RSS

Temple Architecture-Devalaya Vastu – Part Three ( 3 Of 9)

08 Sep

Vastu Purusha Mandala

Before we proceed further, let us briefly discuss the concept of the Vastu Purusha Mandala. The faith that Earth is a living organism, throbbing with life and energy; is fundamental to the Vastu Shastra. That living energy is symbolized as a person; he is the Vastu Purusha. The site for the proposed construction is his field; Vastu Purusha Mandala. In fact the Vastu Purusha Mandala, the site plan, is his body; and it is treated as such. His height extends from the South West corner (pitrah) to the North East corner (Agni).The Vastu Purusha Mandala also depicts the origin of the effects on the human body. All symbolisms flow from these visualizations.

Purusha means ‘person’ literally and refers to Universal Man. Purusha is the body of god incarnated in the ground of existence, divided within the myriad forms. He is also that fragmented body simultaneously sacrificed for the restoration of unity.

Vastu Purusha is associated with the Earth and its movable and immovable basic elements of nature, such as the earth, water, fire, air and space; just as a human being does. The Vastu purusha mandala is in some ways a development of the four pointed or cornered earth mandala having astronomical reference points. Further, the Vastu Purusha Mandala is also the cosmos in miniature; and the texts believe “what obtains in a microcosm, obtains in macrocosm too (yatha pinde thatha brahmande).”

Similarly, it believes that,”Everything is governed by one law. A human being is a microcosmos, i.e. the laws prevailing in the cosmos also operate in the minutest space of the human being.” In the end, the nature, the man and his creations are all one.

“The vastu-purusha-mandala represents the manifest form of the Cosmic Being; upon which the temple is built and in whom the temple rests. The temple is situated in Him, comes from Him, and is a manifestation of Him. The vastu-purusha-mandala is both the body of the Cosmic Being and a bodily device by which those who have the requisite knowledge attain the best results in temple building.”  (Stella Kramrisch,; The Hindu Temple, Vol. I)

The Vastu Purusha is visualized as lying with his face and stomach touching the ground; to suggest as if he is carrying the weight of the structure. His head is at North East (ishanya) and his legs are at the South West corner (nairutya).

The South West corner (nairutya) where the Vastu Purusha has his legs corresponds to the Muladhara chakra and denotes the earth principle. Just as the legs support the weight of the body, the base (adhistana) for the muladhara should be stable and strong. Accordingly, the South West portion of the building is the load bearing area; and should be strong enough to support heavy weights. Just as the feet are warm, the South West cell represents warmth and heat; even according to the atmospheric cycles the South West region receives comparatively more heat.

Svadhistana chakra is in the lower stomach region near the kidneys. It is related to water principle (apa).On the Vastu Purusha Mandala; it is to the South and to the West .Therefore the wet areas like bathroom etc are recommended in the south or in the west portions of the building. It is for sewerage (utsarjana).

Manipura Chakra is at the navel; and relates to energy or fire or tejas. While in the womb of the mother, the fetus is fed with the essence of food and energy through the umbilical chord connected with its navel. The Vastu Purusha Mandala shows Brahma at the navel of the Vastu Purusha. Further, the lotus is the base (Adhistana) of Brahma.Thus navel connects Brahman with Jiva or panda or life. It is left open and unoccupied. The central portion of the building is to be kept open. It is believed that Vastu Purusha breaths through this open area.

Anahata chakra is near the heart. It is related to vayu air regulated by lungs. The lung region of the Vastu Purusha should be airy.

Vishuddaha chakra is near the throat from where the sounds come out and reverberate in space. This region represents Space (Akasha).The word OM is uttered through throat. The echo of that sound vibrates in the hallow of the bone-box of the head and in the space in brain. The head of Vastu Purusha is in the North East corner (Ishanya). The ajna chakra is between the eyebrows. .This direction is related to open spaces (akasha). Atmospherically, North East is cooler; and so should be ones head. The puja room Devagraha is recommended in the North east portion of the house.

