ghana included all solid cymball-like resonators.
2.2. Of these, the stringed and wind- instruments that produced flow of pleasant notes seemed to be the favoured ones; and were grouped with the singers. And in the music on the stage and behind the curtain, the string instruments were more important.
2.3. The string and wind instruments were generally played individually or in tandem. It is not clear whether the Orchestra (Vadya-vrunda) as we know it today was in place during the time of Natyashastra. However, Bharatha mentions three groups (Kutapa) of music-performers: Tata, Avanaddha and Natyakrta. The Tata–Kutapa grouped together the vocalists, the players on string instruments, and the flutists. Avanaddha-Kutapa included players on percussion instruments such as Mrudanga, Pavana and Dardura. And, Natyakrta-Kutapa was the collection of actors and actresses who take part in the play.
[Interestingly, Panini’s Ashtadhyayi calls a of group of musicians as Turya, in which the Veena-players were prominent. There was a main Veena-player (Veena Vadaka) who was supported and followed by a secondary group of Veena players (Pari- vadaka) – ‘Aveevdad Veena Parivadken’. During the time of Panini, just singing a song (gayana) without the support of Veena was called Apa-veena. And, the sound of Veena (Nada) was called by many names as: Kana, Nikvan, and Nikvaan (Kvano Veenaya Ch). The sounds of the other instruments were called as Ghosha: Va Ghosha Nishra Shabdeshu.]
2.4. As Abhinavagupta said; The Gita (song), Vadya (instruments) and Natya (enactment of play) should, ideally, coordinate and perform harmoniously – supporting and strengthening each other with great relish. And, the three Kutapa-s, in combination should suggest a seamless movement like a circle of fire (Alaata chakra); and should brighten (Ujjvalayati) the stage.
3.1. Tata –Vadya represent the class of string instruments (tantri kritam). It is said; such instruments were classified on the basis of number or kinds of strings (tantri bheda); and, the manner of playing the instruments. And, among all the string instruments (Tata-vadya) the Veena was the most prominent.
3.2. It is said; Veena was a generic term for all stringed instruments including lutes, arched harps, with or without frets and plucked with fingers or a plectrum.
(Natyashastra regards human body also as a veena, a musical instrument, since it has a rhythm of its own; and, is also capable of producing musical notes through vocal cords.)
Some say that the Veena referred to in the Natyashastra might have resembled a harp rather than a lute (as we know it now).
3.3. The major types of Veena-s during the time of Bharatha were said to be: Chitra (seven strings and played with fingers) and Vipanchi (nine stringed lutes played with a plectrum). The other types were Ghosha or Ghoshavati (single stringed – Ek Tari or a sort prototype Tanpura) and Kapucchi (also an Ek Tari).
[Among the string instruments (Tatha), Ramayana mentions two kinds of Veena: Vipanchi (fingerboard plucked ones with nine strings like the Veena as we know); Vana or Vallaki (a multi stringed harp); and, Kanda-Veena (made by joining reeds). In fact, till about 19th century, string instruments of all kinds were called Veena: harps like the Chitra; fingerboard plucked ones like the Vipanchi, Rudra Veena, the Saraswati Veena and the Kacchapi Veena; bowed ones such as the Ravana hastaveena and the Pinaki Veena.]
The commonest type of Veena was bow-shaped and resembled a harp. But, there was also another type which was more like a guitar.
The harp type of Veena was evolved on the principle of the bow and the resonator, the musical twang of the bowstring being a favorite sound often eulogized by poets as deep and pleasant. The interval between strings tied to the bow- shaped rod immediately above the resonator increased or diminished their length and thus determined the modulation of the note imitating vocal vibrations.
This hole in the piece of leather covering the vault of the resonator was for deepening the sound of the string. The entire body of the vina with the exception of the strings arid leather was of wood and was generally gaily painted over the gold and Jewel studded’.
The strings (tantri) for the Veena were generally seven. This type of vina was the oldest and most common, the saptatantrl veena or as per Amarakosha ‘sa tu tantrlbhis saptabhih parivadini’.
The harp-like Veena was sometimes held by a strap that came over the shoulder and could thenbe played by a person even while standing. And, the harp-like vina was sometimes played with the aid of a small plectrum (kana) sounding the strings softly with the finger nails.
The guitar-like Veena had a pear shaped resonator and straight neck. The strings extended across the resonator’s flat top which must also have been of leather. There were holes in the top cover of the resonator as in the bow-shaped vina. The strings were tuned with the help of small pegs which were tightened and lossened as required, with the resonator shaped like a tortoise shell, and with the neck appearing almost like the creature’s head peering from its shell, though being rather long for that, this vina is probably the nearest approach we~ can get to the kacchapi the favourite musical instrument of Sarasvati, the shape of which is suggested by its name .]
Role of Veena in Music-theories and principles
4.1. The Veena was used in the texts as the basis (adhara) to explain the theoretical aspects of Music and also to illustrate the concepts of Sruti, Taana, Sthana, Dhatu etc.
For instance; Dattilam (9) explains Sruti as the difference in sounds (dvani visesha) produced by striking on the string on the upper end of the Veena (Uttarottara-taras tu venayam) and that produced by striking on the lower end (adharottarah) of the Veena . And, Abhinavagupta explains the term Sruti as the sound (sabda) produced (prabhavita) when struck at appropriate position (śruti-sthāna-abhighāta) on the Veena.
4.2. Even the vocal styles were defined with reference to the relation between singing and playing the song on Veena. When one plays on the Veena ( following the vocal style) but without singing it is then known as Suska or A-gita . And, when one plays on the Veena and sings the song as he plays , it is known as Giti.
Abhinavagupta explains: every type of Giti can be played on Veena. And, there are three types of Giti: Tatva, Anugata and Ogha. When the Gana (singing) is prominent and the Veena follows Gana completely , it is Tatva; when the Veena follows Gana in some part and then shows its own craftsmanship , it becomes Anugata; and , when the playing techniques becomes A-nibaddha and the Karanas become more prominent and the Gana becomes secondary then the Giti becomes Ogha . Thus in the rendering of the Giti, Veena performs an important role.
