Rig Veda – Position of women (2/2)

04 Sep

The following is the second part of the article Rig Veda – Position of women (1/2)posted on Oct, 09 2007. The first part dealt comprehensively with the position of women in the Rig Vedic period; and , also discussed a comment posted on an earlier post. It was considered, that instead of imposing a later day’s priorities and prejudices on a society of a bygone era, it would be apt to take a holistic and an independent look and examine from the angles of (a) fair and equitable treatment of women ; and , (b) empowerment of women in the Vedic society.

Part one concluded that the social life portrayed in Rig Veda reveals a tolerant and moderately unbiased society characterized by the sanctity of the institution of marriage; domestic purity; patriarchal system;  equitable position in the society for men and women and high honor for women. The women did receive a fair and an equitable treatment ; and, they were empowered to deal with issues that mattered in the life around them.

The second part discusses the views of the Rig Veda on certain specific issues such as the status of the girl child; her education; her marriage;  married life’ her right to property; widowhood ; and, remarriage.

Read on..

Girl child

Many hymns in Rig Veda do  express the desire to beget heroic sons. There are no similar prayers wishing for a girl child. This perhaps reflected the anxiety of a society that needed a larger number of male warriors to ensure its survival. Sons were preferred to daughters; yet, once a daughter was born, she was raised with tender care, affection and love.

For instance; Ushas’s mother decorated her daughter with much love and care; made her look Radiant like a little bride; before she took the girl out on a stroll.

su-sakāśā | mātmṛṣṭāiva | yoā | āvi | tanvam | kṛṇue | dśe | kam | bhadrā | tvam | Ua | vi-taram | vi | uccha | na | tat | te | anyā | Uasa | naśanta  / RV.1.123.11/

In the Rig-Veda, there is no instance where the birth of a girl was considered inauspicious. The celebrations and others samskaras were conducted with enthusiasm. In a particular case, the twin daughters were compared to heaven and earth. The daughters were not unpopular. They were allowed Vedic studies; and , were entitled to offer sacrifice to gods. The son was not absolutely necessary for this purpose.

There is a reference to the birth of an only daughter, who was assigned the legal position of a son; she could perform funeral rites of her father; and, she could also inherit the property. It indicates that the position of a girl in Rig Vedic times was not as low as it was to become in medieval times. (Shakuntala Rao Shastri, Women in the Vedic Age– : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1954).

Kerry Brown in her book ‘Essential Teachings of Hinduism’ explains: “In ancient India a woman was  looked after not because she is inferior or incapable; but, on the contrary, because she is treasured. She is the pride and power of the society.  Just as the crown jewels should not be left unguarded, neither should a woman be left unprotected.  If there are costly jewels, we do not throw them here and there like brass vessels. Costly material is protected”.


Education was an important feature in the upbringing of a girl child. Education was considered essential for girls and was therefore customary for girls to receive education. The girls with education were regarded highly.

The Vedic literature praises a scholarly daughter and says: “A girl also should be brought up and educated with great effort and care” (Mahanirvana Tantra). The importance of a girl’s education is stressed in the Atharva Veda which states,” The success of woman in her married life depends upon her proper training during the BrahmaCharya  (student period)”

The Rigvedic Society recognized the power of knowledge; and, prepared their women to face the life in most of its aspects. They taught them Music, Dancing and art of self-defense, apart from the traditional learning.

Family by S Rajam

Family by Sri S Rajam

According to Prof. A.S. Altekar (Education in Ancient India; Published by Nand Kishor & Brothers, Benaras – 1944), since the Upanayana ceremony was linked to the  commencement of education, the Upanayana of girls was as common as that of boys. The girls were entitled to Upanayana (to receive sacred thread); and, to the privilege   of studying Vedas, just as the boys.

The Atharvaveda (XI. 5. 18) expressly refers to maidens undergoing the Brahmacharya discipline; and, the Sutra works of the 5th century B. C. supply interesting details in its connection. Even Manu includes Upanayana among the sanskaras (rituals) obligatory for girls (II. 66).

brahmacaryeṇa kanyā yuvānaṃ vindate patim | anaḍvān brahmacaryeṇāśvo ghāsaṃ jigīṣati ||AVŚ_11,5[7].18||

amantrikā tu kāryeyaṃ strīṇām āvṛd aśeṣataḥ / saṃskārārthaṃ śarīrasya yathākālaṃ yathākramam // Mn_2.66 //

Women performed religious rites after completing their education under a Guru. They were entitled to offer sacrifices to gods. The son was not absolutely necessary for this purpose.

There is ample and convincing evidence to show that women were regarded as perfectly eligible for the privilege of studying the Vedic literature and performing the sacrifices enjoined in it. The Rigveda contains hymns composed by twenty different poetesses, such as:  Visvavara, Sikata Nivavarl, Ghosha, Romasa, Lopamudra, Apala and Urvasi.

For instance; Ghosa (Rv. 1-117; X-39-40); Lopamudra (Rv.1.179); Mamata (Rv. VI-10-2); Apala (Rv. VIII-91); Surya (RV.X-85); Indrani (Rv. X-86); Saci (Rv. X-24), Sarparajni (Rv. X-88) and Visvavara (Rv.V-28)

The woman seer Visvavara not only composed mantras, but also performed the functions  of a Rtvik (priest) at a sacrifice. Another seer Apala composed a hymn in honor of Indra, and offered to him Soma-juice herself.

Even later in her life, a man could perform the Vedic sacrifices only if he had his wife by his side. According to Shrauta and Grihya Sutras, women chanted mantras along with their husbands while performing rituals.  And, the housewife was expected to offer oblations in the household (grihya) fire unaided by the husband, normally in the evening and sometimes in the morning also. In the Srattararohana ritual of the Agrahayaga ceremony, the wife used to recite a number of Vedic hymns ; and , the harvest sacrifices could be performed by women alone, ‘because such was the long-standing custom’.

Women sometimes used to accompany their husbands in the battles against their rivals. the warrior queen Vispala, the wife of the king Khela, had lost her leg in a war; and in which place an iron (ayasi) one was implanted by the  Asvins. And, thereafter , she continued to fight on.

yu̱vaṁ dhe̱nuṁ śa̱yave̍ nādhi̱tāyāpi̍nvatam aśvinā pū̱rvyāya̍ |
amu̍ñcata̱ṁ varti̍kā̱m aṁha̍so̱ niḥ prati̱ jaṅghā̍ṁ vi̱śpalā̍yā adhattam || RV_1,118.08

Mudgalani or Indrasena, wife of the sage Mudgala helped her  husband in the pursuit of robbers who had stolen their cows; drove the chariot for her husband when he was put in a tight corner. Further, Nalyani Indrasena taking up husband’s bow and arrow, fought the robbers; defeated them;  recovered and brought home her herd of cows.

ut sma vāto vahati vāso ‘syā adhirathaṃ yad ajayat sahasram | rathīr abhūn Mudgalānī gaviṣṭau bhare kṛtaṃ vy aced Indrasenā ||R.V.10.102.2||

There were eminent women in the field of learning and scholarship. These highly intelligent and greatly learned women, who chose the path of Vedic studies and, lived the ideal life of spirituality were called Brahmavadinis. And the women who opted out of education for married life were called ‘Sadyovadhus’. Co-education seems to have existed in this period; and,  both the sexes got equal attention from the teacher.

