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Varuna and His Decline – Part Five

04 Oct

Continued from Part Four

Decline of a Great and a Noble god

The explanations for Varuna’s decline in stages and his eventual fall from the high pedestal are many. Let’s see some of those.

R. The Decline

Loss of sovereignty

59.1. As mentioned earlier, Varuna derived his sovereignty (kshatra) and the supreme status among the gods by virtue of his being the sole sky-god. He embodied the sky in all its aspects. He encompassed   the sky, the earth and all existence. Besides, he was the all-knowing Lord (Asura –visvavedasa; and the sole governor of the natural and moral laws that operated in heavens as on earth.

59.2. That, however, was a short-lived glory. Varuna’s suzerainty over the sky was lost. His powers were curtailed.   Varuna soon had to share his powers and control over the sky, the Rta and the Dharman (RV 3.59.1; 1.5.81) with Mitra regarded more active and more vibrant. Mitra came to symbolize the day sky with all its brilliance; while Varuna who earlier was the lord of the entire sky had his authority restricted to the night sky (RV 4.8.3 and TS. 4.8.3) with its thousand stars symbolizing his thousand eyes (sahasraksha) watching in secret the activities of men at night.

That was the beginning of a great slide.

[A brief note on Mitra: Of all the Vedic gods, Varuna is most closely related to Mitra. In the Vedic times Mitra was not an independent god; he was always mentioned in company of his friend (except in one hymn). It is said, he was given the name Mitra because he was the friend of Varuna. They were fused into the dual god   Maitra-Varuna and Deva –asura (a dvandva or compound) sharing common functions and authority (mahaanta mitravaruna samraja devasura –RV 8.25.4). They together became the guardians of the world (RV. 2.27.4). And it is said; the great sky shines by their ordinance (RV.10.65.5). They discharge the rains (RV 1.151.9). Their godhead is beyond the ken of the skies or of the rivers (RV 1.151.9). They are awful deities; haters and dispellers of falsehood (RV .1.152.1); they are the gods of the oath. Mitra together with Varuna becomes the keeper of Rta and Dharman (RV 8.25). They are described as righteous Rtavan and promoters righteous rites Rtavardha, and lords of truth and light (Rtasya jotisaapathi – RV. 1.2.8; 1.23.5; 1.136.4; 2.27.4; 5.63.1). Varuna becomes Agni in the evening, and rising in the morning he becomes Mitra (AV .2.28.2).

It is explained; though the attributes and the functions of the two are different, dissimilar and contrasting, they complement each other well. The two ever exist and work in harmony. They present a well knit unity; the oneness of two contrasting factors: Being and Non-Being; day and night; light and darkness. Mitra and Varuna are indeed the two aspects of the same reality.

Eventually both Varuna and Mitra had to give place to gods greater than both of them.]

Association with night and dark traits

60.1. Mitra symbolizing day-sky and light gained identity with god of sunlight (Tai Br. 25.10.10). With that, the virtues of clarity, brightness which reveals reality and the life-giving energy became his attributes. He was also associated with the bright-half of the month (Shukla-paksha). Varuna, on the other hand, as the night-god acquired the attributes of darkness such as: secrecy, mystery and the nature of concealing. And, he got associated with the darker-half of the month (Krishna –paksha).

60.2. His association with night and darkness is not stressed in the early Vedic texts where he merely represents the star-eyed night sky. But, in the later texts his dark and malevolent traits begins to emerge clearly. It is said, the merciful Mitra pacifies the cruel Varuna (Mitro hi kruram varunam shantham karoti –TS. 2.1.9.5).

60.3. Varuna the son of Aditi who was a solar deity (Aditya) and the chief of the Adityas; but now he is drawn nearer to lunar deities: Rudra, Soma, and Yama and to Agni another night god. He also comes close to the gruesome aspects of life symbolized by Nirtti who is the evil genius of destruction, dissolution and misfortune.

Varuna is now portrayed as a spy-master (Spasa) and a stern judge whose punitive weapons are torture, sense of guilt, disease and sudden death. Varuna’s serene form too turns ugly. He now has a potbelly, bald head, protruding teeth and reddish-brown or yellow eyes.