The limbs of Vastu Purusha, other than the above are also related to the construction of the building. Liver (yakrt) is towards South East. The cooking area is recommended in South East, because it is related to Agni. The rays of sun reach here first and cleanse the atmosphere.

The North West, vayuvya, is presided over by air vayu. The Organs like spleen, rectum of the Vastu Purusha fall in this portion. The store room is recommended here; perhaps because the spleen in the body does the work of storing and restoring blood.

[There is a belief that the vastu purusha is awake during eight months of the year and is asleep in the other four months (eight months of wakefulness:  mesha, vrishabha, kataka, simha, tula, vrichika, makara and kumbha; and the four months of sleep : dhanur, mina, mithuna and kanya).

Some others say    that the vaastu purusha sleeps in vaastu chakra  on the left side and rotates clockwise during twelve months with his head towards:

Jan:  west-south-west; Feb: west; Mar : west-north-west ;Apr :  north-north-west; May : north ; June : north-north-east ; July : east-north-east ; Aug : east ; Sept : east-south-east ; Oct : south-south-east; Nov : south ; and Dec : south-south-west.

While taking up construction of a structure, digging in the sector where Vastu-purusha’s head lies is not recommended. The schedule for erecting the doors is also based on this concept.

For instance:

If Leo is ascending, set up the south door; if Taurus set up the west door; if Kubera set up the north door;

If the moon is passing the meridian, set up the east door.

When Leo is ascending is the proper time for placing a door in a temple of Vishnu. When Taurus is ascending is the proper time for placing a door in a temple of Mahadeva. When Kubera is ascending is the proper time for setting a door in Ganesa’s temple. When the moon is passing the meridian, a door may be set up for any one.

I think, this concept of purusha sleeping may have only astrological significance; and therefore varies from person to person and from site to site. They cannot be generally applied. Even otherwise, now, hardly anyone goes by this schedule, as it is impractical.

Perhaps the four months of non-activity as recommended, might have something to do with the onset of monsoon , winter and such seasonal constraints.]

Vastu and directions

These areas are also related to various planets and their position.The vastu purusha mandala, like the horoscope is another way of illustrating the intersection where the sky and earth meet at the horizon, at the equinox points; and the zenith and nadir

The Vastu Purusha lies with his back up, .perhaps to suggest that he carries the burden on his back. Pillars are not recommended on sensitive parts of Vastu Purusha; they are the inlets and outlets.

The general guidelines are, the South West should be heavier and North East where gods dwell should not be so .The base should be heavy and the apex be lighter; just as in the case of a hill or a tree. The sensitive organs like brain, eyes, ears tounge are in the head; and the head should be lighter and secure. The head of the Vastu Purusha is in the North East and it should be kept free of pillars. Activities like worship, study are recommended in and towards east and adjoining directions.-North east and South East.

Sun is at the centre of the solar system; the earth and others rotate around it. The Vastu follows the same principle. The middle house , the dining hall and work space represent the sun aspect. After sun set the South West and North West are warmer; bedrooms and store house are recommended here.

It is said that, although water is everywhere that which cleanses the body is water; and that which purifies mind is Thirtha. A brick and stone construct is house. A vastu is temple.

srirangam-temple-garden

“The Hindu temple typically involves a multiple set of ideas. Perhaps Hindu traditional architecture has more symbolic meanings than other cultures. It is highly articulated. The temple is oriented to face east, the auspicious direction where the sun rises to dispel darkness. The temple design includes the archetypal image of a Cosmic Person spread out yogi-like, symmetrically filling the gridded space of the floor plan, his navel in the center, and it includes the archetype of the cosmic mountain, between earth and heaven, of fertility, planets, city of the gods, deities, etc.). One encounters these simultaneous archetypal themes and meanings conveyed (and hidden) in the semi-abstract forms in many Hindu temples. There are rules of shape and proportion in the authoritative texts of Hindu tradition (shastras and agamas) which give birth to a variety of complex temple designs. The Brihat Samhita text (4th century CE) says the temple should reflect cormic order. To understand the uses of recursive geometrical forms involving self-similarity on different scales (fractals) in the Hindu temple complex we will need to explore some of these deep images and their uses.