4.3. Similarly, Murchana and Taana variations to provide pleasure to the listener as also to the performer were explained with reference to Veena. Dattilam (36) the techniques of improving Taana-s on the Veena (Taana-kriya). Dattila says: The Taana-kriya is twofold (Taana-kriya dvidha tantryam): Pravesika and Nigraha. Pravesika (entering) is raising the lower note or lowering the higher note. And, Nigraha (abstaining) is not touching the string (asamsparka tu nigrahat).
4.4. Bharatha describes the various strokes (karana) on the Veena and their sequences. According to Abhinavagupta, the collection of Svaras that are produced by striking (praharavishesha janyah) the strings of veena in a specific manner is called Dhatu.
The Dhatu had four elements: Vistara (high pitched), Karana (low pitched), Aviddha (duration of the note) and Vyanjana (different ways of employing each finger), each of which had its variations. Such variations depended on whether the stroke was made on the upper end (uttaramukha) or lower end (adhara) of the Veena; the number of strokes made on the strings; the time span (guru and laghu); and, their sequences.
4.5. The Varṇas on which the Alaṃkāras depend are of four kinds: ascending in the scale (ārohin); descending (avarohin); where the notes are the same and are equal (sthāyin); and, when the various notes come together they constitute what is called a mixed Varṇa (sanchārin, or transitory)
Ārohī cā avarohī ca sthāyi sañcāriṇau tathā । varṇāś ca tvāra evaite hya alaṅkārās tad āśrayāḥ ॥ 17 ॥
These four Varṇas having clearly defined aspects are adopted from the human voice; and, they relate to the quality of the three voice registers (sthāna).
Śārīra-svara-sambhūtās-tri sthāna guṇa gocarāḥ । catvāro lakṣaṇopetā varṇāstatra prakīrtitāḥ ॥ 20॥
When the Varnas adorn a song , it enhances the power of the song to provide greater enjoyment
Evam lakṣaṇa saṃyuktaṃ yadā varṇo’nukarṣati । tadā varṇasya niṣpattir jñeyā svara samudbhavā ॥ 21॥
5.1. Sushira (hollow) instruments that allow passage of air to excite the various resonators have been popular from very early times. By manipulating the vibrations of air columns, varieties of sound patterns are produced through these instruments. And, they generally did not involve mechanical parts. These instruments of all types- like conch, horns trumpets, bugles, and flutes of different types – were blown either by mouth or by bellows.
Sushira derived from Susih (hole) stands for wind instruments, in general. According to Panini, the Grammarian, the suffix rah is added to Sushi to obtain the term Sushira– (Usasusihmuskamagho rah)
Wind instruments (Sushira) such as flute made of bamboo were termed as Vamsi – Vamsadikam tu sushiram. Bharata regarded Vamsi as one of the important instruments; Shankha; and, Dakkini as minor or supporting (Pratyanga) wind instruments.
The flute and Veena are usally played in unision (Venu-Veena). It was said; the Svara and Grama derived from Sushira (flute) and the Veena are same – Atodyam sushiram nama jneyam vamsakrtam budhaih / Vaina eva vidhistatra svara-grama-samashrayah.
The most ancient Sushira instrument mentioned in Rgveda are Nali and Bakura. The Bakura dritam is described as a sort of bag-pipe (driti denoting a leather bag). Bakura is blow-instrument. Nail is said to please Yama. Other Sushira instruments mentioned are Tunva and Shankha
Sarangadeva mentions some Sushira instruments as : Vamsi, Pava, Murali, Kahala, Tundaki, Tunva , Cukka, Sringa and Shankha. And, to that, Ahobala adds: Mukhavina, Vakri, Camga, Patrika and Svara sagara. Further, Sangita Damodara mentions Pari, Madhuri, Tutturi, Simgha, Vamsi and Turyavamsi as some other Sushira instruments
As mentioned, the most important of Sushira vadyas, made of is bamboo, is Vamsi. Based on the principle of a breath of air escaping through holes, Vamsi, is usally made as a bamboo tube. It is long, straight and smooth. Later, other wood / materials came into use: Kadira wood, sandalwood, ivory, copper, iron, silver, and gold. The flute (Venu) is the most important. It is one of the sweetest and an easily portable of musical instruments.
Some varieties of flute are held to the mouth; but, some are held along it. The latter variety is often portrayed in paintings and sculptures; and, it is the type that is used in stage or classical music.
The variety of flute which the player holds in his lips, the blowing end is not plain; but , it is pressed into a narrow opening known as the beak. The player blows a current of air into the flute through the beak; and, creates melodies by closing and opening the finger holes on the body of the instrument. This kind of flute is a common pastoral instrument.
The other variety of flute that is held horizontal or across the player’s lips is closed at one end and open at the other. A few centimeters from the blocked end there is a hole known as the embouchure or blow hole into which the flutiest blows. Along the body of the instrument there are a number of apertures which are worked by fingers for playing a tune.
Such a horizontal flute is the one that is used in musical concets; the reason being the versatility of the cross flute. The classical Indian music, at its refined excellence , is rich in fine pitch differences (sruti–bedha) and ornamentations (gamakas), which are best executed by the complicated fingering techniques, adjustments of the pressure of blowing and slight changes in the angle of the flute on the lip. All such manipulations are possible only with the horizontal flute.
The Indian artists and audiences prefer the bamboo flute over the metalic omes , because of its mellow quality. The length of the Venu varies depending upon the context and the nature of music played. The shorter ones are employed for faster music and for higher pitch; whereas the longer flutes are meant for slower resonant music in lower pitch.
As said earlier, the number of holes on a flute varies. And, it appears, the early ones had only seven holes – venum gayami saptacchidram.
Later, the number of holes was increased to eight. The first hole on the flute, after a space of two /three /four fingers is Mukha –randra. The next hole after space of one finger is Tara –randra or Nada-randra , followed by sevn more holes, each at a space of half/ threefouth finger from the Tara-randra. A smaller hole of the size of Badri seed (Ber, Bora or Indian jujube) is made to take out the air. This is known as Eka-vira-vamsi.