Inconsistent disposition

60.4. The other reason cited for Varuna’s decline is the suspected flaw in his disposition. Varuna was perhaps not wholly benevolent like Indra of the early Rig-Veda. The ambivalent character of Varuna–now favourable and now unfavourable; and his inconsistent disposition was far from admirable. Further, Varuna, for some reason, acquired the unenviable reputation of one indulging in guile and trickery. His character was shaded with a sort of ambiguity. The Vedic poets did not seem amused by a less –than- perfect Varuna; they were decidedly in favour of uncompromisingly good gods.

Further, Varuna was of passive tendencies. And, like his predecessor Dayus, he too lacked aggression and convincing positive traits.

60.5. Loosing suzerainty over the sky and being restricted to night sky marked the beginning of Varuna’s decline and emergence of his darker traits. Thereafter he went down steadily. With the passage of time, the lordship, power and glory depart from Varuna.

The other explanations

The other reasons offered to explain Varuna’s fall from kingship and power, which led to his eventual eclipse, has lot to do with the history of ancient mythology. In the Indian context, history and mythology are entwined; they can hardly be separated.

Bhrigu-Angirasa rift

61.1. One explanation is that Varuna’s decline in the Vedic pantheon has to be placed against the continuing rivalry between two ancient sages Bhrigu the priest of the Anus (in the west) and Angirasa the priest of the dominant Puru-Bharatas in the valley of seven rivers. Their rivalry spread into recurring conflicts between the two clans. The differences arose between the two sages; it is said, on issues concerning the concept of a single god and the worship practices. The tendency of the Angirasas to treat all gods as equal and to shift towards worship of the Supreme through personalized forms or murtis; to glorify the warlike Indra; and to sideline the righteous Varuna as also his governing principle Rta  , all these, greatly annoyed  the Bhrigus. The Bhrigus in turn asserted their faith (which they said was ancient) in monotheism and in the worship of the single-god through formless fire. The Bhrigus placed the ancient god Varuna in the centre of their cosmology and hailed him as the only worship worthy god. The Angirasas on the other hand glorified the younger god Indra but treated him as one among other gods and as one of the many manifestations of the Supreme Being; and they assigned forms and attribute to all gods. But, as said, the Angirasas were the dominant priests in the Vedic community and their views determined the hierarchy among the Vedic gods.

The battles that Vedic communities had to fight

61.2. According to another argument, the decline of Varuna and the ascendency of Indra have to be viewed in the context of the trials and tribulations of the Vedic communities; and in the context of the wars they had to fight. Varuna till then their mightiest god belonged to the older generation of gods; he was essentially a god of righteousness and of placid nature. He was ideal for times of peace and comfort. But in hard – times when they were besieged and had to fight back the encroaching enemy they desperately needed a leader who could stand up to the demands of the challenging times, inspire them to act resolutely and to lead them in battle against the foe. They prayed for a god of war to beat back and destroy the troublesome enemy. Varuna was just not such a leader; he hardly had the vigour to inspire the heroic qualities in men, especially as he had no exploits to his credit.

Coming of the new king

62.1. Rig-Veda describes its people ‘as averse to war; peace being their normal rule’ (RV.6.41.5). It also narrates the difficulties of its people having to fight battles without a capable war leader; and the woes it brought   upon people unprepared for war: ‘we are surrounded by mighty enemies; help us’; ’ we lost because we had no king to lead us’; ‘they conquer us because we had no warrior Rajanya’. And eventually all said ‘let’s make a king’. So, they did make a king. They heartily invited the new king to lead them in the battles: “I do hereby crown you as the king. Rule us with courage and an unwavering resolve. Let all your subjects love you. Let thy kingdom be with you forever RV 10.12.22) “. And, to the king ‘who is the dread in the battle contest’ they all ‘bowed in reverence’ (TS.3.4.4.1)