“The form of the temple, all that it is and signifies, stands upon the diagram of the vastupurusha. It is a ‘forecast’ of the temple and is drawn on the levelled ground; it is the fundament from which the building arises. Whatever its actual surroundings… the place where the temple is built is occupied by the vastupurusha in his diagram, the Vastupurusha mandala…. It is the place for the meeting and marriage of heaven and earth, where the whole world is present in terms of measure, and is accessible to man.”(25) The cosmic person became the universe, and to recreate this origin is to construct a cosmos which offers a return to the transcendent oneness.

The vastupurusha mandala is a microcosm with some fractal qualities. As shown in the illustration, there are self-similar squares within squares within squares. The geometric configuration “of central squares with others surrounding it is taken to be a microscopic image of the universe with its concentrically organized structure.” Thus the grid at the spatial base and temporal beginning of the temple represents the universe, with its heavenly bodies. It is also more– it simultaneously symbolizes the pantheon of Vedic gods– “each square [is] a seat of particular deity.” The gods altogether make up the composite body of the Purusha.

If the temple symbolises the body of god on the macrocosmic plane, it equally symbolises the body of man on the microcosmic palne. The names of the various parts of the temple are the very names used to denote the various parts of human body! Look at the following technical names: paduka, pada, carana, anghri, jangha, uru, gala, griva, kantha, sira. Sirsa, karna, nasika, sikha. Pada (foot) is the column, jangha (shank) is parts of the superstructure over the base. Gala or griva (neck) is the part between moulding which ressmbles the neck. Nasika (nose) is any noseshaped architectural part and so on. The garbhagrha represents the head and the image, the antrayamin (the indwelling Lord). This symbology tries to impress upon us the need to seek the Lord within our heart and not outisde.

The temple also represents the subtle body with the seven psychic centres or cakras. The garbhagrha represents the anahata cakra (the fourth psychic centre in the region of the heart) and the topmost part of the kalasa point to the sahasrara (seventh and the last centre situated at the top of the head). The first three centres (muladhara, svadhisthana and mainpura situated respectively near the anus, sex-organ and navel0 are below the ground level. The fifth and the sixth (visuddha and ajna cakaras, situated at the root of the throat and in between the eyebrows) are on the sikhara area.”

(Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol. I)

Sahasra chakra is regarded the seat of consciousness. An aperture on top of the head, called brahma randra, leads to it.In the structure of the temple, the brahma randra is represented in the structure erected on top of the sanctum. The flat-roof (kapota) of the sanctum is overlaid by a single square stone slab known in the texts as brahma-ranhra-shila (the stone denoting the upper passage of life).  The sanctum is viewed as the head; and right on top of the head is the passage through which the currents of life ascend to the tower through this stone slab.

Interestingly, the kalasha placed on top of the vimana  is not imbedded into the structure by any packing it with mortar or cement. it is, in fact, placed in position by a hollow rod that juts out of the centre of the tower and runs through the vase, the kalasha. it is through this tube that the   lanchana ‘tokens’ (cereals and precious stones) are introduced. one of the explanations is the hallow tube represents the central channel of energy the shushumna that connects to the Sahasra, the seat of consciousness, through the Brahma randra.

The expressions Mandala, Chakra and Yantra are synonymous. Mandala is explained as that which gathers the essential detail (mandam laati).The Chakra and Yantra too perform similar functions. Like Chakra, the Mandala too denotes visualization, an act of bringing together all significant details; those details might pertain to the world or the body or the structure of the building or whatever. It also brings together the outer and the inner faculties or energies.

Though all the three mean the same, they have somehow seemed to have acquired distinct forms. For instance, Chakra suggests a circular form, while the Mandala might be a figure of any shape, but commonly a square. While both Chakra and Mandala are lenier representations, Yantra is a three-dimensional projection.

In the Vastu Purusha Mandala too, the ground plan and the vertical plan are cast in two dimensions and in three dimensional representations of the structure.

Whether you call it Chakra or Mandala or Yantra; it represents a sphere of influence and brings together and energizes all its components.