With the increase in space between Mukha-randra and the Tara-randra, the Vamsi may fave as many as fourteen holes . They are named as Umapathi, tripurusha, Chaturmukha, Panchavaktra, Shanmukha, Muniraja, Vasu, Nathendra, Mahananda, Rudra, Aditya, Manu, Kalanidhi, and Anvartha.
The Shankha or conch shell also belongs to the Sushira category. It is considered most auspicious. Apart from that, it was always carried by warriors, as a part of their battle gear. They were considered so important that each warrior gave a name to his personal conch. For instance; Krishna named his conch as Pancajanya, while Arjuna named his as Devadatta.
The conches were blown for heralding the arrival of the heroic warrior; as also for sounding the battle-cry before and after battle. The blow (dhamana or purna) of the deep and noble sounds of the Martial conchs were said to be so loud as to frighten the enemy; and shatter his heart. It was akin to the trumpet; but, its roar was much louder. The Shankha was blown along with the lound beats of the Dundubhi, the large drum.
And, the Shankha (conch) had also its place in a musical orchestra. It was sounded with other instruments; but, only at intervals. There were two ways in which it was blown either the perforated tip of the shell itself being put to the lips or sometimes a long ornamental pipe attached to it.
5.2. Chapter Thirty of Natyashastra talks briefly about Sushira Vadya-s in just about 13 verses. It is said; the wind instruments in use during the time of Bharatha were Vamsa, Nadi, Tudakini, Samkha and such others. Not much is known either about Nadi or Tudakini; and, Samkha the conch was scarcely used as a musical instrument in the play.
6.1. Therefore, the attention of the Natyashastra in its Chapter Thirty was mainly on Vamsa or Venu the flute which is an important musical instrument in the context of the Drama. Vamsa also provided the basic note (Sruti) to tune other musical instruments. And, that helped to regulate the song and music of the play.
6.2. During the time of Natyashastra, Susira (hollow) musical instruments were made of Vamsa (bamboo reeds), Hence the flutes were commonly known as Vamsa or Vamsa–Vadya.
Therefore, Bharta commences the discussion on Sushira Vadyas, the hallow instruments, in Chapter 30 of the Natyashastra, by saying: the hollow (suṣira) musical instruments, as the wise should know, are made of bamboo. The rules regarding their notes (svara) and the Grāma are the same as that of the Veeṇā.
atodyaṃ suṣiraṃ nāma jñeyaṃ vaṃśagataṃ budhaiḥ । vaiṇa eva vidhistatra svaragrāmasamāśrayaḥ ॥ 30. 1 ॥
6.3. The Verse 12 of Chapter 30 says – The music of Vamsa which is steady and not very loud; and adorned with Varnas and Alamkaras , and follows rules, is smooth and soothing.
avicalitam-avicchinnaṃ varṇā-alaṅkāra-saṃyutaṃ vidhivat । lalitaṃ madhuraṃ snigdhaṃveṇorevaṃ smṛtaṃ vādyam ॥ 12 ॥
The rules regarding their notes (Svara) and the Grama were the same as that of the Veena.
6.4. Bharatha explains the manner of producing seven notes ‘according to the Sruti division of two, three and four (dvishrutika, trishrutika, and chatusshrutika). And, he says: by prolonging the blow the other Svaras may also be produced.
dvi-strikaś catuṣko vā śruti saṅkhyo bhavet svaraḥ । anīraṇāttu śeṣāṇāṃ svarāṇāmapi sambhavaḥ । aṅgulī vādana kṛtaṃ tacca me sannibodhata ॥ 4 ॥
The notes were obtained by covering the hole with the finger, by placing a trembling finger (Kampita), by partially closing/ opening the hole (Ardha-mukta) or by fully opening the hole (Vyakta-mukta).
Vyakta amukta anguli tatra svaro jneyas chatusruti // Kampanamguli chaiva tri srutih parikirtyate / dvikardhanguli syad iti srutyasritah svarah //
Bharata then mentions the production of notes in the Madhyama Grama :
The notes produced from a flute-hole completely free from finger is of four Srutis; that produced from a hole with a shaken finger placed on it is of three Srutis; and, that produced from a hole partially free from a finger is of two Srutis. All these are the notes in the Madhyama Grama.
ete syur madhyama-grāme bhūyaḥ ṣaḍjāśritāḥ punaḥ । vyakta-muktā-aṅgulikṛtāḥ ṣaḍja-madhyama-pañcamāḥ ॥ 7 ॥
As regards the production of notes in Shadja Grama, Bharatha says:
Shadja, Madhyama and Panchama will arise from a hole fully open; Daivata and Rsabha from a hole covered by a shaken finger; and, from a hole partly free from finger Gandhara and Nishadha will arise.
ṛṣabho dhaivataścāpi kampya mānāṅgulīkṛtau । ardha muktā aṅguliścaiva gāndhāro’tha niṣādavān ॥ 8 ॥
Nishadha and Gandhara coming respectively in combination with Shadja and Madhyama and modifying themselves in characteristic Srutis will give rise to overlapping (Svara- sadharana) and the Kakili notes.
Svara sādhāranaścāpi kākalya antarasaṃjñayā । niṣāda gāndhāra kṛtau ṣaḍja Madhyama- yorapi ॥ 9 ॥
6.5. Natyashastra recommended that the Svaras (notes) on a flute should be perfected with the aid of the Veena and the human voice. The singer should sing the very notes in accompaniment of a flute. The perfect harmony of the human voice, strains of the Veena and the melody of the flute is indeed truly sublime, and fit for gods.
viparyayā sannikarṣe śruti lakṣaṇa siddhitaḥ । vaiṇaka aṇṭhapraveśena siddhā ekāśritāḥ svarāḥ ॥ 10॥
yaṃ yaṃ gātā svaraṃ gacchet taṃ taṃ vaṃśena vādayet śārīra vaiṇa vaṃśyān āmekī bhāvaḥ praśasyate ॥ 11 ॥
The music of the flute, which is steady, not very loud and furnished with the Varṇas and the Alaṃkāras, and follows rules (relating to the manner in which the flute should be played on different occasions in a play), is sweet and soothing.
avicalitam-avicchinnaṃ varṇā-alaṅkāra-saṃyutaṃ vidhivat । lalitaṃ madhuraṃ snigdhaṃ veṇorevaṃ smṛtaṃ vādyam ॥ 12 ॥
As advised by Bharatha, the flute was played mainly as an accompanying instrument ‘in harmony with the vocalist and the veena player’.