62.2. The times of crisis and war somehow always throw up a boisterous and an inspiring leader; the type that is just needed. That new leader was Indra; full of vigor, a mighty god, a tornado divinity symbolizing storm and wielding a thunderbolt. He is a hero who ‘destroys in conflict the fierce and the exceedingly strong’. He was a god of battles rather than of righteousness. Indra thus possessed the requisites of a war lord and a typical king. He came as an answer to the prayers   of fighting men thirsting for win over enemies, and for power and glory it brought.”Heroes with noble horses, well mounted and passionate for a fight invoke me; invoke me in the battle. I the mighty Indra of victorious powers , lord of spurring vigour lead you on in the combat stirring up the battle dust” (RV .4.42; 10.129). Indra’s warriors did invoke him and stormed into battles shouting his names (Indram narone maditha havanthe – RV.3.34.9).

Rise of Indra and the kingship

62.3. Indra broke the treaty and in a fierce battle defeated the dreaded enemy Vrita who had stolen  waters from the heavens .Mitra and Varuna described as the arms of the king helped the king (Rajanya) to kill Vrita (SB . 5.3.5.28). Indra also subdued and routed ten other fearsome enemies in hard fought battles. Varuna helped Indra in all the battles that he fought. Eventually, those victories as also the restoration of waters to the gods established Indra’ authority as the king of gods, divyasya janasya raja (RV. 6.22).

Indra formerly the god of rains with some relation to war now turned into the god of war with some relation to rains.

[Let me digress here for a short while:

(i). The transfer of power from Varuna to Indra marked a significant phase in the social and military history of very ancient India. It redefined the notion of a ‘king’ as in Rig Veda. The ‘king’ in its early phase largely meant a very exalted noblest person who was looked up to by all in reverence (e.g. Dayus and Varuna). The kingship was symbolic rather than  temporal; he need not have to defend a territory or fight an enemy. But, with the installation of Indra as the king, things did seem to change.

It became obvious that a person though righteous but without valour and aggressive tendencies was unfit for kingship. A king, it said, ought to be the foremost   protector of his people. He should be a leader of his people at all times – in war and peace. Because, his subjects look up to him for leadership, guidance and protection; and, they do so in faith, reverence and in fear. In dire times the king should himself lead his warriors in battles   to fight for the honour and the lives of his people. Not only that, the king had to strive to enhance his position as also that of his kingdom among their   rivals. That meant that a king would necessarily have   enemies; and hence the need for a standing army.

(ii). Kingship also meant that the diverse interests of all sections of the society were surrendered to the king   who was expected, in good faith, to harmonize conflicts and to protect interests of all equitably.   That implicit faith and submission to the king elevated kingship to the position of the god-on-earth. And, It also came to be accepted that one could not be a king without a spark of divinity in him (na vishnuh prithvi pathihi).The king therefore was accorded the most exalted and the   highest position in the social hierarchy. He came to be described as the best of men (narotthama). And, even at much later times the Buddha placed the kings (khattiya) higher than Brahmans (Angostura Nikaya, 107). In the epics too the heroes who became gods were all kshatriyas.

(iii). That distinction set the king apart from his people. Further, the king also became distinct from the others of his own class –the kshatriyas. The term Kshatriya was generally applied to all nobles of the ruling class. The king became the Rajanya; he was recognized as separate from the other kshatriyas (Rajas). Rajanya was glorified as the summit of the kshatra. With that, the kingship turned into a hereditary inheritance; and earned the right to live on people and even to oppress them.

(iv). Atharva Veda (AV.15.9.2; 18.2.60) narrates how king after king built his military might and created a class of  ‘ people of aggression ‘   distinct from ‘the patient tillers of soil singing pastoral hymns’. The priestly class became increasingly dependent on the warrior class; and came closer to the king. The two moved away from the rest.

Warfare thus led to growth of kings, states and their corollaries such as hereditary rights, despotism and standing armies. The King, his advisors and his army became separate from the society.]

Eclipse of Varuna, and shifting of allegiances

63.1. Varuna met the same fate as that befell the other passive sky-gods in all mythologies. They all yielded their position to more active and warlike solar deities. Varuna too had to give place to Indra just as Dayus the ancient god had lost to him (Varuna) earlier. It was said;”The great ones progressively lose their importance and are replaced by other divine figures nearer to man, more concrete and more dynamic- solar gods, Great Gods and Goddesses etc.