In a way of speaking the Vastu Purusha and the Chakreshwari of the Sri Chakra represent the same principles. They embody and preside over all the aspects of their domain, which is universal. They not merely resolve the internal and external contradictions, but also usher in complete harmony of existence.

Just as the Sri Chakra is the unfolding of the Bindu at its centre, the temple is the outpouring or the expansion of the deity residing in Brahmasthana at the centre.

Both the forms employ the imagery of an all – enveloping space and time continuum issuing out of the womb. In the case of Sri Chakra the Bibdu is dimension-less and is the imperceptible source of energy. The idol, the Vigraha, in the Garbagriha at the Brahmasthana represents the manifestation of that imperceptible energy or the principle; and it radiates that energy.

[There is an theory that suggests that the board of chess was inspired by the 64 celled Vastu Purusha Mandala. It states

“The form of the chess-board corresponds to the ‘classical’ type of Vastu-mandala, the diagram which also constitutes the basic lay-out of a temple or a city. It has been pointed out that this diagram symbolizes existence as a ‘field of action’ of the divine powers. The combat which takes place in the game of chess thus represents, in its most universal meaning, the combat of the devas with the asuras, of the ‘gods’ with the ‘titans’, or of the ‘angels’ with the ‘demons’, all other meanings of the game deriving from this one.”  (Please check:

http://www.cultdeadcow.com/archives/2006/11/the_symbolism_of_che.php3 ]

temple_architecture

References;

The Hindu Temple, by Stella Kramrisch,.

Devalaya Vastu by Prof.SKR Rao

Vastu -, Astrology and Architecture     : A collection of essays by various authors

Pictures are from internet.

 
12 Comments

Posted by on September 8, 2012 in Temple Architecture

 

Tags: , , , , ,

12 responses to “Temple Architecture-Devalaya Vastu – Part Three ( 3 Of 9)

  1. vinod shukla

    March 31, 2014 at 4:45 am

    Pl difine in hindi also.

     
  2. gurumurhi p s

    November 26, 2014 at 10:48 pm

    it is verymuch interesting but inbrief

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      December 13, 2014 at 2:59 pm

      Dear Shri Gurumurthy,

      Thanks for the visit.

      Yes; but , not too detailed.

      Regards

       
  3. sreenivasaraos

    March 17, 2015 at 3:07 pm

    DSampath
    vastu purusha and the comparison with the body and the chakra was amazing.why is it the anahata that is the centre and not ajna chakra.?..is there a tradition where the ajna is the centre..what about sahsrara .. is it represeted at all?

    why is vastu purusha awake only on a very few muhutrthams.? what is the significance of that.?

    i could not down load the pictures. i wonder whether it is possible for you to put them in your albums so that i can see them. vastu purusha i hav seen but not the mandalas.i vited your album and could not see theses pictures there.
    this is by far the best of your series.

    DSampath

     
  4. sreenivasaraos

    March 17, 2015 at 3:07 pm

    dear shri sampath,
    thank you for reading closely. yes, as you pointed out, ajna is also a chakra; and is represented as situated between the eyebrows. i mentioned that towards the end of the post:the fifth and the sixth (visuddha and ajna cakaras, situated at the root of the throat and in between the eyebrows) are on the sikhara area.” i should have mentioned in paragraph accompanying the picture of six chakras. thank you for noticing. i have added a line there.
    each of these chakras is a conceptual categorization of the pattern of energies vibrant in its zone or level .the chakras do not suggest anatomical parts; nor do they have physiological functions. they are entirely abstractions. this is particularly evident when you come to sahasra (thousand petalled lotus) which is visualized as present outside the body; imagined to be located about four finger-breadths above the crown of the head. the tantric texts sometimes refer to it as niralamba puri, a city hovering in the air without support. the buddhist texts call it ushnisha kamala, meaning that it is like a blanket covering the head but not actually part of the head.
    sahasra is regarded the seat of consciousness. an aperture on top of the head, called brahma randra, leads to it.
    in the structure of the temple, the brahma randra is represented in the structure erected on top of the sanctum.the flat-roof (kapota) of the sanctum is overlaid by a single square stone slab known in the texts as brahma-ranhra-sila (the stone denoting the upper passage of life). the sanctum is viewed as the head; and right on top of the head is the passage through which the currents of life ascend to the tower through this stone slab. (i mentioned this, in the part discussing some essential aspects of the temple.)
    interestingly, the kalasa placed on top of the vimana is not imbedded into the structure by any packing it with mortar or cement. it is, in fact, placed in position by a hollow rod that juts out of the centre of the tower and runs through the vase, the kalasha. it is through this tube that the lanchana ‘tokens’ (cereals and precious stones) are introduced. one of the explanations is the hallow tube represents the central channel of energy the shushumna that connects to the sahasra, the seat of consciousness, through the brahma randra.