Avanaddha (covered or percussion)
7.1. As compared to Susira (hollow) instruments, the Avanaddha Vadya the covered instruments wherein a vessel or a frame is covered with leather are discussed in great detail in the Chapter thirty-three of Natyashastra.
Avanaddha (membranophone) refers to instruments that produce sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. That merely means these instruments were made by covering a frame of wood or a vessel with a piece of stretched leather that is held in position by thin and long leather straps. The Avanaddha type of mentioned in Natyashastra are basically the drums and percussion instruments of various sorts. They were used for keeping rhythm, measuring Taala and also for making great sounds.
7.2. The drums were played on various occasions such as; festivals; processions; auspicious occasions and happy times as the weddings, birth of sons; during expeditionary marches; and, in a battle where many fighters assemble .
Bharata advises that only a small number of instruments be played during household celebrations.
During a Drama many instruments could be played to bring about harmonious blending of the different limbs (Anga) of the play. Drums could also be used to cover up faults, mishaps and delays.
7.3. The Avanaddha instruments, in general, included a large variety of drums varying in their sound-patterns, sound-volume and their purpose. From the loud and noisy thuds of the Pataha to the sweet-sounding notes of small drums coverd with calfskin, there are many subtle modulations in their sound.
The Avanaddha class of instruments were also categorized, in inredible number of ways, in variety of manners, such as: by the rhythym of their beats; by the volume , the depth and the pitch of the sound they produce; by the materials of which they are made- wood ( type of wood) or metal ( types of metal) or animal skin ( types of skins) ; by their size – huge, small or medium;by their shape- either having two faces or a single face , or as single unit or twin unit; by whether they are drum-like, cylindrical or narrowed in the middle like hour-glass ; by the manner they are held – either placed on the ground or suspended from the shoulders or held in hands; by whether held / placed vertically or horizontally; by the manner in which they are played – struck or rubbed either with stick or hands or both ; by the context in which such instruments are played – in music concerts or classical dance performances, in folk dances, in Bhajans singing together, in festivities at home such as weddings and other auspicious occasions , or in celebrations at temples or in public places, or heralding the arrival of the kings, or enthusing the fighting warriors and scaring the enemy, or in funerals bidding farewell to the departed heroes and so on
[The drums sounding most pleasant to the ear, such as Muraja, Mrudanga and Pushkara are those generally used as musical accompaniments. The sound of the Muraja is described as deep and noble; that of the Mrudanga, softly tapped with finger tips by women sounds sweet, resemble the gentle rumble of clouds. The Darduras, Panavas and Jarjharikas are other varieties of soft-toned drums. The Muraja and Mrudanga often required a kind of rice-paste to be applied to both the leather surfaces to sweeten their sound.
The most fearful sound was that of the Pretapatahas or funeral drums. On the battle-field, the Patahas- Dundubhis, the Anakas and other large drums were stuck. In all these cases, konaghata the beat of the drumstick produced a great volume of sound. The konaghata itself came to mean loud sound as in an orchestra where many konas would naturally be used.
The Paatahkalandipataha, the auspicious drum sounded in the morning along with conchs to announce the break of day, and the hours od the day, also required drumsticks. Such gongs were known as gandi.
The smaller drum suspended by a strap from the shoulder and played with a drumstick is probably a Marvala; and, is midway between the more refined Muraja and the noisy Pataha. It must have been very like the modem South Indian Tavil, for each has to be played on one side with a single drumstick, and on the other with the fingers.]
7.4. Chapter 33 of Natyashastra commences with the statement: I have spoken briefly about the stringed instruments. I shall now speak of the class of covered musical instruments, their characteristics and functions as well as of playing drums named Mṛdaṅga, Paṇavaand Dardura (NS.33.1-2) . Then, it goes on to talk about the origin, nature and description of the Avanaddha class of musical instruments.
As regards the drums , it says , at the outset, : Among the drums, Mṛdaṅga Dardura and Paṇava are the major components (Anga) , while Jhallarī and Paṭaha etc., are the minorcomponents (Pratyanga)- (NS.33. 16 )
But, he adds that: there is no instrument which cannot be used in the ten kinds of play (daśarūpaka). And, each kind of instrument may be used in a play after considering the context and the emotions involved-(NS.33. 18)
The musical instruments can be played on numerous varieties of occasions and scenes. In festivals, processions, and auspicious (Maṅgala) occasions and happy times as the weddings, birth of sons; during expeditionary marches; and, in a battle where many fighters assemble; and, during such other acts, all the musical instruments should be played- NS.33. 19-20)
During a Drama, many instruments could be played to bring about harmonious blending of the different limbs (Anga) of the play. Drums could also be used to cover up faults, mishaps and delays.
Bharatha advises that only a small number of instruments be played during household celebrations.
8.1. Bharatha often uses the term Pushkara (drums made of wood) Vadya-s to denote the Avanaddha type of instruments, in general, that are covered with hide. Among these, the three viz. Mridanga, Panava and Dardura were the major type (Anga) of the Pushkara Vadya-s. And, Jhallari and Pataha etc were the minor ones.
8.2. Bharata says there are one hundred varieties (suggesting a very large number) of Pushkaras. But , he talks, in some fair detail , about the three major type of Pushkaras (Mridanga, Panava and Dardura) Bharatha remarks : they have no harshness of sound, produce clear notes, and are played with well regulated strokes(NS.33. 25-26).
8.3. As regards the rules of playing these three Pushkara-s , it is said : Pushkara instruments should have following aspects : sixteen syllabic sounds (aksara), four Margas, Vilepana, six Karanas, three Yatis, three Layas, three Gatis, three Pracsras, three Yogas, three Panis, five Pani-prahata, three Praharas, three Marjanas, eighteen Jaatis and twenty Prakaras.( NS.33. 37-39 )
9.1. Then , in the rest of the Chapter thity-three (from verse 40 to 301), Bharatha elaborates various aspects related to Pushkara Vadya-s in great detail.