As Varuna faded out, Indra assumed:  the Kingship of gods; the main attributes of the old king Varuna; also his other powers and authority such as kshatra, the Asurya, and the Maya. Further, Varuna’s sovereignty too passed on to Indra.

63.2. The eclipse of Varuna and the triumph of Indra led to re-ordering the hierarchy of gods, and shifting of allegiances. Varuna and his associates lost their superior positions. And, all allegiances shifted towards Indra. Agni and Soma who were associated with Varuna moved over to Indra. “Agni, Soma, Varuna they fall, they all go away. Their empire is overthrown…these Asura have lost their magic power (Asura Maya) – RV 10.124.4-5.”  Varuna the passive Father god, the ex-leader left stranded receded into background.

63.3. The relation between Indra and Varuna is rather interesting. Initially, Varuna was the older god who had friendly relations with the younger god Indra. (Varuna is the friend of Indra in the heavens-RV.7.34.24). Later, Indra turns into a rival and eventually displaces Varuna and appropriates most of his powers.

Transfer of powers

ndrahl99

64.1. As Varuna begins to fall, his kingship passes on to Indra while his spiritual powers are inherited by Prajapathi. The placid god Prajapathi, in particular, begets Varuna’s Asuri Maya. But later, the Asuri Maya branches into two: the one beneficial to gods and men; and the other its darker side wielded by the Asuras: – “the Asuras consecrate Varuna, Soma’s brother because they see in him the form (rupa) of their father Prajapathi” (Jaiminiya Brah. 3.152.)

64.2. In the next phase, Vishnu and Prajapathi together inherit Varuna’s glory and majesty. The powers and attributes that were once associated with Varuna are divided into two distinct spheres; Vishnu the power of creation and encompassing all existence; and, Prajapathi the symbolic spiritual power. In the Brahmana texts both Vishnu and Prajapathi are identified with yajna.

64.3. Varuna’s various other functions are distributed among the lunar deities such as Rudra and Yama.

..And thereafter

65.1. Indra too had a brief span of life as the premier god; and he did not become a Supreme God. Instead, he had to yield place to another god. Perhaps because, by then happier times had dawned on the Vedic community; the wars and its horrors were a memory of the past. In the settled agrarian, pastoral life of peace, security and high idealism the Vedic people needed a more ethical and a loftier god.  Vishnu (until then a minor god)   emerges as the all compassing god, the god of all gods.  The virtuous attributes and powers of all other gods are transferred to the incomparable God Vishnu. Into Vishnu all the gods merge; and in him they find their identities.

65.2. Eventually, Indra too surrenders to Vishnu the newly emerging super- god; and bequeaths to him most of his powers and virtues. Similarly Prajapathi who was not endowed with any other special powers pales into insignificance just as his two predecessors – Varuna and Dayus. Prajapathi merges into Vishnu just as the other gods did.

***

The Varuna saga thus touches upon all the three phases  of the Vedic era: the stage of pastoral communities discovering the mysteries of nature, pouring out sublime and  highly idealized poetry rich in abstract symbolisms ; the next, the period of wars , distress   and strife; and ,the period of settled agricultural life of peace , quieter rituals and contemplation.

S. The Fall

66.1. As the kingship, power and glory depart Varuna, he becomes somewhat different in his nature and attributes. The cosmic functions are no longer his; he is not the king anymore; his ethical role diminishes; from a supreme sky-god who is inscrutable in his ways, omnipresent and omniscient in nature, he diminishes into one of the many minor gods. As a demigod he serves Prajapathi and later Vishnu as one of the guardians of directions and of the water. It was as if the Chief was pensioned off and assigned a minor rank.

With the fall of Varuna, the term Asura came to mean ‘chief of demons’.

66.2. Today, Varuna is reduced to the guardian of water element; and, is no longer worshiped formally but is prayed in times of draught and sometimes before setting on voyages for steering the safe course of the ships.