As many as about thirty Brahmavadins of great intellect and spiritual attainment are immortalized in the Rig Veda and are credited with hymns. They participated in philosophical debates with men and were highly respected. To name a few of those  significant women rishis   (rishikā)  who figure in the Rig Veda Samhitā:  Goshā Kakshivati, Lopamudra, Romasha, Sarama Devasuni , Yami Vaivasvathi , Rathir Bharadwaja , Apala, Paulomi and others. Needless to say, they were held in high esteem  for their work to be included in the important religious text of the era. 

[ Dr. Rukmani Trichur (Distinguished Emeritus Professor, Concordia University)  in her paper Empowerment of Women Based on Sanskrit Texts’, while on the subject of Brahmavadini-s writes:

 Gargi, as a learned woman, could have remained content as a composer of hymns like the 27 Risikas mentioned as composers of hymns. But, Gargi is not content with the ordinary, and is looking for answers to fundamental questions. Gargi can be called an extraordinary Brahmavadinī.  

The term Brahmavadinī   looks as though it was applied to both the composer of hymns, as one can surmise from the Brhad-devata, classifying Risikas like Lopamudra, Romasa and so on as Brahmavadinī s, as also to those who chose to remain unmarried, pursuing a life of learning, to which category Gargi would belong.

Harti-Smrti (ca 6thBCE) classifies women as being of two kinds i.e., Brahmavadinī and Sadyovadhū. It is generally understood that the term Brahmavadini implies a Kumari, who is unmarried. And, even in case a Brahmavadini was married, she could yet choose to continue to lead a life devoted to study; and, that would again indicate her exercising her own choice. Similarly, when Maitreyi opts for being educated in the Upanishad lore, she is exercising her choice; and, there is no indication whatsoever that Yajñavalkya tried to dissuade her from her decision.

Thus, Brahmavadinī is a woman of learning; whether within or outside of marriage. She is one who can make up her mind and can speak with confidence in an assembly of scholars; just as Gargi questioned even the learned Yajñavalkya.

The image of the Brahmavadinī was a powerful one, which exerted perpetual influence; and, it never faded away from the cultural memory. Thus, even when male offspring are prized, the Brhadarayaka Upanishad does not forget to remind us that there is a mantra , which can ensure the birth of a pandita or learned daughter (6.4.17).

In the Grhya-sūtras of Asvalayana and Sankyayana, three Brahmavadini-s:  Gargi Vachaknavi; Vadava Pratitheyi; and, Sulabha Maitreyi are celebrated.

It is generally acknowledged that the Vedic period was not unfair to women; and, therefore,  the achievements of the Risikas and Brahmavadini-s need not surprise us.

The subsequent period of subjugation of women and her low educational status would naturally lead to her lack of agency. But again, that is not entirely true, for women continued to exercise their choice in adopting a life of learning, in times that were not so favorable

Panini’s Astadhyayi and the subsequent grammatical literature provide evidence of women who were Acharyaa-s and Upadhyayi-s. Bhattoji Dikshita in his Varittika on Panini’s Astadhyayi explains these terms as referring to those ladies who themselves were teachers (yatu svayameva upadhyayika).

While Panini refers to women belonging to Vedic Shakas, cites the instance of Kathi as being a student of Katha-shakha (PA 4.1.53). The Amara-kosha, the Sanskrit Dictionary, also makes a distinction between the female -teachers and the wives of male -teachers.]

Incidentally, let me mention that, later, the Shatapatha Brahmana lists some 52 generations of teachers, of which some 42 are remembered through their mothers. The teachers were males. This list acts like a bridge between the end of the Rig-Veda time and the Shatapatha Braahmana time. It is remarkable that a patriarchal society should remember its teachers through their mothers. The preference over the names of their fathers indicates the important position of women as mothers in Vedic society. Their mothers were considered that valuable, as their sons were recognized through their names.;wap2


There is very little evidence of child (or infant) marriage in the Rig Veda. A girl was married at 16 or more years of age, when her physical development was complete. Marriage was solemnized soon after wedding ceremony. The Vedic rituals presuppose that the married pair was grown up enough to be lovers, man and wife, and parents of children (marriage hymn). These go to show that a girl was married after she attained puberty. Surya, the daughter of Surya (the Sun), was married to Soma (the Moon), only when she became youthful and yearned for a husband.

[ Prof. A L Basham , in his ‘The Wonder That was India” , writes :

The marriage of boys, whether before or just after puberty, is no¬ where suggested, but the idea) of a rigorous period of studentship before marriage is always maintained. The child-marriage of both parties, which became common in later times among well-to-do families, has no basis at all in sacred literature, and it is very doubtful whether the child-marriage of girls was at all common until the late medieval period. The heroines of poetry and fiction are apparently full grown when they marry, and the numerous inscriptions which throw much light on the customs of the time give little or no indication  of child-marriage. Ancient Indian medical authorities state that the best children are produced from mothers over sixteen, and apparently recognize the practice of child-marriage as occasionally occurring, but disapprove of it.]

The Rig-Veda (5, 7, 9) refers to young maidens completing their education as Brahmacharinis and then gaining husbands. The Vedas say that an educated girl should be married to an equally educated man  “An unmarried young learned daughter should be married to a bridegroom who like her is learned. Never think of giving in marriage a daughter of very young age’”

ā dhenavo dhunayantām aśiśvīḥ sabardughāḥ śaśayā apradugdhāḥ  (RV 3.55.16).

Young women of the time could exercise their choice in the matter of their marriage. “The woman who is of gentle birth and of graceful form,” so runs a verse in the Rig Veda, “selects among many of her loved one as her husband. The term for the bridegroom was vara, the chosen one. ”The happy and beautiful bride chooses (vanute) by herself (svayam) her own husband” – (bhadrā vadhūr bhavati yat supeśāḥ svayaṃ sā mitraṃ vanute jane cit – RV 10. 27.12). The swayamvaram of the princesses are of course well documented.

kiyatī yoṣā maryato vadhūyoḥ pariprītā panyasā Vāryeṇa | bhadrā Vadhūr-bhavati yatsupeśāḥ svayaṁ sā mitraṁ vanute jane cit || RV.10.027.12 ||

Many marriages, as in the later day Hindu society today, involved the intercession of the families on either side, but a maiden was consulted and her wishes taken into account when the matrimonial alliance was discussed. The marriage hymns 139 in the Rig-Veda and the Atharvaveda indicate that the parties to marriage were generally grown up persons competent to woo and be wooed, qualified to give consent and make choice.

