[ We will be trying to understand only a few concepts of Samkhya –Karika; and not discussing the entire text.]
H. Freedom from suffering
20.1. As mentioned earlier, Samkhya- karika sets forth its objective as elimination of human suffering. It emphasizes that human existence is characterized by Dukkha, which cannot be decidedly removed by drugs, medicines or scriptures. It assures that Samkhya system offers a valid means to eliminate suffering. Samkhya- karika puts forth the view that understanding the ultimate ground of human existence, which, according to it is pure-consciousness, is the right way to freedom.
20.2. The Karika believes that human bondage and suffering arise out of false understanding and wrong identification with that which is not -conscious such as body, mind, intellect etc. That lack of knowledge leads to attachment or clinging to the false. The Samkhya prescription for removal of suffering is the way of knowledge, the way of right understanding: ‘effective discrimination’ vijanana which separates pristine consciousness form everything that is not consciousness. If one could segregate one’s consciousness from everything else and view it in its isolation, then one would be free from bondage and suffering.
20.3.The Samkhya method of enquiry could be described as an individual’s quest for his true identity ; a journey deep into the very core of his existence ; travelling from the gross outer peripheries to the subtlest inner core; going past the body, mind, senses, emotions etc ; shredding away everything , every emotion and every thought ; all along the way, at each stage, rejecting what is not-consciousness and stepping into the next inner zone which is more subtle than the previous one; until he sheds away every identity ; and ultimately finds a condition of “otherness” , freedom and isolation which is consciousness in itself .
20.4. Paradoxically, that right understanding or discriminative knowledge leads to the fact that consciousness – the inner most core of man- was never bound; it had always been pure and free. One’s notions of bondage and freedom or of pain and suffering stem out of false understanding. Thus, suffering is a sullied relative state; while ones consciousness is pure and unbound.
20.5 The consciousness that Samkhya talks about is not man’s senses, will, intellect, mind or awareness, emotions or his empirical ego structure; and not even what is called soul. It is rather pure consciousness which is at once the source of man’s freedom and suffering. It is the inner-most core of man; an individual’s true identity. It is the consciousness that makes the man.
The term that Samkhya employs to refer and to describe absolute consciousness is Purusha.
21.1 Purusha in Samkhya is a highly technical term. The Purusha of Samkhya is radically different from the Purusha described in the Vedas and the Upanishads.
The Rig Veda employed the imagery of an immense human form to symbolize the universe; and named it as Purusha (purusha evedam vishvam). Visualizing the universe as cosmic person of Purusha is a grand imagery. The Purusha of Rig Veda fills and enlivens the entire universe; and is the absolute and unchanging reality, the Brahman, from which everything emanates and in which everything resides.
21.2. The Katha Upanishad views the Purusha as the absolute sprit or principle that gives birth to the a-vyakta the un-manifest into which the Purusha enters to provide it individualized form.
22.1. The concept of Purusha in the Samkhya karika is much different from that of the orthodox texts.
In the Samkhya, the term Purusha refers to the fact of individual consciousness; and there are countless Purushas. The Purusha, in infinite number, is not only different from matter but is also not in any way involved with matter.
22.2. The Purusha which is consciousness is not the striving, not the urges, not the impulses nor any other emotional forces which make up man’s nature; it is not even what is called soul. Purusha is simply the fact of consciousness. Putting this in another way, Purusha is nothing, or nothingness or emptiness in the world. It is a sort of emptiness at the very heart of world and of the man.
22.3. The Purusha, according to Samkhya Karika is translucent individual consciousness, free inactive witness (sakshi). Because of these characteristics it is customary in the English language texts to refer to Purusha of the Samkhya School as: pure-consciousness.
22.4.Samkhya Karika describes the individual Purusha in a variety of ways, as being: un-caused, neither produced nor does it produce, absolute, infinite, all-pervasive, inactive, solitary, unsupported, non-emergent, not made of parts, and an independent (SK: 10); witness, isolated (kaivalya), indifferent, spectator, inactive (akartrbhava) (SK: 19);consciousness (chetana), a free, action-less witnessing (SK: 11, 20 , 55) .