***

Thus, the ambivalent character of Varuna-now favourable and now un-favourable; his guile; his associations with night , darkness and gruesome aspects of life; as also  the  rift between two sages, the changes that came about in the  life- circumstances of the Vedic communities  –all these factors contributed to the eclipse of Varuna .

T. The Evolution

67.1. The decline and fall of Varuna and Indra; or the supersession of one god by another; or the modification of an older god should not be viewed in isolation. Instead, it should be viewed as a part of a scheme, a process or a phenomenon   of absorption of many into One that swept across the world of ancient Vedic gods.

67.2. That process spread over long centuries totally convulsed the sedate world of Vedic gods. It was akin to churning the ocean. It disturbed the old order; threw out the old set of gods; created and magnified a set of new gods; and restructured the entire Indian pantheon. Under this process of reorganizing the world of Indian mythology… those Vedic gods who had been ‘minor’ in the Rig Veda but who had great potential and offered rich scope for enlarged glorification were remodeled into much greater gods ( for instance Vishnu and Rudra). Later those gods came to represent larger segments of life and experiences, and to mobilize greater strength and significance. The virtues and powers of numerous other gods merged into these select gods. They are today the Super Gods among the Indian gods.

At the same time, gods whose characters, functions and achievements had been too vividly described in Rig Veda and who held out little scope for further enlargement were steadily reduced in their status and rank (for instance Agni, Indra and Varuna), And those gods whose profile was too dim and had very little potential for growth were allowed to fade out quietly.

67.3. In this scheme or the process of restructure, the gods that adopted best to the changing needs of times survived and thrived. One way that was done was by underplaying their Vedic characteristics   which were rather sketchy and unsuitable. And, another was by aligning them along with tutelary gods that were already being worshipped. …..In this period of transition, popular sectarian gods were gradually replacing the older Vedic gods. This new approach to the gods redefined the status, character and attributes of the older gods.

This was also a process of absorption of several gods into One; and, it culminated in the emergence of the triad, of which the two: Vishnu and Shiva inherited all the rich, potential and living traits of all the gods that preceded them. They were also endowed with infinite capacity to imbibe the traits of all the gods to come.

67.4. The sequence of gods changing – growing or diminishing in significance – indicates the continual influx of new ideas and a creative conflict with the existing system of thoughts. Yet, all gods – great and small, old and new, spring from One ultimate reality. That was the vision that Rig Veda provided; and it is the same vision that guides all the Indian traditions.

67.5. When viewed against that broad canvass it can be seen that the rise and fall of Vedic gods followed a certain pattern of evolution. Varuna too belonged to that chain of evolution. In that process, Varuna was obscured by the achievements of Indra who answered the demands of the changing times. Indra in turn was thrown down by the very process that had elevated him. Thus, the decline of Varuna was in the normal way of the eclipse of one god by the other, as per a pattern of evolution. This complex and dynamic interplay of light and shadow is a distinctive feature of the Indian pantheon.

Dr. Sukumari Bahttacharji   in her ’The Indian Theogony’ explains: “The Indian mythology was (is) not a static affair, neither was it a luxury.  It was linked with the vital spiritual urges and needs of the people, who projected their most haunting dreams, hopes and cravings into their myths. The changes were not wrought overnight; nor was it easily. From the earliest times, the pantheon is the product of a continual clash and friction, not only with gods of other ethnic groups, but among those of various clans of the Indian society…”

Lotus young and old

U. The ancient inverted tree

68.1. It is beyond doubt that Vedas and the related ancient texts are the roots of Indian ethos, thought and philosophy. They are of high authority, greatly revered and very often invoked. But those roots are lost in the distant antiquity. The language or the clear intent of those texts is not easily understood; its gods and its rites are almost relics of the past. They no longer form active part of our day-to-day living experiences. The worship practices followed by the common Indians of the present day differ vastly from the rites prescribed in the Vedic texts. The gods worshipped by the present generations too vary greatly from the Vedic gods out of which they grew. The present-day gods are the descendents, derivatives or transformation of the Vedic gods; but they bear few marks of resemblance to their remote ancestors.