Young girls had the freedom to go out to attend fairs, festivals and assemblies’; the seclusion of women was not practiced. There is a reference to certain occasional festivals or gatherings called Samanas organized to help young boys and girls to get together. Rig Veda described Samana as where:

Wives and maidens attire themselves in gay robes and set forth to the joyous feast; youths and maidens hasten to the meadow when forest and field are clothed in fresh verdure to take part in dance. Cymbals sound and seizing each other lads and damsels whirl a about until the ground vibrates and clouds of dust envelop the gaily moving throng.

A girl often chose one of the suitors whom she met in these Samanas as her husband.


Dr. Bhagwat Saran Upadhya in his extensive work ‘Women In Rgveda‘ (Published by Nand Kishore and Brothers, Benares – 1941) writes :

daughter in Rigveda


Dr. Rukmani Trichur writes :

Vedic society was one which valued marriage very highly. If then, in a society that prized marriage as very high, a woman decided not to go through marriage, that would be a decision expressing not only her choice but also indicating her resolve to stand up to the  pressure of society to go against its norms. That involves agency and power to take an independent decision. In Vedic society, we do find such women like Gargi. 

Even in the Epics Ramayana and Mahabharata one finds women (like Damayanti, Savitri and Rukmini) who had the freedom to choose their spouse. And, Kuni-Garga (Shalya-parva- 52.3-25) refused to get married because she did not meet anyone suitable and up to her expectations. Similarly, Sulabha (mentioned in the Ashvalayana Grihya Sutra) refused marriage; for none of her suitors could match her in learning. She is celebrated in Mahabharata (Shanthi-parva-320) as a learned recluse who defeated King Janaka, in his own court.


The older texts talk of the seven steps  around the Agni ; and , the vows taken based on mutual respect, taken during marriage

Sakaa -Sapthapadha -bhava Sakaayov -Saptha padhaa -Bhaboova
Sakyam -the’ -Ghame’yam Sakyaath -the’ Maayosham -Sakyan me’
Maayosta -Samayaava -Samayaava Sangalpaavahai -Sampriyov
Rosishnu -Sumanasyamanov Ishamoorjam – abhi -Savasaanov
Managhumsi -Samvrathaas smu Chiththaani -Aakaram -Sathvamasi
Amooham -Amoohamasmi saa -Thvam -dhyowraham
Pruthivee thvam -Retho’ aham -retho’ Bhruthvam -Manohamasmi
-vak thvam -Saamaa ham asmi -Rukthvam -Saamaam
Anuvradhaa -bhava Pumse’ Pumse’ -Puthraaya -Veththavai
Sriyai -Puthraaya -Veththavai ehi -Soonrurute’||

By these seven steps that you have taken with me, you have become my best friend. I will never move out of this relationship. God has united us in this bondage. We shall perform all activities together with love and affection and with good feelings. Let us be friendly in our thoughts. Let us observe our duties and rituals together. If you are the lyrics, I am the music. If you are the music I am the lyrics. If I am the heavenly body you are the earthly world. While I am the life source and you are the carrier of the same. I am the thoughts and you are the speech. When you are like the words, you work with me who is like the meaning of it. With your sweet words, come with me to lead a prosperous life begetting our progeny with children.

(Source: Taittiriya Ekagnikanda, I iii, 14. ; Sastri, 1918.)

It  appears that the bride was given by her parents gold, cattle, horses, valuables , articles etc. which she carried to her new home .She had a right to deal with it as she pleased. No doubt the dowry a girl brought with her did render her more attractive. “How much a maiden is pleasing to the suitor who would marry for her splendid riches? If the girl be both good and fair of feature, she finds, herself, a friend among the people. “(Rig-Veda X .27.12)

kiyatī yoṣā maryato vadhūyoḥ pariprītā panyasā vāryeṇa |bhadrā vadhūr bhavati yat supeśāḥ svayaṃ sā mitraṃ vanute jane cit ||

There were also the woes of a father,” When a man’s daughter hath been ever eyeless, who, knowing, will be wroth with her for blindness? Which of the two will lose on him his anger-the man who leads her home or he who woos her?” (RV 10.27.11)

yasyānakṣā duhitā jātv āsa kas tāṃ vidvāṃ abhi manyāte andhām |kataro menim prati tam mucāte ya īṃ vahāte ya īṃ vā vareyāt ||

Marriage was an established institution in the Vedic Age. It was regarded as a social and religious duty; and not a contract. The husband-wife stood on equal footing and prayed for long lasting love and friendship. At the wedding, the bride addressed the assembly in which the sages too were present. [Rig Veda (10.85.26-27)]

pūṣā tveto nayatu hastagṛhyāśvinā tvā pra vahatāṃ rathena |gṛhān gaccha gṛhapatnī yathāso vaśinī tvaṃ vidatham ā vadāsi ||iha priyam prajayā te sam ṛdhyatām asmin gṛhe gārhapatyāya jāgṛhi |enā patyā tanvaṃ saṃ sṛjasvādhā jivrī vidatham ā vadāthaḥ ||

[The term Kanya-daan or the concept of the father gifting away his daughter does not appear in Rig-Veda. She is treated with much dignity , honor and Love]

Marriage was not compulsory for a woman; an unmarried who stayed back in the house of her parents was called Amajur, a girl who grew old at her father’s house. An unmarried person was however not eligible to participate in Vedic sacrifices.

A woman, if she chose, could marry even after the child bearing age. For instance Ghosa a well known female sage married at a late stage in her life (her husband being another well known scholar of that time Kaksivan) , as she had earlier suffered from some skin ailment. And, late in her life (vadhramatya), with the blessings of the Asvins, Ghosa gave birth to a son , who was named as Hiranyahastha.

yuvam ǀ narā ǀ stuvate ǀ kṛṣṇiyāya ǀ viṣṇāpvam ǀ dadathu ǀ viśvakāya ǀ Ghoāyai ǀ cit ǀ pit-sade ǀ duroe ǀ patim ǀ jūryantyai ǀ aśvinau ǀ adattam ǁ 1.117.07 ǁ

ajohavīt ǀ nāsatyā ǀ karā ǀ vām ǀ mahe ǀ yāman ǀ puru-bhujā ǀ puram-dhi ǀ śrutam ǀ tat ǀ śāsu-iva ǀ vadhri-matyā ǀ hiraya-hastam ǀ aśvinau ǀ adattam ǁ1.117.24 ǁ


Monogamy normally prevailed but polygamy was also in vogue . Some scholars say that polyandry and divorce were also common. There are no direct references to that. I am not therefore sure of that.