23.1. The sole function of the Purusha is being a witness (sakshi); an isolated (kevala), inactive (akartarbhava), detached (madyastha); indifferent (uadasina), spectator (drastatva) (SK: 19 ) . In other words, Purusha is just a passive presence; an unseen seer; just witnessing or seeing. But, Purusha is the principle of consciousness.
23.2. It is said; consciousness is always consciousness of something. If it were so, what is the Purusha conscious of? What does the Purusha see or witness? It is explained; Purusha witnesses the un- manifest Prakrti. And, that forms the very heart of Samkhya dualism.
What is Prakrti according to Samkhya karika?
24.1. Prakrti, in Samkhya, again, is a highly technical term. Prakrti, here, does not mean sublime nature as it is commonly understood. Prakrti in Samkhya stands for the root cause (kaarana) of intellect, ego, mind and everything else; of all existence; comprehends the un-manifest (a-vyakta) and the manifest (vyakta).
In order to understand the nature of the Prakrti, we may have to go back to certain basic concepts of the Samkhya School.
24. 2.Samkhya believes that something cannot come out of nothing. The process of evolution does not generate something that is totally new; it only brings into manifestation what was already present in the cause. Every effect must pre exist in its cause (satkarya-vada) in an un-manifest condition. The effect is therefore nothing but the transformation of its cause (parinama-vada). The effect is always related to its cause.
24.3. Further, a cause is subtler than its associated effects; and that a cause characterizes its effect. For instance, the seed holds in its womb, in a subtle form, all the characteristics of the tree that grows out of it. The seed (cause) is subtler that the tree (effect); and holds within it the essence of the tree.
24.4. The material world – including body, mind, senses and self identity – that we see and experience must have sprung out of their causes, which were more subtle. The cause that gave forth the formless mind, ego, senses, sensations, and emotions must be more subtle than its effects; and must indeed contain within itself all the characteristics of its effects. And, that cause must have had its cause, which in turn had its own cause. At each stage, the cause is subtler than its associated effects; and holds within it all the characteristics of its effects.
24.5. When that process reaches down to the level of minutest particles, which could be extremely subtle matter or a gross form of energy, Samkhya, extending its logic, argues that the cause of the particles must be subtler than the particles. Then, the atoms which are the source of the particles must indeed be a very subtle form of emery. Yet, the atoms are mere effects that are ever changing, evolving and transforming. The cause of atoms – an extremely subtle form of energy – must indeed be much more subtle than the atoms; and almost invisible or an un-manifested powerful force of energy that holds within it the essence of all its effects.
K. A-vyakta & Vyakta
25.1. Eventually, one has to stop somewhere, at some stage. That last-stop, out of sheer necessity, has to be given a name; say, the ultimate cause. That ultimate cause would, thus, be the sole source or the sole cause (kaarana) of all effects (kaarya), of all existence – both un-manifest and manifest. That ultimate source is the finest, subtlest stuff or principle. The Samkhya named that ‘ultimate’ single root-cause (kaarana) of all that is un-manifest (a-vyakta) and manifest (vyakta) as Prakrti.
25.2. Since Samkhya accepted Prakrti as the last-stop (or in other words, the origin of all existence), it perhaps, saw no point in going behind Prakrti. And, therefore, it preferred to accept Prakrti as un-caused cause. Accordingly, a-vyakta the un-manifest Prakrti is treated as uncreated Prakrti in its primordial condition (mula prakrti). It is a state which cannot be said either to exist or to non-exist; but is the potential source of all existence.
25.3. The manifest Prakrti, vyakta, evolves from the un-manifest (a-vyakta) aspect of Prakrti.The manifest world is therefore is generated or caused (hetumat); it is finite (anityam), active (sakriyam), and diverse (anekam). The un-manifest (a-vyakta) is the opposite of the manifest.
Thus, Prakrti which is the sole material cause of the world is in effect composed of its two diverse aspects: the un-manifest (a-vyakta) and the manifest (vyakta).
25.3. The alternate names for Prakrti that Samkhya employs are: mula-prakrti (primal nature in its un-manifest state); or sattva (substance) and Pradhana (the principle one).