68.2, similarly, the legends of the heroes of the Vedic era are virtually unknown to us. But, it is the wonderful tales and great poems of the epics; Ramayana and Mahabharata- that today fill our hearts and minds; and ignite our imagination. They tell the stories of men and women on earth, facing the challenges of life; rather than of the gods in heaven. The epic stories are nearer to our life-experiences; and therefore are still read and listened to with wonder and delight. They have permeated into the Indian ethos. In it we try to find echoes of our joys, sufferings, frustrations, fulfilments, betrayals, sorrows and our loves. In those epic heroes we seek the images’ of a mother, a son, a teacher, a friend, a lover etc. Every mother finds in her infant son a mischievous and most endearing little-boy Krishna; and every maiden idealizes a husband gentle and faithful as Rama, pure in thought and noble in action. Sita is the ideal of womanhood pure, loving and noble. We strive to build relationships with those heroes who grew into gods. For it is only in relationships that we adore; and it is only in adoration that we learn to live with our gods: to live in friendship with ourselves and with those around us, and, to attain a sense of balance in our lives.

[Dr. Benimadhab Barua observes  on page 27 ( in his Prolegomena To A History Of Buddhist Philosophy) “Whereas in ancient religions  we find efforts towards realizing robust and manly philosophy, the  modern religions seek only to realize images of Pauranic fiction and  effeminate poetry. For instance, while Buddhism in its religious aspirations tried to realize the philosophy of the Upanishads, the later Vaishnava cults aspired to realize the devotional teachings of the Bhagavata Purana. There was a marked distinction between religious order and civic society in ancient religions, whereas in the modern these do not stand apart, but are almost blended into a single system.  Widely divergent in their development as the religions of past and present may seem, their continuity has never been broken.  For, the several lines of growth have converged to a point, only to diverge again in many directions.  This point, which is the connecting link in the chain of past and present  is the teaching of the Bhagavad-gita .”]

Today, the epic-gods are closer to us than their distant ancestors. We try to find in the trials, tribulations and exploit of those heroes and noble women a meaning to our existence, and answers to the testing problems and the dilemmas that confront us each day.

It is the epics and mythologies with their wonderful and delightful tales; and marvellous explanations that are the immediate source of our sense of values in life. They in fact provide form to the notion and substance of the modern-day popular Hinduism. But, still one cannot stop wondering at the fact that all these legends had their simple beginnings in the Vedic hymns.

68.3. The growth and development of Indian mythology and thought resembles the imagery of the inverted tree – of which our ancients were very fond – with its roots in the sky and its branches spreading down towards the earth. Its roots are ancient but its growing shoots, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits are ever green, tender and fresh. The roots of our philosophy, religion and culture are in the very distant Vedic past. Though those roots are no longer visible to us the braches and extensions of those roots in vivid forms that have come down to us are very alive; and its fruits are within our experience.

68.4. The idioms of Indian thought are thus dynamic, living and vibrant. They are linked to the spiritual urges and the changing needs, desires and aspirations of its people. The gods, faiths and the worship practices too keep evolving, changing, without parting with the essence of its fundamentals. Therefore, growth, change and adaptation are essential aspects of the Indian thought and living. It is distinguished by continuity with change; as also by its resilience and diversity. That is the genius of the Indian traditions.

The Varuna saga, albeit a painful one, has to be appreciated in that context.

To Sum up

CIS:IM.367-1923

CIS:IM.367-1923

69.1. Varuna’s great career ended rather disappointingly; but, it did leave behind a rich legacy of wonderful concepts and norms of behaviour in personal and social life (Rta) that have endured even to this day. Those laws are universal; applicable at all times and therefore eternal. The concept of Rta asserts that the order in nature is self regulated and operates by its own laws (svabhava). Ensuring the perpetuation of the order and harmony in nature is as sacred as it is in conduct of one’s life. That is because; Rta emphasizes the integrity of all forms of life and ecological systems. The principle of Rta recognizes our oneness with our environment and our unity with all life on earth. It is the framework that binds together man, nature and god. Rta is thus the Dharma that pervades and protects all life.

69.2. When that order and harmony is ruptured, the disruptive elements of disorder, chaos and falsehood (an-rta) step in, bringing in their wake ugliness, dishonesty and, decay into life. It is explained; a sin is any inharmonious action done with avarice to gain some immediate and temporary gain. Thus, injuring the harmony that exists in nature and among men is in fact a sin; and attracts punishment. The sin arises because of frailties and human weaknesses; and not because of demons. The evil in the hearts and minds of men are the real demons.

69.3. Sin is compared to unpaid debt (rna); it is a burden and an act of bad faith. The best way to cleanse the sin is to come face to face with it; own it; confess to it; and seek forgiveness with a promise not to err again. Cleansing is in the heart, mind and deed; not in the rituals. That is the Varuna’s way.

69.4. Paschatapa –‘after the burning heat’- signifies the purifying fire of repentance. The life-giving waters over which Varuna presides also signifies purity. Varuna is intimately associated with the both. Thus the Varuna-principle stands for purity in life, in all its aspects. Salutations to Varuna the icon of purity.

 

 

Continued in Part Six – Varuna Iconography

 

 

References and Sources

1. Indra and Varuna in Indian Mythology by Dr. UshChoudhuri; Nag Publishers, Delhi, 1981

2. The Indian Theogony by Dr.Sukumari Bhattarcharji, Cambridge University Press, 1970

3. Asura in early Vedic religion by WE Hale; Motilal Banarsidass; Delhi, 1986

4. Goddesses in ancient India by PK Agrawala; Abhinav Publications, New Delhi,1984

5. The Hymns of Atharvan Zarathustra by JM Chatterji; the Parsi Zoroastrian Association, Calcutta, 1967; http://www.avesta.org/chatterj_opf_files/slideshow.htm.

6. Outlines of Indian Philosophy –Prof M Hiriyanna; Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 2005

7.Original Sanskrit texts on the 0rigin and history of the people of India, their region and institution By J. Muir;Trubner & co., London, 1870.

8. A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature byJohn Dowson; Turner & co, Ludgate hill. 1879.

9. Vaidika Sahitya Charitre by Dr. NS Anantharangachar; DVK Murthy, Mysore, 1968

10. Sri Brahmiya Chitra Karma sastram by Dr. G. Gnanananda

11. Zarathustra Chapters 1-6 by Ardeshir Mehta; February 1999

 http://www.indiayogi.com/content/indgods/varuna.aspx

http://www.bookrags.com/research/varua-eorl-14/

http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/Varuna

http://www.hinduweb.org/home/dharma_and_philosophy/vshirvaikar/Dnyaneshwari/Dnch10pg1.html

http://rashmun.sulekha.com/blog/post/2010/03/vedic-literature-the-degradation-of-varuna-and-indra.htm

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Varuna

http://www.indiadivine.org/audarya/vedic-verses/453851-vak-suktam-aka-devi-suktam.html

http://www.svabhinava.org/HinduCivilization/AlfredCollins/RigVedaCulture_ch07-frame.php

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahura_Mazda

http://www.iamronen.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/ReadingLila.pdf

 http://www.hummaa.com/player/player.php

All images are by courtesy of Internet

 
4 Comments

Posted by on October 4, 2012 in Varuna

 

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4 responses to “Varuna and His Decline – Part Five

  1. sreenivasaraos

    March 18, 2015 at 8:35 am

    varuna to mitra
    then to Indra
    the disappearing of vedic gods
    the gods representing the aspiration of people of the times
    the struggle between brighu and anghiras
    later emergence of gods from the rots of vedic inverted tree
    spreading with the epics which are human…
    and your sttement about the three ras and correspondence to gods is remarkable..
    as aginst ts evolution the gek pantheon of gods just crumbled ? i wonder why
    zeus and athena
    and even the epics of homer and achillees and heracles
    why have they become just stories and lost teir magic in the community

    whereas the gods today
    the sons of the lords
    ganapathi, muruga nd iyaapa
    also have acquired
    significance along woth siva, vishnu and durga…

    i wonder how come?