[Polygamy, in ordinary circumstances, was not encouraged by the earlier legal literature. One Dharma Sutra  definitely forbids a man to take a second wife if his first is of good character and has borne him sons. Another later source states that a polygamist is unfit to testify in a court of law.  The Arthasastra  lays down various rules which discourage wanton polygamy, including the payment of compensation to the first wife. The ideal models of Hindu marriage are the hero Rama and his faithful wife Slta, whose mutual love was never broken by the rivalry of a co-wife. However, polygamous marriages are so frequently mentioned that wc may assume that they were fairly common among all sections of the community who could afford them .

 Polyandry, was not wholly unknown, though it was impossible for ordinary people of respectable class in most parts of India – Prof. A L Basham]

[ Prof. A L Basham (The Wonder That Was India) mentions :

Though the religious law books leave no room for divorce, the Arthasastra shows that it was possible in early times, at least in marriages not solemnized by religious rites. In this case divorce was allowed by mutual consent on grounds of incompatibility ; and one party might obtain divorce without the consent of the other if apprehensive of actual physical danger from his or her partner. The Arthasastra would allow divorce even after religious marriage to a wife who has been deserted by her husband, and lays down waiting periods of from one to twelve years, which vary according to circumstances and class. These provisions, however, do not appear in later law books, and were probably forgotten by Gupta times, when divorce became virtually impossible for people of the higher classes.]

Widows were allowed to remarry if they so desired, particularly when they were childless; and , faced no condemnation and ostracization socially.

Married life

A girl when she marries moves into another household where she becomes part of it. Her gotra changes from that of her father into that of her husband. She participates in performances of yagnas for devas and pitrs of her husband’s family. The bride takes charge of her new family that includes her husband, his parents, brothers and sisters; and others who lived there for some reason.

The Rig Veda hymn (10, 85.27) , the wedding prayer , indicates the rights of a woman as wife. It is addressed to the bride sitting next to bridegroom. It touches upon few other issues as well.

“Happy be you (as wife) in future and prosper with your children here (in the house): be vigilant to rule your household in this home (i.e. exercise your authority as the main figure in your home). Closely unite (be an active participant) in marriage with this man, your husband. So shall you, full of years (for a very long life), address your company (i.e. others in the house listen to you, and obey and care about what you have to say).” (Rig Veda: 10, 85.27)

iha priyam prajayā te sam ṛdhyatām asmin gṛhe gārhapatyāya jāgṛhi |enā patyā tanvaṃ saṃ sṛjasvādhā jivrī vidatham ā vadāthaḥ ||

The famous marriage hymn (10.85.46 ) calls upon members of the husband’s family to treat the daughter in law (invited into the family ‘as a river enters the sea’) as the queen samrajni.

samrājñī śvaśure bhava samrājñī śvaśrvām bhava I nanāndari samrājñī bhava samrājñī adhi devṛṣu ||

She is welcomed in many ways:

” Come, O desired of the gods, beautiful one with tender heart, with the charming look, good towards your husband, kind towards animals, destined to bring forth heroes. May you bring happiness for both our quadrupeds and bipeds.” (Rig Veda 10.85.44)

aghoracakṣur apatighny edhi śivā paśubhyaḥ sumanāḥ suvarcāḥ | vīrasūr devakāmā syonā śaṃ no bhava dvipade śaṃ catuṣpade ||                                                                       

Over thy husband’s father and thy husband’s mother bear full sway. Over the sister of thy lord , over his brothers rule supreme”(Rig Veda 10.85.46)

samrājñī śvaśure bhava samrājñī śvaśrvām bhava |nanāndari samrājñī bhava samrājñī adhi devṛṣu ||

“Happy be thou and prosper with thy children here; be vigilant to rule thy household, in this home ‘. (Rig-Veda 10.85.27)

iha priyam prajayā te sam ṛdhyatām asmin gṛhe gārhapatyāya jāgṛhi |enā patyā tanvaṃ saṃ sṛjasvādhā jivrī vidatham ā vadāthaḥ ||

The idea of equality is expressed in the Rig Veda: “The home has, verily, its foundation in the wife”,” The wife and husband, being the equal halves of one substance, are equal in every respect; therefore both should join and take equal parts in all work, religious and secular.” (RV 5, 61. 8)

uta ghā nemo astutaḥ pumāṃ iti bruve paṇiḥ |sa vairadeya it samaḥ |

She was Pathni (the one who leads the husband through life), Dharmapathni (the one who guides the husband in dharma) and Sahadharmacharini (one who moves with the husband on the path of dharma).

To sum up, one can say that the bride in the Vedic ideal of a household was far from unimportant and weak. She did have an important position in the family and yielded considerable influence.


Property –rights

The third chapter of Rig-Veda , considered its oldest part (3.31.1) commands that a son-less father accepts son of his daughter as his own son i.e. all properties of a son-less father shall be inherited by son of his daughter.

śāsad vahnir duhitur naptyaṃ gād vidvāṃ ṛtasya dīdhitiṃ saparyan |pitā yatra duhituḥ sekam ṛñjan saṃ śagmyena manasā dadhanve ||

 Rik (3.31.2) commands that if parents have both son and daughter, son performs pindadaan (after death of father) and daughter be enriched with gifts.

na jāmaye tānvo riktham āraik cakāra garbhaṃ sanitur nidhānam |yadī mātaro janayanta vahnim anyaḥ kartā sukṛtor anya ṛndhan ||

 Rik (2.17.7) also attests share of a daughter in property of her father .

amājūr iva pitroḥ sacā satī samānād ā sadasas tvām iye bhagam |kṛdhi praketam upa māsy ā bhara daddhi bhāgaṃ tanvo yena māmahaḥ ||

Married women inherited and shared properties. A Widow too was entitled to a share in the properties of the dead husband.