He describes in fair detail the types of Pushkara-; making of Drums; their sizes; the types of wood ,the hides and the blackish earth from the river banks to be used; General Rules of drumming ; the ways of playing different varieties of Pushkara-s; the technical aspects of playing; three Yatis , tempos or beat-patterns; ways of combining three tempo (quick, medium and slow) and different strokes ; the manners of playing drums in different situations in a play; the manner of playing Pushkara-s along with a song or string and wind instruments, with dance or on festive occasions ; playing to suit the movements of different types of characters in a play such as hers, heroine, villain , jester , Gandharvas, Daityas, Danavas, Yaksas, Raksasas and others; the ways of playing for superior females and for the lesser female characters; the ways to celebrate joy, mirth , love, happiness etc; ways of playing to suggest sorrow, suffering, loss of life ,killing, death of dear ones etc; the manner of playing drums to suggest movement of elephants, horses , birds, chariots, boats ; qualities of a good player of the Pushkaras (Mridanga, Panava and Dardura ) and so on.
He also lists of the qualities (guna) and defects (dosha) of the drum player in relation to playing each type of drum, such as : Mrdanga, Panava, Dardara and others.
[ Chapter thirty-three of Natyashastra also includes detailed instructions om playing of drums on different contexts of the Drama. The following is just a brief, extract. For more and ; and also the definition and explanations of certain technical terms that Bharata uses , please click here .
Bharata instructs that the playing of the drums should be in accordance with the metre (Chhandas) of the songs. And, it should also be according the action taking place on the stage. For instance; when a section of the performance requires the use of gestures, there should be no playing of drums; but, when there is a dance consisting of Angaharas then there should be music to accompany it. The drums should be played in slow, medium and or quick tempo as in tune with the rhythm of a song; and the same should be the method in the performance of Padas and dance with Angaharas.
The various occasions for playing of drums are also described in the Natyashastra.
After this, Bharata gives instructions about the playing of drums suitable at the time of walking and other movement of the Heroes.
When the female dancer appears on the stage, experts in the Mrdanga, mostly by the touch of their fingers, should produce a music which will consist of light Varnas.
The playing in case of superior females, who are goddesses, will include mostly vamgati kipi dhmeṭa prathi ghe. And, in case of queens it should include mostly kathi kathi mathi do do khu khu.
In a similar way, instructions are given for playing of drums in the movements of gods, Bramhanas and middling men are given. Here, he says, the steps of the dance should conform to rhythm (laya) and to the tempo consisting of two Kalas, one Kala or four Kalas. The song should conform to drums.
In case of walking of Yatis, Munis, Pāśupatas and Śākyas the playing of drums should include do kho dvitvikhi duguvoo klanado dhanti kītiki.
And, in the walking of old Śrotriyas, Kañcukīns and corpulent persons, the playing should include dhrām dhroṃ dhrāṃ droṅ dhiṅ droṇām kho kho ṇā.
The Natyashastra specifies that in case of sorrow, suffering illness, curse, death of dear ones, loss of wealth, killing, imprisonment, vow, austerity, fasting, etc. the playing should be in Utthapana and according to Alipta-marga.
This is followed by the description of the Udghatya playing. The playing which is performed at the time of excess of hurry or joy or surprise, excitement or sorrow or at the time of receiving a gift is called Udghatya.
Instructions are also given as to the playing of drums in different conditions of the various characters and movements of boats, chariots, aerial cars, birds, etc.. In these cases, the playing of drums should be by running the fingers on the face of drums or by striking in the Catuṣka by the two hands alternatively.
In case of movements of elephants, horses, asses, camels, chariots and aerial cars, the playing should include Vankiti (?). And, in case of superior, middling and inferior men, the playing should he performed after considering the sentiments and mental states. Similar instructions are given in ease of walking of Uttama, Madhyama and royal women.
In case of walking of Daityas, Dānavas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas and Grahas the playing of drums should include Karaṇas such as dṛṅ dhṛṅ khada together with gha ṭn tn tanta tetodrāṃ.And, In case of dancing movements the playing of drums should include ghetāṃ kaṭakāṃ.
There are detailed instructions for playing the drums to accompany various Dhruva-songs.
Bharata says that in the performance of ten types of Rupakas (Drama) , four Panavas should be used ; and, similar Atodyas are also to be played in different situations. The Mrdangas, Panavas, and Dardaras are to be played in the Nataka, Prakarana, Vithi, Bhana and Dima class of plays.
At the end of this Adhyaya, Bharata says that special efforts should he made in playing the instruments because the dramatic performance depends upon it.]
9.2. The text mentions the manner of playing Pushkara-s when accompanying a song or a dance sequence. The playing of drums should correspond with in metre of the songs. When the Mrudanga plays to a song of slow tempo (Vilamba kaala) the strokes should be mild; when the song is in middle tempo (Madhyama Kaala) the strokes should be clear the syllables; and so on.
And when playing to a dance, the Mrudanga should follow the Laya (tempo) and Taala of the dance steps and movements. And, the strokes should be pure, uniform (Sama), pleasing (Rakta), clear (Sphuta) following the rhythm of dance and enhancing the beauty of its presentation.
9.3. Natyashastra even specifies how the Avanaddha-Kutapa (players on percussion instruments such as Mrudanga, Pavana and Dardura) be positioned on the stage along with other music-players. According to that : the Tata –Kutapa (group of vocalists, the players on string instruments, and the flutists) should be seated on the stage between the entry and exit doors; and, they should face east. The Mrdanga player should face the stage; the players of Panava and the Dardara should sit to his left and right respectively – (prose at 3. 221)
Here, the orchestra relates first to the players of covered instruments. Among them a male singer will face the north, to his left will be the Vīṇā-player and to his right the two flute-players. And a female singer will face the male singer.