[But, in the Samkhya-karika of Isvarakrishna, the a-vyakta, the un-manifest, alone is named as mula-prakrti or pradhana. The karika avoids using the term sattva for Prakrti perhaps because it employs that term to signify one of Gunas.]
The Prakrti by its very nature is ever changing, evolving and transforming; and is not consistent. It binds; yet it is inert, that is not-conscious. Yet all human experience is bound with Prakrti. In fact human mind is evolved out of Prakrti.
The material world is Prakrti. It is not absolute; and its existence and changes have no effect on Purusha the absolute ground. Yet Prakrti revolves around Purusha.
26.1. According to Samkhya, just as that which had not existed before can never be brought into existence, that which exists cannot be entirely destroyed, either.
Following this principle, it is said, at the time of dissolution of the world, the reverse process sets into motion with each effect collapsing back into its cause; the physical elements broken down into particles; the particles into atoms; the atoms dissolving into finer energies which in turn merging into extremely fine energies; and ultimately the whole of existences dissolving back into the subtlest un-manifest Prakrti, the a-vyakta. Thus, Prakrti even when all its evolutes are withdrawn remains unaffected; and is thus eternal.
26.2. Samkhya explains its theory of manifestation and withdrawal of the manifest world through the analogy of a tortoise that extends its hidden limbs out of its shell and again draws it back into its shell. Nothing was created and nothing is lost.
27.1. Since Prakrti is the root cause of all existence, it must contain in itself, in a potential form, all the possibilities and all the characteristics of infinite numbers and infinite varieties of sensations, feelings, attributes, actions, forms etc. But, one thing that Prakrti does not possess is consciousness. Samkhya therefore variously describes Prakrti as: inert (jada); non-conscious principle (a-chetana), unintelligible etc.
27.2. Purusha and Prakrti are two totally unrelated and totally diverse principles: Purusha is un-generated and un-generating; a-vyakta is un-generated but generating; and vyakta is generated and generating.
Prakrti is dynamic non-conscious and is that which is seen; Purusha is consciousness, the passive un-seen seer.
It is the proximity of these two diverse principles that sums up and makes man and his world.
27.3. The object of the Samkhya exercise is to segregate every evolute of Prakrti and view the Purusha the consciousness in isolation. (Let’s talk of Purusha-Prakrti relation or non-relation a little later)
L. Seeing and be seen
28.1. The notions of seeing and be seen; of a passive onlooker and a busy enjoyer appear to fascinate the Indian thinkers. The imagery of unseen disinterested seer and the active object is often employed in the Indian texts to project two states of reality. For instance, the Mundaka Upanishad (3:1:1) and the Svetashvatara Upanishad (4:6) present the metaphor of two birds (dva suparna) perched on the same tree, one active and enjoying the fruits; the other bird merely looking on and doing nothing.
28.2. In the Upanishads the active bird represents a self involved and identified with the world; the inactive bird represents that other mode of being human that neither claims nor rejects the world, remaining ever aloof and hence always free.
28.3. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (3:7:23) Uddalaka Aruni calls the on -looking bird as “the unseen Seer, the unheard Hearer, the un-thought Thinker, the un-understood Understander…the Self (atman), the Inner Controller (antaryamin), the Immortal (amrta)” . Each School of Indian thought has interpreted the metaphor of two such birds, each according to its inclinations. For instance, the Bhagavad Gita (13: S) identifies the bird that eats and enjoys as the field (kshetra) and the other as the filed-knower, the foundation (kshetrajna)
29.1. The importance of seeing or been seen by an un-seen seer has also become an integral part of Indian ethos. As Ms. Diana Eck, Professor of Comparative Religion and Indian Studies, explains in her Darsan: Seeing the Divine Image in India: “ The central act of Hindu worship, from the point of view of the lay person, is darshan, is to stand in the presence of the deity and to behold the image with one’s own eyes, to see and be seen by the deity… Beholding the image is an act of worship, and through the eyes one gains the blessings of the divine.”
29.2. It is explained; seeing according to the Indian notion is going forth of the sight towards an object. Sight touches it and acquires its form. Touch is the ultimate connection by which the visible yields to being grasped. While the eye touches the object, the vitality that pulsates in it is communicated.
30.1. The notions of seeing and being seen figure prominently in the Samkhya karika. Here, the seer is Purusha; and he sees or witnesses the inert and un-manifest Prakrti (a-vyakta). The fact of seeing and be seen is highly purposeful and is of vital importance in Samkhya.
As we shall read a little later, it is the fact of Purusha seeing the a-vyakta that triggers the process of evolution, the unfolding of the a-vyakta. Even thereafter it is because of the illumination by the Purusha the inert matter appears to be alive. The reverse process of absorption concludes with a-vyakta seeing the Purusha.
30.2. The relation between the unseen seer (kshetrajna) and the field (kshetra) forms an important issue in the Samkhya darshana, the Samkhya way of seeing. The basic cause for suffering and bondage, according to Samkhya, is to mistake the seer for the seen (the field). That principle also forms the basis for many practices outlined in Yoga. Both Samkhya and Yoga speak of the seer and the seen; both stress suffering as the reason to seek release from bondage. However , Samkhya focuses on knowledge as the means of liberation; while Yoga accepts Samkhya position and in addition advances several techniques that ensure that seer is not mistaken for the seen (the field).
M . Evolution process – initiated
30.1. According to the Samkhya Karika, the passive, disinterested Purusha merely sees or witnesses or comes into proximity of the inert (acetana) a-vyakta, the Prakrti in its un-manifest or latent form. The Purusha is the “seer”; and, that which is “seen” is Prakrti.
30.2. The Samkhya Karika says, the very presence or proximity or the mere seeing by the Purusha who is the fact of consciousness, enlivens and activates the constituents of the dormant or un-manifest (avyakta or mula- prakrti) Prakrti. The mula-prakrti, in other words, is simply the undifferentiated, unconscious thing-ness, which is witnessed.
30.3. The Purusha does nothing and is unable to act; but his mere proximity or seeing, somehow, disturbs the equilibrium (samyavastha) of the potent forces of avyakta or mula-Prakrti made up of three Gunas: sattva, rajas and tamas. This disruption of equilibrium caused by the proximity (samyoga) of two diverse principles triggers the struggle for ascendency among the constituent Gunas; and that sets in motion the process of unfolding or evolution of the man and the world, flowing out of the a-vyakta.
That is, when these Gunas are in equilibrium or in balance, no creation or modification is possible. It is only when this equilibrium is disturbed the manifest world (vyakta) emerges out of the un-manifest (a-vyakta).
30.4. The karika clarifies that just because the presence of the individual Purusha results in the appearance or the emergence of the world, it should not be construed that the world is derived from Purusha (because Purusha does not generate or create anything); but, it only means that without the presence of Purusha, the Prakrti would remain in un-differentiated, un-manifest state (a-vyakta). In other words, the world in and of itself is simply un-manifest avyakta when not in the presence of Purusha. It is only when it is illumined Purusha the world appears to be alive.
The Karika stresses, Purusha and Prakrti are entirely different realities. Purusha is the opposite of Prakrti or the whole system of vyakta and a-vyakta. The Purusha is apart from all strivings, all discursive thought etc. And, every form of creation bears this sign of duality.
Purusha the seer is a sort of translucent emptiness, a pure witness. Inactive (akartrbhava), isolated (kaivalya), pure consciousness (chetana): and Prakrti the seen is matter that is witnessed is inherently non-conscious or non-intelligent. Neither can be reduced to the other.
The Karika however says that the Purusha is understood in terms of what it witnesses. Karika therefore describes everything that appears to Purusha (consciousness), which in other words is the whole of the a-vyakta and vyakta. Ultimately, everything that appears to consciousness is eliminated, leaving Purusha as the sole reality.
N . Guna
31.1. It is said; the Gunas are infinite in number, but for the sake of understanding they are grouped into three broad categories in accordance with their main characteristics. Both the vyakta and a-vyakta are composed of three Gunas: sattva, rajas, and tamas.
These three Gunas are the intrinsic or inherent nature or the basic constituents of Prakrti; they are not the external attributes of Prakrti; and are in fact the three strands of Prakrti which hold the world together. They are described as substantive entities or subtle substances each with its characteristic expression; they are not to be dismissed as abstract qualities.