Widowhood and Remarriage:

Rig-Veda does not mention anywhere about the practice of the burning or burial of widows with their dead husbands. Rig Veda commands the window to return to her house, to live with her children and grand children; and confers on her the right to properties of her deceased husband. Rig Veda clearly approves marriage of the widow. Such women faced no condemnation or isolation in the household or society. They had the right to property inherited from the dead husbands. There are riks blessing the woman and her new husband, with progeny and happiness. Rig-Veda praises Ashwin gods for protecting widows.(X.40.8)

yuvaṃ ha kṛśaṃ yuvam aśvinā śayuṃ yuvaṃ vidhantaṃ vidhavām uruṣyathaḥ | yuvaṃ sanibhya stanayantam aśvināpa vrajam ūrṇuthaḥ saptāsyam ||

Ambassador O P Gupta, IFS has made an excellent presentation of the status of widows in Rig Vedic times

 ( )

According to him:

None of the Riks in Rig Veda calls for the burning or burial of widow with body of her dead husband.

A set of 14 Riks in 18th Mandala of the 10th book deal with treatment of widows.

Rik (X.18.8) is recited by the dead man’s brothers and others, requesting the widow to release her husband’s body for cremation. The Rik also commands the widow to return to the world of living beings, return to her home and to her children and grand children, “Rise, woman, (and go) to the world of living beings; come, this man near whom you sleep is lifeless; you have enjoyed this state of being the wife of your husband, the suitor who took you by the hand.”

ud īrṣva nāry abhi jīvalokaṃ gatāsum etam upa śeṣa ehi |hastagrābhasya didhiṣos tavedam patyur janitvam abhi sam babhūtha ||

This rik also, confers upon her full right on house and properties of her deceased husband. [It was only in the year 1995 the Supreme Court of India interpreted Section 14(1) of the Hindu Succession Act to allow Hindu widow full ownership rights over properties she inherits from her deceased husband]

Rig-Veda not only sanctions survival of a widow and her right to property; but also approves her marriage with the brother of her dead husband; and to live with full dignity and honor in the family. Rig Veda therefore expressly sanctions widow-marriage. Some scholars say the widow could marry any person, not necessarily the brother of the deceased husband or a relative.

Rik (x.18.8) blesses a woman at her second marriage, with progeny and prosperity in this life time:: Go up, O woman, to the world of living; you stand by this one who is deceased; come! to him who grasps your hand, your second spouse (didhisu) ,you have now entered into the relation of wife to husband.

In rik (X.18.9) the new husband while taking the widow as his wife says to her: let us launch a new life of valor and strength begetting male children overcoming all enemies who may assail us.

dhanur hastād ādadāno mṛtasyāsme kṣatrāya varcase balāya | atraiva tvam iha vayaṃ suvīrā viśvā spṛdho abhimātīr jayema ||

AV(XVIII.3.4) blesses the widow to have a happy life with present husband ::O ye inviolable one ! (the widow) tread the path of wise in front of thee and choose this man (another suitor) as thy husband. Joyfully receive him and may the two of you mount the world of happiness.

prajānaty aghnye jīvalokaṃ devānāṃ panthām anusaṃcarantī |ayaṃ te gopatis taṃ juṣasva svargaṃ lokam adhi rohayainam ||4||


[Prof. A S Altekar  in his celebrated work ‘The Position of women in Hindu civilization’ , mentions under the Chapter –  Position of the widow Part II ; Section II (Widow remarriage – Page 177) mentions :

 The widow re-marriage prevailed in Vedic Society. The suggestion that the proposal for a re-marriage was made to the at the funeral of her husband is preposterous. It is based upon a wrong interpretation of a Vedic stanza –RV.

udīrva nāryabhi jīvaloka gatāsumetamupa śea ehi | hastagrābhasya didhiostaveda patyurjanitvamabhi sa babhūtha || 10.018.08 //

The Verse in question merely seeks to dissuade the widow from taking extreme steps. It aims to encourage the widow to come back to the living society and lead a purposeful life.

 The Verse, in fact reads: ‘Oh Lady, get up; come back to the world of the living.  As far as your wife-hood to your husband I, who had seized your hand in marriage, is concerned you have lived it out completely’.


At another place ,  Atharva Veda , referring to a woman marrying a second time, prescribes a ritual to secure the union of the new couple in heaven.

yā pūrva pati vittvā ‘thānya vindate ‘param | pañcaudana   ca tāv aja dadāto na vi yoata ||AV.9.5.27// samānaloko bhavati punarbhuvāpara pati |  yo ‘ja pañcaudanam dakiājyotia dadāti |AV.9.5. 28//


The Widow-re marriage, was however going out of practice by about the first century of the common era. Nevertheless, the opponents of the widow remarriage were not against the remarriage of the child-widows. But, by about 600 AD, the prejudice against widow remarriage began to get deeper and harder.]


During the post-Vedic period, woman lost the high status she once enjoyed in society. She lost some of her independence. She became a subject of protection.

The period after 300 B.C witnessed a succession of invasions and influx of foreigners such as the Greeks, the Scythians, the Parthian, the Kushans and others. The political misfortunes, the war atrocities followed by long spells of anarchy and lawlessness had a disastrous effect on the society. Fear and insecurity haunted the common people and householders. Sons were valued higher than the daughters because of the need for more fighting males, in order to survive the waves of onslaughts. It was also imperative to protect women from abductors. It therefore became necessary to curtail women’s freedom and movements’ . Early marriage was perhaps employed as a part of those defensive measures. The education of the girl child was no longer a priority. Sastras too compromised by accepting marriage as a substitute for Upanayana and education.

After about the beginning of the Christian era, the Upanayana for girls went out of vogue. The discontinuance of Upanayana was disastrous to the educational and religious status of women. The mischief caused by the discontinuance of Upanayana was further enhanced by the lowering of the marriageable age. In the Vedic period girls were married at about the age of 16 or 17; but by Ca. 500 B. C. the custom arose of marrying them soon after the attainment of puberty. Later writers like Yajnavalkya (200 A. D.), Samvarta and Yama, vehemently condemned the guardian who failed to get his daughter married before she attained puberty. Therefore, the Smritis written by 11th century began to glorify the merits of a girl’s marriage at the age of 7, 8, or 9, when it was regarded as an ideal thing to celebrate a girl’s marriage (Ashta varsheth bhaveth Kanya) . It is not surprising that with marriage at such a tender age, female education could hardly take off or  prosper.

The neglect of education, early marriage ,  imposing seclusion and insecurity that gripped their lives, had disastrous consequences upon the esteem and status of women . The society in turn sank into depravity.

The social conditions deteriorated rapidly during the medieval period.

For nearly 2000 years from 300 B.C. to A.D. 1800, truly the dark ages of India, the development of woman steadily stuttered though she was affectionately nurtured by the parents, loved by the husband and cared by her children.

Now, it is the time of reawakening. Women of India are beginning to get opportunities to establish their identity and be recognized for their potential, talent and capabilities. That is a good rebeginning. The process must improve both in terms of its spread and quality. The ancient principles of equal opportunities for learning and development, equitable position in place of work and right to seek out her destiny, with honor; that guided the Vedic society must soon find a place in all segments of the society. It may sound like asking for the moon. But, that is the only option India has if it has to survive as a nation.