10.1. Mridanga is perhaps the best known and more widely used percussion instrument in all types and forms of Drama, Music or ritual-celebrations. Though it seems the earliest types of Mrudanga were made of clay – as its name suggests (Mrun) , they were later made of wood. And, Mridanga seems to have remained virtually the same over the past several centuries. It is capable of producing rich, varied and complex type of beats. With the dexterous uses of hands and wrists a virtuoso Mridanga can generate successive series of rhythmic sounds.
The length of the Mrudanga is said to be three and a half Talas ( about 21 inches ) and its face about twelve fingers in diameter.
10.2. Bharatha gives the descriptions of three kinds of Mridanga: Ankika, Alingya and Urdhavaka.
:- Ankika was a wide-bodied lateral type of drum ; its length being three and half Tala-s (Tala= is the length of the palm from wrist to tip of middle fingers; roughly about 6 to 7 inches). The diameter of its face measured twelve fingers (angula) wide ( say , about 9 inches) . And, in shape, it resembled a myrobalan fruit – that is, with a barrel that had a central bulge and fairly uniform slope towards each face ; and, perhaps resembled the Mrudanga or Pakhavaj . Ankikas were perhaps made of clay; .
:- Alingya was slightly smaller in size. As its name suggests, it seems to be a drum held against the chest of a player , in embrace. In its width, it was three Tala long (nearly 18-21 inches) ; and, the diameter of its face was eight fingers (angula-s) – say 6 inches . It was tapering in appearance, resembling cows tail (Gau-puccha).
:- And, Urdhvaka was bigger than the other two. It was four Tala-s wide ( 30 to 32 inches) ; and , the diameter of its face was fourteen fingers (angula)- about 10 ½ inches. Urdhvaka was shaped like Yava– barley ( or shaped like a large grain of rice).
Their names denote the positions in which· they were respectively held. The Ankika was placed on the lap when it was played. And, the Ankika, though taller than the modern tabla, was perhaps played in much the same fashion. And, judging by its size, its sound should have been rather soft. The Alingya, larger then the Ankika; but, also placed on the lap, was tapped softly in different places for producing sweet sound. The Urdhvaka drums were positioned vertically and were perhaps played only on the top face (if the instruments were stood upright while playing, there could be only the top surface available for striking
10.3. Panava is said to be one of the earliest Avanaddha (covered or percussion) instruments. Paṇava is a small drum (paṇavo’ntastantrīko huḍuṃkāraḥ). The term Panava is explained as – Panam Stutim vati gacchatiti – that which is played with prayers is called Panava. Such prayers sung with the playing of Panava are said to be very dear to Shiva; and, inspire him to dance.
Therefore, the Panava was, traditionally, played at the time of worship (Stuti or Deva puja); and, also while giving a battle call. Its beats were said to be very invigorating. Nanyadeva says that on hearing the sound of Panava, Lord Shiva will dance in ecstasy.
During the time of Natyashastra (Ca. 200 B.C.), Panava was perhaps a prominent percussion instrument, since he classified it with the Mridanga . But, in later times it receded to the background; and , at present is treated as a folk instrument.
The Panava, like Mrudanga, had two faces covered by membranes; tightly tied with ropes; and, was smaller in size than Mrudanga (the drum) . It was sixteen fingers wide (12 inches); with a narrow middle of eight fingers (6 inches) which was hallow (hole?) with strings laid from one side to another. And its faces were 8 ½ fingers (8 inches) in diameter. Its rims were each half of a finger thick, tightly fastened with ropes.
Describing the glory and the beauty of Ayodhya, it is said the city resounding with the rhythmic drum beats of Dundubhi, Mrudanga and Panava; with the melodious tunes of string instruments like Veena , the city , indeed, was unique ; and undoubtedly the best city on earth–dundubhībhiḥ mṛdangaiḥ ca vīṇābhiḥ paṇavaiḥ tathā | nāditām bhṛśam atyartham pṛthivyām tām anuttamām (R.1.5.18)
Hanuman , in Sundarkanda, sees a tired woman sleeping, clutching an instrument called Panava between her shoulders and reaching arm pits- bhuja pārśva antarasthena kakṣagena krśa udarī | paṇavena saha anindyā suptā mada krta śramā (R. 5-10-43 )
10.4. The Dardara was shaped like a bell of sixteen figure height (12 inches). Its face resembled that of a pot (Ghata) of nine fingers in diameter ( say , about 6 inches) , with fat lips (rims) on all side. it is mentioned that is was called Dardara because it makes sounds like ‘Darara’ : ‘ Darara sabdam pati tasmat bhavati dardarah‘ . The Dardara was made of wooden frame over which a hide was stretched tightly. In shape, it perhaps resembled a huge gong or a big water pot (maha-ghatakatah). The Dardara could perhaps be the forerunner of Ghatam.
10.5. Natyashastra also mentions other types of Drums with large surfaces such as Bheri, Pathana, Dundhubhi, Dindima etc known for the depth and loudness of their sounds. But, there is not much discussion in the text about these instruments in the context of Music, Dance or Drama. But, these instruments have references in other texts.
The ancient texts mention Dundhubi, Pathah, Bheri, Dindima (the different types od war-drums); Mrudanga (tabor); Muraja (a smaller drum); Anaka and Dhakka (other types of drums) as the instruments that giveforth great sound– Dundubhih, Paṭahaḥ, Bherī, Mṛdaṅgaḥ, Murajaḥ, Mardalaḥ, Diṇḍimaḥ, Anakaḥ, Dhakkā nāda-vādya-viśeṣaḥ।
The Epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata are copious in their mention of the the terrible and frightening sounds of Bheri , Mrdanga, Pataha, Nandi vadya and such other barrel drums used in the battle field. However, these were not merely the marital drums, but were also musical instruments played in festivities and celebrations.
It is said; Ayodhya city was resounding with the rhythmic drum beats of Dundubhi, Mrudanga and Panava; with the melodious tunes of string instruments like Veena –dundubhībhiḥ mṛdangaiḥ ca vīṇābhiḥ paṇavaiḥ tathā | nāditām bhṛśam atyartham pṛthivyām tām anuttamām (R.1.5.18)
Besides these, some rare Avanaddha-s mentioned are Dimdimi, Adambara, Maddaka, Paṇava, and Gomukha (a wind instrument, a kind of conch resembling the mouth of the cow, hence its name) , Jhallarī and Chelika etc.