Gunas are objective, constituent elements of experience; they are the modes of being. Everything or every process in the world is composed of Gunas. The essential character of a particular thing or a process is determined by the relative dominance of each of the three Gunas; and is thus a cumulative expression of their three inherent Gunas.
The Gunas produce the impressions of pain and pleasure and allow us to feel and even think about the world of things. They are responsible for human passions, hopes and fears. And they determine the individual’s inclinations and attitudes.
These Gunas or strands are the content of Prakrti. They are continually in tension with one another and by their mutual interactions the world as we see and know emerges.
31.2. As already said; the mere proximity of conscious Purusha enlivens , activates and disturbs the three dormant Gunas resting in a state of equilibrium; they turn restless, struggle for expression and each strives for ascendency over the other two. Eventually, they cooperate and interact and pull together, even as they keep striving for survival and dominance. The Gunas are always uniting, separating, and uniting again.
[The Karika text does not however explain why or how the Gunas get disturbed by the mere proximity of the Purusha.]
31.3. The restlessness of the Gunas and their striving for ascendency or perpetual tension with one another is described as the natural-law or the inherent tendency (svabhava) within man and of the world. The Gunas, in a sense, are the real doers (kartarah) in the Samkhya scheme of things. They are the productive agents, the factors that are responsible for evolution as also for involution.
It is because of their mutual interactions, the differentiated heterogeneous manifestations emerge out of the un-manifest (a-vyakta); and, even after the process of evolution gets going the Gunas colour every act, speech, thought and becoming of man. According to Samkhya, what a man becomes is determined by his fundamental strivings, which in turn are influenced by his inclinations, the Gunas. This process of emergence and transformations which depends upon the modifications and changes in the mutual interaction of the Gunas is known as guna-parinama
31.4. These Gunas extend throughout and represent the fundamental structure of the manifest and the un-manifest world. And, they undergo continual modification and transformation in the presence of the Purusha. All the evolutes of Prakrti are made up of various admixtures of three Gunas.
With respect to man, they constitute psycho-physical make up of his nature; each acting within his or sphere of action as characterized by the combination of the Gunas. Similarly the Gunas constitute the nature of everything that is not man. But, in themselves the Gunas are unconscious; and are absolutely separate from Purusha, just as the mula-prakrti or avyakta.
Samkhya karika (SK 11) elucidates that Purusha is the opposite of both a-vyakta and vyakta, which means that Purusha is not characterized as made of the three Gunas. Purusha is beyond Gunas; it is subjective, specific, conscious and non-productive. Purusha exists separate from the manifest and un-manifest world. It is an order by itself; distinct from all orders.
Gunas are the expression of Prakrti; and as said, they are not related to Purusha. In a way of speaking, the dualism in Samkhya could be between the Gunas (becoming) and Purusha (being).
32.1. Of the three, the Gunas, sattva is described as subtle and light; characterizes quality of thought and goodness. The rajasa is active and aggressive; characterizes quality of energy, stimulation and passion. The Guna tamas is passive and dull; characterizes quality of matter, indifference and delusion. The three together constitute the psycho-physical nature of an individual. The process of emergence or evolution is determined by the respective dominance of each of the three Gunas.
And, in the wider context too they constitute the nature and structure of everything in the manifest and un-manifest world. They are thus the underlying qualities of all aspects of the world – physical, mental or otherwise – that can produce pain, pleasure or indifference. The Samkhya karika, however, confines its discussion of the Gunas mainly to their relevance to the nature of the body-mind complex of the individual.
The text clarifies; the Gunas by themselves are not-conscious (jada); an object for Purusha to be illumined.
32.2.After samyoga, the proximity of Purusha with a-vyakta, the emergence of the manifest world takes place as characterized by the combined qualities of the Gunas : sattva, rajas and tamas.
Let’s talk about the process of evolution, the evolutes of the Prakrti, the enumeration of the tattvas, the Purusha –Prakrti relation or non – relation, the Samkhya concept of liberation and of the other issues in the next part of the article.
Next: Samkhya Karia Continued––
References and Sources
Early Indian Thought by Prof.SK Ramachandra Rao
Classical Samkhya by Gerald James Larson
Samkhya Karika by Swami Virupakshananada
The Samkhya Karika