Posted by on September 4, 2012 in Indian Philosophy, Rigveda


Tags: ,

24 responses to “Rig Veda – Position of women (2/2)

  1. kd gupta

    March 21, 2014 at 4:45 pm

    comment on widow described in rik is right .
    there is no word like burial anywhere in rik .
    rik says to use the land as grow green after the burning of dead body .

    • sreenivasaraos

      March 21, 2014 at 6:41 pm

      Dear Gupta , Thanks for the visit and approval.

  2. Prassoon Suryadas

    June 8, 2014 at 2:28 pm

    Please share original text and literal translation of 10.85.46 if you have…

    • sreenivasaraos

      June 8, 2014 at 3:16 pm

      Dear Prasoon, These are part of marriage mantras
      Please check

      As regards the two you referred to :

      [10.85.26] pUSÁ tvetó nayatu hastagRhyAshvínA tvA prá vahatAM ráthena
      gRhÁn gacha gRhápatnI yáthÁso vashínI tváM vidátham Á vadAsi
      Griffith’s translation
      That, Bounteous Indra, she may live blessed in her fortune and her sons. / Let Pusan take thy hand and hence conduct thee; may the two Asvins on their car transport thee.

      The Rig Veda hymn (10, 85.27), the wedding prayer, indicates the rights of a woman as wife. It is addressed to the bride sitting next to bridegroom. It touches upon few other issues as well.

      [10.85.27] ihá priyám prajáyA te sám RdhyatAm asmín gRhé gÁrhapatyAya jAgRhi

      enÁ pátyA tanvàM sáM sRjasvÁdhA jívrI vidátham Á vadAthaH

      Griffith’s translation
      Go to the house to be the household’s mistress and speak as lady to thy gathered people. / Happy be thou and prosper with thy children here: be vigilant to rule thy household in this home.

      [“Happy be you (as wife) in future and prosper with your children here (in the house): be vigilant to rule your household in this home (i.e. exercise your authority as the main figure in your home). Closely unite (be an active participant) in marriage with this man, your husband. So shall you, full of years (for a very long life), address your company (i.e. others in the house listen to you, and obey and care about what you have to say).]


    • sreenivasaraos

      June 8, 2014 at 3:27 pm

      Dear Prasoon

      As regards the original text :

      पूषा तवेतो नयतु हस्तग्र्ह्याश्विना तवा पर वहतांरथेन |
      गर्हान गछ गर्हपत्नी यथासो वशिनी तवंविदथमा वदासि ||

      इह परियं परजया ते सं रध्यतामस्मिन गर्हे गार्हपत्यायजाग्र्हि |
      एना पत्या तन्वं सं सर्जस्वाधा जिव्री विदथमा वदाथः ||

      Rig Veda 10.85.26-27

      • Prassoon Suryadas

        June 8, 2014 at 9:41 pm

        Thanks… but 46 🙂 is what I’m interested to know about

      • sreenivasaraos

        June 8, 2014 at 11:12 pm


        45 O Bounteous Indra, make this bride blest in her sons and fortunate.
        Vouchsafe to her ten sons, and make her husband the eleventh man.
        46 Over thy husband’s father and thy husband’s mother bear full sway.
        Over the sister of thy lord, over his brothers rule supreme.
        47 So may the Universal Gods, so may the Waters join our hearts.
        May Mātariśvan, Dhātar, and Destri together bind us close.

        इमां तवमिन्द्र मीढ्वः सुपुत्रां सुभगां कर्णु |
        दशास्यां पुत्राना धेहि पतिमेकादशं कर्धि ||
        सम्राज्ञी शवशुरे भव सम्राज्ञी शवश्र्वां भव |
        ननान्दरि सम्राज्ञी भव सम्राज्ञी अधि देव्र्षु ||
        समञ्जन्तु विश्वे देवाः समापो हर्दयानि नौ |
        सम्मातरिश्वा सं धाता समु देष्ट्री दधातु नौ ||

        imāṃ tvamindra mīḍhvaḥ suputrāṃ subhaghāṃ kṛṇu |
        daśāsyāṃ putrānā dhehi patimekādaśaṃ kṛdhi ||
        samrājñī śvaśure bhava samrājñī śvaśrvāṃ bhava |
        nanāndari samrājñī bhava samrājñī adhi devṛṣu ||
        samañjantu viśve devāḥ samāpo hṛdayāni nau |
        sammātariśvā saṃ dhātā samu deṣṭrī dadhātu nau ||

        ‘Act like a queen over your husband’s father, over your husband’s mother likewise, and his sister. Over all your husband’s brothers be queen’ (10.85.46).

  3. Prassoon Suryadas

    June 9, 2014 at 1:31 am

    Awesome… Thanks a lot Sir.

  4. sreenivasaraos

    March 21, 2015 at 10:02 am

    the legal rights on property, the marriage and the status of women after the marriage and many aspects are very well discussed. it is very well balanced analytical article about women in rig veda.

    i have one doubt. to my knowledge , gained after reading various books, that the lord vishnu divides himself into man and woman then they multiplies.. is there any mention of this in rig veda?

    hope u do not mind asking a question like this.


    • sreenivasaraos

      March 21, 2015 at 10:02 am

      dear indu3

      it is ok; you can ask.

      the type of reference to vishnu that you mentioned does not occur in rig veda.

      in rig veda, vishnu initially had a lower position to that of indra. he is the younger brother of indra. vishnu is described as living and wandering on the mountains.. it was only in the later stages lthat vishnu evolved into a more significant god.

      with the advent of the golden age of the puranas in the gupta period, the transformation of vishnu into a supreme godhead was complete. the virtues and glory of the vedic indra and surya were transferred to puranic vishnu. at the same time, the indra was demoted to a demigod, stripped of his power and glory. indra’s status in puranas is pathetic and he is flawed by envy, greed and other human failings.

      in this process, vishnu, in place of indra, became the lord of the universe. the attributes and titles that once applied to indra were now employed to describe vishnu. now, vishnu (not indra) is the omniscient and omnipresent godhead; he is ‘ashrutkarna; whose ears hear all things; and “svayambhuva” meaning ‘self-existent’ or ‘self manifested’.

      why this transfer of power took place? i have no clue.

      please read , -rig veda- origin of our popular gods (6/7)


      as regards the other question you asked, this is part of creation myth in hinduism. this myth occurs in several forms.

      in the brihadaranyaka upanishad, prajapati, the primordial god, divides himself into two – man and woman, the symbols of cosmic polarity deriving sustenance from the same source.

      in padma purana hiranya_garbha divided himself into three parts: from his rightside, he produced the creator; from his left, he produced vishnu, the preserver; and from his middle, he produced shiva, the destroyer.

      devi bhagavata purana (ix. 2. 12 – 23) describes vishnu divided himself into two parts, the left being female and the right male..

      shiva as ardhanarishwara manifested the ‘signs’ of both sexes as the prime cause of creation in the world.

      i think there might be other references of similar nature.

      thanks for asking.