    DSampath

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      March 18, 2015 at 8:36 am

      Dear Shri Sampath Thanks. As I mentioned, the change with continuity, innovation and all inclusive nature are characteristics of the Indian traditions. You mentioned Greeks; I fear the Greeks and Romans were in a hurry to drive themselves away from their past, soon after they turned Christian. Yet, they could not do that entirely. They sublimated their ancient god Zeus by picturing Jesus Christ Pantocrator in the image of Zeus enthroned in Olympia; by turning their goddess into the motherly Madonna; and celebrating the pagan feasts of winter solstice as Christian festival Christmas. The 25th December was “the Nativity of the Sun” birthday of Sun god Mithras. He was the Mitra of India and of Iran. But sadly, the Greeks and Romans seem to have lost links with their epic heroes and heroines, unlike in India. That perhaps signifies an inadequate aspect of monotheism which shuts out all other possibilities of the notions of god and his/her manifestation.

      You also mentioned Ganesha. He like Vishnu grew by absorbing all other gods of similar nature. He is the sum and summation of all notions of the Ganas and the leaders of Ganas. Please check my earlier posts: Origins of Ganesha worship and Ganapathi, the lord of the ganas

      Skanda is a very ancient god. He is Agni and Sankarshana too.Patanjali in his Maha-bashya celebrates him along with Shiva and Vishakha. Dr. Bhandarkar mentions Kumara as a popular god in the Gandhara country (in the present Rawalpindi-Peshawar region). He also mentions of Kumaralayas in the present day Afghanistan and of the coins of Kushan dynasty carrying his insignia. Megathanese says kumara-temples were ‘abounding’ in Magadha. I think Skanda a god in all the regions of India has a longer history than his brother. He should be discussed separately. All the Indian gods are classified into solar (Vishnu), lunar (Shiva) and Shakthi cults; each group has its special characteristics. But, Skanda though affiliated to Shiva stands apart from the rest of the group.

      As regards the Devi; of course she pervades everything. Mother worship dates back to pre-Vedic era; and it was prevalent in all regions. It is said; Amma is not Sanskrit but a Sumerian term. In the Vedas it starts with Aditi, as I mentioned. From there on it flourishes and encompasses all notions of nature, existence and life. Worship of God as Mother has a long history in India even prior to first century BC.

      We need to talk about Skanda and Devi some other time, perhaps.

      Thank you.

      Regards

       
  2. sreenivasaraos

    March 18, 2015 at 8:35 am

    Without rain earth can not sustain – without a single grass head. No plants and no life. so says a Kural in second chapter ‘ Van Sirappu “. Thirukuural places : Van Sirappu ” the greatness of the sky ( or rain god or Varuna ) just after ( of the 133 ) the first one which praises the Gods and their greatness and qualities..Perhaps as the controller of nature – a life giver to all earthly subjects – Varuna’s position has not declined among the starved people.

    Also Mr.Sampath’s point Muruga ( Subramanya ) and Ganapathi etc does not find a place of worship in our religion in earlier times. What about the Devi worship – Amman prayers etc.Were Meenakshi,Kamakshi and Vishlakshi were worshipped before the 8th century ?

    Very interesting to read and I realise what you said :

    The idioms of Indian thought are thus dynamic, living and vibrant. They are linked to the spiritual urges and the changing needs, desires and aspirations of its people. The gods, faiths and the worship practices too keep evolving, changing, without parting with the essence of its fundamentals. Therefore, growth, change and adaptation are essential aspects of the Indian thought and living. It is distinguished by continuity with change; as also by its resilience and diversity. That is the genius of the Indian traditions.
    The Varuna saga, albeit a painful one, has to be appreciated in that context.

    Regards.

    NKR

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      March 18, 2015 at 8:38 am

      Dear Shri Ravi, Welcome and thank you for reading closely. Perhaps, it might help if the posts are read in their sequence. Please also check the response I posted to Shri Sampath’s comments. Yes, as you observed the evolution of gods is an interesting feature of the Indian traditions. I look forward to your comments on the other six parts too. Regards

       

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