    while on mandala, let me add, the expressions mandala, chakra and yantra are synonymous. mandala is explained as that which gathers the essential detail (mandam laati).the chakra and yantra too perform similar functions. like chakra, the mandala too denotes visualization, an act of bringing together all significant details; those details might pertain to the world or the body or the structure of the building or whatever. it also brings together the outer and the inner faculties or energies.
    though all the three mean the same, they have somehow seemed to have acquired distinct forms. for instance, chakra suggests a circular form, while the mandala might be a figure of any shape, but commonly a square. while both chakra and mandala are lenier representations, yantra is a three-dimensional projection.
    in the vastu purusha mandala too, the ground plan and the vertical plan are cast in two dimensions and in three dimensional representations of the structure.
    whether you call it chakra or mandala or yantra; it represents a sphere of influence and brings together and energizes all its components.

    in a way of speaking the vastu purusha and the chakreshwari of the sri chakra represent the same principles. they embody and preside over all the aspects of their domain, which is universal. they not merely resolve the internal and external contradictions, but also usher in complete harmony of existence.
    just as the sri chakra is the unfolding of the bindu at its centre, the temple is the outpouring or the expansion of the deity residing in brahmasthana at the centre.
    both the forms employ the imagery of an all – enveloping space and time continuum issuing out of the womb. in the case of sri chakra the bibdu is the dimension-less and therefore imperceptible source of energy. the idol, the vigraha, in the garbagriha represents the manifestation of that imperceptible energy or principle; and it radiates that energy.
    [ these had not occurred to me earlier , while preparing the post. thank you for asking. that was great help .i think i may added it to the post , if it is any help. please let me know.]

    as regards the vastu purusha going to sleep, some believe the vastu purusha is awake during eight months of the year and asleep in the other four. (eight months of wakefulness – mesha, vrishabha, kataka, simha, tula, vrichika, makara and kumbha. four months of sleep-dhanur, mina, mithuna and kanya).

    some others say that the vaastu purusha sleeps in vaastu chakra sleeps on the left side and rotates clockwise during twelve months with his head towards:

    jan
    west-south-west
    feb
    west
    march
    west-north-west
    april
    north-north-west
    may
    north
    june
    north-north-east
    july
    east-north-east
    august
    east
    sept
    east-south-east
    oct
    south-south-east
    nov
    south
    dec
    south-south-west

    digging in the sector where his head lies is not recommended.
    the schedule for erecting the doors is also based on this concept. for instance:
    if leo is ascending, set up the south door; if taurus set up the west door; if kubera set up the north door;
    if the moon is passing the meridian, set up the east door.
    when leo is ascending is the proper time for placing a door in a temple of vishnu. when taurus is ascending is the proper time for placing a door in a temple of mahadeva. when kubera is ascending is the proper time for setting a door in ganesa’s temple. when the moon is passing the meridian, a door may be set up for any one.
    **
    space and time are woven together in the mandala. the vastu purusha mandala is closely associated with astrology. i think, this concept of purusha sleeping may have only astrological significance; and therefore varies from person to person and from site to site. they cannot be generally applied. even otherwise, now, hardly anyone goes by this schedule, as it is impractical.
    perhaps the four months of non-activity as recommended, might have something to do with the onset of monsoon , winter and such seasonal constraints.

    thanks for asking.

    regards

     
  5. Lt Col ASR Sarma

    October 7, 2015 at 9:07 am

    I am writing for certain clarification. We are planning to construct Sri Venkateswara Temple in our vicinity. Raja gopuram is planned of 5 storeys, where as we have ten storey buildings in front. will it be in order?Pleaseclarify..