      • sreenivasaraos

        March 21, 2015 at 10:04 am

        hanks a lot for explaining patiently. this aspect is very new to me. till now i am under the impression, ( again because of reading various books) that the vedas are in control of vishnu, and veda vyasa himself is vishnu.

        devi bhagavatham says shkti is the main goddess and brahma, vishnu and shiva are in the toe finger of devi. these three murthy change after each pralaya kal, and now we are in the rule of 27th vishnu.
        again prajapathi is also vishnu.

        when we say 4 vedas means rig veda, yajurveda, adhrvana veda and sama veda.

        please correct me if i am wrong.

        then how come rig veda does not mention vishnu as the creator, or the prajapathi? in vishnu purana there is a mention of prdhvi raj, vishnu’s another avatar and saved bhumata and hence the name of earth has become pridhvi.

        whenever we come across the mention of vedas the first dasavatar story comes to our mind. where lord vishnu saved vedas in meena avatar .
        so we relate vedas with vishnu. hope i am not boring u with my silly questions.


  5. sreenivasaraos

    March 21, 2015 at 10:04 am


    upanayanam for the female child in rig veda is a revelation to me. women practically enjoyed equal status with men in all most all spheres it seems.

    i presume that in the absence of any other veda, rig veda being the first, there was no question of a woman’s veda changing to that of husband’s because of marriage.

    i suppose there could have been even a few female rishis!

    no child marriages for women; women had to give consent before marrying a prospective groom; such a noble thought.

    i wonder if all this changed because of foreing invasion or influence.

    how & when did other vedas (yajur, sama, atharvana etc) come about in india?


  6. sreenivasaraos

    March 21, 2015 at 10:06 am

    excellent blog! u have made a very interesting point. the status of women degrades when a civilization is threatened militarily. this makes a lot of sense.

    i wonder if there has been much study correlating condition of women and the military threat to cultures. thanks once again for enlightening us.


  7. sreenivasaraos

    March 21, 2015 at 10:07 am

    sorry, i’m so late to this post…

    excellent read! that women were eligible for upanayanam is an eye-opener. and widow remarriage is an absolute revelation! the freedom enjoyed by women back then is astounding, to say the least. perhaps you could elaborate on how, when and why these things changed, maybe a new post.

    thanks for a nice post, as informative as ever. enjoy reading all of them.


    • sreenivasaraos

      March 21, 2015 at 10:07 am

      dear melody queen,

      you are ever welcome . thanks for breathing life into an old and forgotten blog.

      you said “perhaps you could elaborate on how, when and why these things changed, maybe a new post.”

      i tried to briefly the sum up the later age development in the last segment of the post which was already getting lengthy .i think it was mostly due the sad fact that woman in india after 3 bc became a subject of protection. the political misfortunes, the war atrocities followed by long spells of anarchy and lawlessness had a disastrous effect on the society. fear and insecurity haunted the common people and householders. sons were valued higher than the daughters because of the need for more fighting males, in order to survive the waves of onslaughts. it was also imperative to protect women from abductors.

      the education of the girl child was no longer a priority , in those troubled times.. dharma sastras too compromised by accepting marriage as a substitute for upanayanam and education. the neglect of education, imposing seclusion and insecurity that gripped their lives, had disastrous consequences upon the esteem and status of women .the society in turn sank into depravity.

      now, it is the time of reawakening; lets hope.


  8. sreenivasaraos

    March 21, 2015 at 10:10 am

    My question is to Mr. Sreenivasa Rao author of the article Rig Veda – Position of women (2/2). I am very keen on knowing certain aspects of position of women in Vedas especially the “reference to the birth of an only daughter, who was assigned the legal position of a son; and she could perform funeral rites of her father and could also inherit the property”. I am especially of the opinion of enlarging these rights to daughters married or unmarried as this will make people treat both their children sons and daughters with equal love as the modern day women is also quite strong mentally. The male female sex ratio has become appalling, everybody wants daughters-in-law nobody wants daughters. If the feeling of equality between son and daughters is clear, if women/daughters can also perform different rites, if people are ready to live either with daughters or sons in old age then maybe this feeling may change. Customs are made for conveniences, but in changing circumstances when they become rigid and do not adapt to change they may loose their worth and value and would be misrepresented and cause fear and guilt in people. In spite of being ill-treated or neglected we find parents continue to be with their sons saying scriptures say so.

    The male female sex ratio in our country is to be despaired and this will only cause more problems both spiritually and socially.

    I am raising the following question only so that people love their children whether daughters or sons and try to live like good human beings.

    My question is since there is no specific/ explicit prohibition on women lighting the funeral pyre in the Vedas can a daughter married or unmarried light the funeral pyre and perform other ceremonies if she is mentally strong to do so?.Or is any reference made to this?

    Please enlighten me on this and similar issues.

    Thanking you,


    • sreenivasaraos

      March 21, 2015 at 10:11 am

      Dear Padmaja please accept my sincere apologies. I am sorry the Note just slipped out of my mind. I have no other excuse. Please pardon me.

      The point you make is very valid.

      My question is since there is no specific/ explicit prohibition on women lighting the funeral pyre in the Vedas can a daughter married or unmarried light the funeral pyre and perform other ceremonies if she is mentally strong to do so?

      Yes , I agree there is no specific restriction in the Vedas on women performing such rites; and such restrictions evolved during later periods say around the first century and have been there as a matter of custom (loka_chara).

      But in the recent days’ performance by women of ceremonies in the first 10 days after death and the shraddha is not unusual, particularly in the Tamil country. It is also common for the women folk to visit the burial ground and the places of shraddha.

      As regards performing funeral rites and shraddha a certain priority or a sequence is usually followed.The general hierarchy appears to be:

      Sons, grandsons, the great grandsons, the wife, the brothers,

      The sons of brothers, the father, the mother,

      The daughters, the daughters-in-law,

      The sisters, the sons of a sister; and finally any other family relative.

      It is interesting that the wife gets precedence over others but after the line of sons and grandsons.

      Another source mentions the order as:

      Son (including the one whose threading ceremony has not been done), daughter, grandson, great grandson, wife, daughter’s son (if he is one of the heirs), real brother, nephew, cousin’s son, father, mother, daughter-in-law, son of elderly and younger sisters, maternal uncle, anyone in the seven generations and from the same lineage (sapinda), anyone after the seven generations and belonging to the same family domain (samanodak), disciple, priests (upadhyay), friend, son-in-law of the deceased person can perform Shraddha in that order.

      In case of a joint family, the eldest and earning male person should perform Shraddha. In case of the unit family, everyone should perform shraddha independently.

      2. Women performing all kinds of priestly functions are quite common in the Arya_Samaja tradition.

      Even outside the Arya _Samaja fold there are instances of women priests conducting funeral rites and shraddha ceremonies. For instance, Smt. Sandhya Kulkarni, Sanskrit scholar and priest of Pune conducted several such rites. There is also the case of Sandhyavandanam Lakshmi Devi of Andhra Pradesh who performed many anteyshti (last rites) including that of her teacher Gopadeva Sastry.

      3.There are organizations that are engaged in training and ordaining women to perform priestly functions. In Pune, for example, the Shankar Seva Samiti trains women to chant Vedic mantras and perform various rites.

      4. As you rightly mentioned, it is not the scriptural sanctions that hold back women from such functions, but, the common understanding of the custom. Unlike in other religions, there is no centralized authority in Hindu traditions that dispense instructions on all matters. It is largely left to the understanding and enterprise of each individual. If a woman sincerely feels it is apt for her, in the circumstances, to perform those functions there could no taboo or restrictions to prevent her.

      Sorry for the delay.


  9. sreenivasaraos

    March 21, 2015 at 10:12 am

    Sreenivasa Rao Sb,

    Your blogs on Rig Vedic Society are refreshing and eye opening. The big question is why medieval people deviated from Rig Vedic norms and subsequently degenerated.

    DMR Sekhar

    • sreenivasaraos

      March 21, 2015 at 10:16 am

      Dear Shri Sekhar, Pardon me for the delay in responding to your comment. I was away from Home for some time. Please do excuse me.

      The rot in the Indian society had set in much before the medieval times.

      The Dharmasastras were the manuals of an inward-looking, insecure society that was rather degenerating. Dharmasastras came into being at the time when the orthodox society was under dire threat and when it was fighting for survival. The society had entered in to self preservation – mode. The severity of the Dharma Shastra was perhaps a defensive mechanism, in response to the threats and challenges thrown at its society.

      The texts viewed the society not as a collection of individuals but as a community of communities. It was articulated into specific castes, each with its economic functions and a place in the social hierarchy. An individual’s Dharma was derived from the caste of his birth. One of the purposes of the texts seemed to be to keep the members of the society within their assigned roles.

      Dharmashastras are principally concerned with the rights and privileges of upper castes (especially of its men), consecratory rights (samskaras), stages of life, rules of eating, duties of the kings, legal procedures, eighteen titles of law, categories of sin, expiations and penances, funerary and ancestral rites(antyesti and shraddha) and atonement rites(Prayaschitta) etc.

      Its main concern was preserving the social order and to hold the society together. Though the shastras pointed out the breaches in observance of the prescribed code of behaviour, it was willing to condone the lapses, purify the wayward and naughty; and admit them back into the orthodox fold. Further, It even readily took under its fold the alien hordes such as Kushans, Yavanas (Ionians or Greeks), Sakas (Scythians) and others; and recognized them as Vratya – Kshatriyas

      The period after 300 B.C witnessed a succession of invasions and influx of foreigners such as the Greeks, the Scythians, the Parthian, the Kushans and others. The political misfortunes, the war atrocities followed by long spells of anarchy and lawlessness had a disastrous effect on the society. Fear and insecurity haunted the common people and householders.

      The social conditions deteriorated rapidly during the medieval period.
      For nearly 2000 years from 300 B.C. to A.D. 1800, truly the dark ages of India, the development of woman steadily stuttered though she was affectionately nurtured by the parents, loved by the husband and cared by her children.

      In a way of speaking, down the ages the quality of freedom accorded /denied to women indexed the state of Indian society.


      Please do read:

      Dharma in Mahabharata:


      Dharma in Dharmasastras:

  10. sreenivasaraos

    March 21, 2015 at 10:13 am

    why can’t a Kshatriya boy marry a brahmin girl ? if they so then what kind of problem will arise in there life?


    • sreenivasaraos

      March 21, 2015 at 10:13 am

      Dear Sonu, Pardon me for the delay in responding to your comment. I was away from Home for some time. Please do excuse me.

      The question why a Brahmin girl cannot marry a Kshatriya boy was neverr relevant.

      It was also not relevant in the very ancient times, say during the Rig-Veda times. For instance, the legendary King Yayathi (Kshatriya) married Devayani (daughter of the Brahman Guru Shukracharya). It was acceptable. Yadu the ancestor of the Yadavas in which linage Krishna and Balarama descended was the son of Yayathi and Devayani. The entire linage was highly respected.

      But, by the time of the middle-period of Mahabharata, the society had descended into caste-ridden chaos. The then Law-givers went into great lengths to classify and sub-classify the offspring’s born of inter-caste marriages, in order to determine their status and rights. The caste issue was a tragedy that not merely marred the lives of some its characters but it also turned into a bane and curse on the countless generations that followed.

      Under the elaborate scheme of anuloma and prati-loma classification, the offspring born of a Brahman woman from her Kshatriya husband was labelled a Suta. You come across a number of Sutas in the Mahabharata story; and most of them played crucial but thankless roles; and endured humiliation and pain.

      For more on the sordid subject, please read Re: Your research on Karna and the involved comments/discussions that follow.


  11. Abha Mishra

    June 27, 2020 at 5:52 am

    respected sir , I find myself highly fortunate for reaching to this eminent blog of yours. I am just unable to express my gratitude towards your enthusiasm of delivering the knowledge of ancient Indian text in its best elaborated form. I am a student , pursuing UG in Banaras Hindu University. I have been since long , searching for a blog on Hindu ancient texts and I stopped here. Thank you for enriching the present and new generations , assigning the term modernisation with westernisation , with the knowledge and history of ancient text of a glorified Bharat. I bow to your sacred mission.

    • sreenivasaraos

      June 27, 2020 at 2:23 pm

      Dear Abha

      Oh My God

      I am not sure I deserve all those wonderful things about me.

      I write about these subjects, because I love to do so.

      I have no mission as such. I am just an ordinary person.

      In case you find these articles interesting and useful, I am truly more than delighted

      I am grateful to you for your appreciation

      I wish you success in your studies, career and life

      May God Bless with abundance of all that is good, virtuous and beautiful in life

      Stay safe , healthy and happy

      Please keep talking

      Cheers and regards


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