[ Jhallari was perhaps a sort of drum or cymbal. It is not described in the NS.Smilar is the case with Chelika\
For instance ; Natyashastra ( 4. 253-254) mentions that seeing Śaṃkara (Śiva) dance with Recakas and Aṅgahāras, Pārvatī too performed a Lasya dance with delicate movements; and , this dance was followed by the playing of musical instruments like Mṛdaṅga, Bherī, Paṭaha, Jhañjhā , Diṇḍima, Gomukha, Paṇava and Dardura.
And, according to Natyashastra (2. 35-37) , at the ceremony of laying the foundation for a play-house (Natya-mantapa) the entire musical instruments such as, Śaṅkha, Dundubhi, Mṛdaṅga, and Paṇava should be sounded.
Bharata mentions that the extensive surface and the slack-tension of the stretched leather causes Bheri, Paṭaha, and Bhambhā, as well as Dundubhi and Diṇḍimas to produce great sound and depth (NS.3.27)
Bheri was a major Avanaddha instrument producing a roaring sound that frightens – Bhi (to scare) – Bhibatyasa ravt; the sound that scares. Sarangadeva describes Bheri as an instrument that produces terrible, frightening sound- Ati-bhayankarah gambhirah atyabhutasca dhvanir-bhavathi. According to Ahobala, Bheri stimulates the home-army to a war-frenzy, while it pierces the hearts of the enemies – Dandanirghat-avadhinyh srutva bherya mahasvanam
The Bheri, one of the most ancient drums, was known for the depth and loudness of its sounds. And, it must have had a very loud and strident tone, for it was commonly used in the battles, processions and amusements of the crowds. The Ramayana has a number of references to it.
Sarangadeva mentions variety of Bheris like the Rana-bheri used in war; the Ananda-bheri and Madana bheri used in dances, accompanying the singing of Dhamar, and so on.
In the context of battles, Bheri, Mrudanga and Shankha are often mentioned together. The war cry; the loud and fearsome drum–beats of Bheri, Mrudanga ; and the piercing waves of the sounds Shankha were all used to enthuse , whip up and rallyforth the troops , as also to frighten the enemy.
In the Ramayana, as Ravana’s soldiers prepare for the war, they hear the sounds of the Bheri played by Rama’s Vanara–army. Sarama asks Sita to listen and rejoice the Bheri sounds resembling the thundering rumbles of the clouds. – Samanahajanani hesya bhairava bhiru bherika / Bherinadam ca gambhiram srunu toyadanihsvanam
Rama’s mighty army attacks Lanka with a great roar of the Bheri-s, Panava-s and the Shanknha-s. The terible sounds of Shankha and Bheri was as that of an earthquake – Estasminnantare sabdo bheri-shankha-samakulah / sruta vai sarvasainyanam
Bheri was a cylindrical type of Drum with large surfaces; and, it made of metal, such as: bell metal, copper,/bronze or iron. The one made of Bell metal (Kāṁsyaṁ) was said to be the best. It had three Balist measures, two sides/faces, covered with animal skin, tightly tied with ropes or chords. The right side was played with wodden sticks (kona); and the left with hands.
The Sangeeta-ratnakara (11th Century) gives a short description of the Bheri made of copper (Tāmraṁ); and, says it was thirty-four Angulas long (1 Angula = 1.89 cm or approx 3/4 inch, which works out to about sixtyfive centimeters) and each face had a diameter of thirteen Angulas (about twentyfive centimeters) . One face was played with the hand and the other with a kona ( stick ).
The Dundubhi which is equated with today’s Nagara is perhaps the most ancient of conical drums; and finds mention in ancient texts. In the early times, it was used both in war and peace. Nāṭyaśāstra 2.35-37 , mentions playing of Dundubhi during the ceremony of laying the foundation of the playhouse (Nātya-maṇtapa),
The Dundubhi, at times equated with Nagara, is kept also in temples, to be beaten during worship or to announce prayers. The Nagara consists two conical bowl drums struck with sticks. The smaller of the two is higher in pitch; and, the larger has a deeper tone .
Describing the glory and the beauty of Ayodhya, it is said , in Ramayana, the city resounding with the rhythmic drum beats of Dundubhi, Mrudanga and Panava; with the melodious tunes of string instruments like Veena , the city , indeed, was unique ; and undoubtedly the best city on earth – Dundubhībhiḥ mṛdangaiḥ ca vīṇābhiḥ paṇavaiḥ tathā | nāditām bhṛśam atyartham pṛthivyām tām anuttamām (R.1.5.18)
[Swami Prajnanananda (A History of Indian Music; pages 54-55) mentions of Bhumi-dundubhi, which was perhaps the most ancient and primitive form of drum.It used to be carved in earth in the form of a large hollow or pit and covered with the thick skin of any wild animal. It used to be struck with one or two log or logs of wood, and a deep see resonant sound was produced. The sound of the Bhumi-dundubhi could be heard from a very long distance. Afterwards, the Dundhubhi, a refined form of th e Bhumi-dundubhi, came into use. It used to be shaped out of the hollow trunk of a tree, the upper part of which was used to be covered with the skin of the animal.]
Dindima is folk instrument, made of hard wood; and, its length is measured as one and a quarter of an arm. It has a face, on each end, is said to be three quarters of an arm, in size. The faces are covered with animal skin. The right face is played with a stick; and, the left with the hands. Dindima is hung from the shoulder to the right side of the player. The sound produced is like Ding –Ding; and hence the name.
The Nāṭyaśāstra 4.253, mentions Dindima in the context of the dances performed by Shiva and Parvathi.
Hanuman , in Sundarkanda, sees a woman in Ravana’s inner-court (Anthapura) with an instrument called Dindima near her slept in the same way as a woman hugging her husband and also her child – ḍiṇḍimam parigrhya anyā tathaiva āsakta ḍiṇḍimā | prasuptā taruṇam vatsam upagūhya iva bhāminī (R. 5-10-44 )
Pataha (resembling Dholak) is mentioned in Nāṭyaśāstra 4.253, after Śhiva danced using Recakas and Aṅgahāras, and Pārvatī performed a gentle Lasya dance.
Hanuman , in Sundarkanda, sees a woman with beautiful body features and with beautiful breasts slept tightly and hugged instrument called Pataha as though hugging a lover, getting him after a long time – paṭaham cāru sarva angī pīḍya śete śubha stanī | cirasya ramaṇam labdhvā pariṣvajya iva kāminī (5-10-39)
The Muraja seems to have had a shape similar to that of the Dindima (Dindima sadṛśaṃ vādyaṃ yasmin laghu tālāni saṃyuktāni santi) , having two faces; but, with the heads (beaten surfaces) much smaller and giving out light sounds. Of its two faces, the left one was of eight fingers; and, the right one of seven fingers in width. It was played with hands, as did Nandi played on it with great delight (Sananda Nandi hastha hatha Murajah)
Nandi is said to have been fond of playing on Muraja (Nandikesvarah krsnah Murajarudho Mrajavadanaparah).
It is said; the instruments like Veena, Muraja, and conches together made pleasant music.
Muraja is not clearly described in the Natyashastra. It seems that Mujara was a form of Dindima; or they might have been the names of the same instrument (Muraja Dindima vadhya vichakshanam). Mujara was perhaps made of jack tree (Mujara phala).
As regards the position of the player of a Muraja (Mṛdaṅga), he should face the stage; to his right should sit the player of a Paṇava, and to his left the player of a Dardara
The text mentions: when the Paṇava follows the Muraja, and the Dardara follows the Paṇava, the playing is called Svarūpānugata ( natural order) (NS.3.207), And, when a Paṇava and a Muraja after being played first, take up the Murajas, the playing is called Samullekha ( termination or closure) (NS.3.216)
The playing of drums is said to be of three types: Ativadita, Anuvadita and Samvadita. The Ativadita is the playing of Muraja before a performance. When the Mrdanga is played after a performance, it is called Anuvadya. And, when the Mrdanga is played simultaneously with the performance , it is called Samvadita – playi together harmoniously.
There is a class of bi-facial avanaddha vadya that are narrow in the middle like the hourglass, sand-glass . These are the Damaru shaped drums. This form has an ancient past and once was a major instrument in sophisticated music. It is closely associated with Lord Shiva when he dances. The beats of the Damaru also symbolize the concept of time , in the Indian iconography . But, Today, one hears them only in tribal and folk music not on the concert platform.
Adambara ( a sort of kettle drum made of Udambara wood);
It is one of the most ancient percussion instruments. According to Amarakosha: Patha and Audumbara are synonyms of the Nagara – a percussion instrument
Adambara is derived from the root’ dabi ksepe ‘, that which produces great sound . It is explained as: Dambam rati, that which emanates sound such as Damba from all its sides ; hence , it is known as Adambara
Hanuman in Sundarakanda, comes upon a woman of Ravana’s court, with eyes like lotus petals, slept clutching the instrument called Adambara ; pressing it by her shoulders – kācid āḍambaram nārī bhuja sambhoga pīḍitam |kṛtvā kamala patra akṣī prasuptā mada mohitā (R. 5-10-45 )
Maddaka and Calika in Ramayana
Amarakosha names Maddu among percussion instruments. Maddu and Madduka appently were the names of the same instrument
Hanuman sees the women of Ravana’s court sleeping with Dindima by her side , just as a mother sleeps with her grown up child beside her. Another woman was sleeping with Madduka on her lap, in the way that a mother sleeps with her young child. Yet another woman intoxicated eyes which resemble a lotus leaf, embraced her Adambara with her arms. Some were even sleeping with Murajas, Mrudanga and Celikas.
However, not many details are available about these ancient Avanaddha instruments – Maddaka and Calika – mentioned in the Ramayana. Many of such instruments are extinct.
Ghana, the Solid
11.1.After the strings (Tata), the covered (Avanaddha) and the hollow (Susira) comes the Solid the Ghana.
11.2. The most fundamental of the Ghana (solid) Vadya is said to be the human body itself. It is very common to see clapping of hands (Tala) , counting fingers, waving the hands, striking palms on the thighs or hips, stamping the feet on the dance floor etc in a rhythmic ways to keep or measure time. Even the singers of Sama–Gana kept rhythm by clapping and waving hands. Even today one can see in Karnataka music concerts, persons (either on stage or in the audience) clapping to keep time (Taala) while percussion instruments are played. It is said; Cymbals (classified as Ghana Vadya) – made of metal- also called as Tala are but an extension of the act of clapping to keep time.
11.3. The Ghana vadya-s (Idiophone Instruments) are instruments made of wood or metal that produce sound when they are struck. Along with the solid Cymbals made of metal, Natyashastra mentions Patah and Ghata (bell) as Ghana Vadya-s. The instruments of this group are usually played with a striker or hammer.
1.4. Natyashastra mentions that these instruments of solid class (Ghana) help to measure time (Kaala) and to maintain the tempo (Laya) . And, those who play the Ghana Vadya-s in a performance should know the rules of Taala and Laya.
12.1. The Ghana vadya-s made of metal, are not capable of producing definite pitches that are required for creating a melody. That, perhaps, is the reason why they are not used in classical music concerts. But, the Cymbals, the Tala, are an essential part of the Dance music.
And, the Tala (Cymbals) is an essential ingredient of the Bhakthi Samgita and Bhajans.
During a dance or a song on the stage, the Cymbals provided rhythm (Taala) to the flow of music and dance.
Continued in Part Ten
Sources and References
1. The Natyasastra ascribed to Bharata Muni by Monomohan Ghosh
2. Musical Instruments in India through the ages – by Chaitanya Kunte
3. Origin of Indian Instrumental Music
where, the renowned scholar Dr. C Sivaraamurti in his scholarly publication ‘Amaravati sculptures in the Chennai Government museum’ (1998) discusses, among several other subjects
I also acknowledge the drawings fro Dr. Sivaramamurti’s work
5 .Subhadra Desai … Music In Valmiki’s Ramayana
ALL OTHER PICTURES ARE FROM INTERNET