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      October 9, 2015 at 4:14 am

      Dear Col. Sarma,

      I am not sure that I am competent to provide you a definite answer to your query. Perhaps a practicing Shilpi would be better equipped to furnish you with an authoritative clarification.

      I can merely say a few words from what I have learnt from the older texts.

      You are talking about Raja Gopuram, the Grand entrance to the temple complex.

      As far as I know, the Raja Gopuram is a feature of the temples in South India; and, its entry into temple architecture is rather late.

      It is said in the older texts that the concept of Gopura originated from extensive cow-stalls (Go-griha) which was virtually a gate-house at the doorways of a huge building , monastery , temple or even a town (Pura-dvaram tu gopuram I Dvara-matre tu gopuram I ). The Gopura, therefore, technically, denoted gate-houses of palaces, cities and residential buildings of various descriptions; and that they did not necessarily belong to temples alone.

      By about the tenth century, the temples is South India came to be surrounded ( perhaps as a defence-measure) with high walls (Prakara) with one main and three subsidiary gates, opening in the cardinal directions. A Gopura (high tower,) adorned these gateways. And in due course the Gopura became a characteristic feature of South Indian temple architecture. Many major temples have a series of enclosures (Prakara). For instance; the Sri Rangam temple has seven enclosing walls, enveloping the whole township; and, the entrance to each Prakara is adorned with a Gopura.

      The later Agama texts mention that each enclosure must have door-ways in all four directions. But, very few temples followed this rule, perhaps with the exception of the great temple at Tiruvannamalai. In most cases, the doorways lead from one courtyard to the next, finally leading to the sanctum. And, it became customary, since 10th century, to erect towers (Gopuras) over such gateways, though a Gopura was not an essential feature of the temple per se. It is needless to mention that the Prakara contributes to the security and beauty of the temple. With the growth and development of the temples, the structures and details of the Prakara-s and Gopura became increasingly elaborate and complicated. The main entrance , somehow, popularly came to be known as Raja-Gopura .

      There is mention of Gopura-s with sixteen storeys, divided into ten classes. But the details of only five storeys are given;, others being left to the discretion of the architects.

      But, the traditional view according to ancient texts on Shilpa-sharta , the most important part of a temple, it’s very heart as it were, is the Garbhagrha or the sanctum sanctorum, the cave-like cube-shaped “womb room,” located within the Brahmasthana of the Vastu Purusha Mandala. Sometimes the Garbagriha with its Vimana alone is defined as temple per se. But, generally, its extended by an Ardh-Mandapa, a Mandapa or a large hall up to the Bali-pita.

      All that is to suggest the Raja-Gopura is not an essential part of the temple; and its structure is left to the discretion of the architect.

      This lengthy explanation surely does not answer your question directly. But, I hope, it might, in some way, help you to take a view of the subject. Please do consult a technical expert.

      Pardon me, I have not been of much help.

      Please let me know of the developments, if any, on the issue.

      Regards

       
  6. kvreddy

    August 30, 2016 at 6:09 am

    it was nice

     
    • sreenivasaraos

      August 30, 2016 at 7:20 am

      Dear Shri Reddy

      Thanks for the visit and for the appreciation

      Please read the comments and the other articles in the series

      as also the other articles on various subjects

      Regards

       
    • sreenivasaraos

      August 30, 2016 at 9:59 am

      Dear Col. Sarma

      Thanks for the visit and for the appreciation

      Please read the comments and the other articles in the series

      as also the other articles on various subjects

      Regards

       
    • sreenivasaraos

      August 30, 2016 at 10:00 am

      Dear Shri Reddy

      Thanks for the visit and for the appreciation

      Please read the comments and the other articles in the series

      as also the other articles on various subjects

      Regards

       

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

 
%d bloggers like this: