The day of full moon, Purnima, in the month of Ashadh is traditionally celebrated as Guru Purnima also as Vyas Purnima.Today, 29 July, 2007 ; Sunday is the Guru Purnima.Think of the Guru.
Guru (Gu- ignorance, Ru-destroyer)is one, who removes the darkness and delusion. Purnima is the effulgentfull moon. The true Guru is in our heart. Purify the heart to let the Divinity dwell in it. Guru Purnima is an occasion for cleaning the mind to make it absolutely pure.
In what better way can we do that than by talking of Guru Ashtavakra?
One of my favorite readings is Ashtavakra Gita also called Ashtavakra Samhita. It is in the form of a dialogue between King Janaka and a brilliant but physically deformed boy genius, Ashtavakra.It comprises 298 verses in 20 chapters of varied length. It glorifies the state of Self-realization. The story of Ashtavakra appears in the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata.
The story of Ashtavakra is narrated in a simple form at
Sri Ramana Mahrishi’s rendering of the tale is at
John Richards’s translation of Ashtavakra Gita is simple, lucid and popular.
The translation of Bart Marshall is brilliant.
Those interested may also see the notes made by Swami Shraddhananda, a sanyasin of Sri Ramakrishna order.
Ashtavakra Gita is an Advaita text of the highest order, addressed to advanced learners. We do not know who wrote this classic. The estimate of its date varies from third or fourth century BC to post Shankara period. The author, whoever he was, employed the King Janaka- Ashtavakra episode with great imagination and wove around it a sublime philosophical work , in simple, lucid, classic Sanskrit. The text deals with bondage and liberation, the nature of the Self, means of realizing the Self( atmanu-bhuti) , state of mystic experience in the embodied state. This is advaita in its distilled form, devoid of stories, examples, arguments.
Janaka, here, unlike Arjuna is not a confused person. He is not seeking refuge from despair or delusion.Janaka is mature and knowledgeable, an earnest seeker. The Guru did not have to go through the preliminary exercise of convincing the disciple of the futility of pursuing after objects.
Sage Ashtavakra says that the Self alone exists and all else within the mind-senses vortex is unreal. He draws his disciple’s attention to his restlessness, despite being a model king. This, Ashtavakra recognizes as Janaka’s yearning for truth.
Ashtavakra maintains that all prayers, mantras, rituals, meditation, actions, devotion, breathing practices, etc are secondary. These distract the aspirant from self-knowledge. Knowledge/awareness is all that is required. Ignorance does not exist in itself; it is just the absence of knowledge or awareness. The light of knowledge or consciousness will dispel ignorance revealing the Self. The Self is merely forgotten, not lost, not to be attained. This is not a belief system or a school of thought. This is simply ‘What Is’ and the recognition of ‘What is’.
Admittedly this stringent approach is not suitable for all. A sharp , discriminating and inward-looking mind is required for understanding Asthavakra’s teaching. Perhaps due to its rigor , the text has not been popular
It starts with the King Janaka asking the sage Ashtavakra how he can attain knowledge, detachment and liberation. It quickly becomes a guru-disciple dialogue; however, after Janaka realizes his true Self, they get into an Advaitic discussion of the highest caliber.
The sage instructs:
To be free,
Shun the experiences of the senses
Turn your attention to
Forgiveness, sincerity, kindness, simplicity, truth.
It is true what they say:
“You are what you think.”
If you think you are bound you are bound.
If you think you are free you are free.
You are now and forever
Free, luminous, transparent, still.
The practice of meditation
Keeps one in bondage.
You are pure Consciousness—
The substance of the universe.
The universe exists within you.
Don’t be small-minded.
You are unconditioned, changeless, formless.
You are solid, unfathomable, cool.
You are Consciousness.
The technique of Jnana used here is that of Vichara usually translated as self-enquiry but it signifies examination, reflection, or looking within.Sri Ramana Maharishi was the greatest exponent of this method in recent times. In other types of spiritual practices, the mind is assumed to be an independent entity and therefore efforts are made to control it, purify it and channel it towards the Godhead. Ashtavakra preaches that mind has no existence of its own. It is a bundle of thoughts, he says, take the direct path and plunge into consciousness. A conscious bliss ensues when one abides in Self. Sri Ramana Mahrshi echos these thoughts in his Upadesha Saram (verses 17-21 and 28).
Ashtavakra suggests that there is in reality only the Self and that it is all- pervasive. Just as waves, bubbles or foam have no existence without the sea, so too everything in experience is a phenomenal manifestation of the one great spiritual reality. Ashtavakra speaks of the rising of the winds of the mind and says the worlds are produced, as waves on the sea. He suggests it is the mental activity that gives rise to our experience of the world.
In the limitless ocean of Myself
The winds of the mind
Roil the myriad waves of the world
Upon hearing the Guru, Janaka is enlightened. He bursts into joy and wonder of his new-found state.Ashtavakra is pleased but notices inconsistencies in Janaka’s approach and lets out a series of confrontational verses about attachment to objects. He questions at the end:
Why should a person of steady mind,
Who sees the nothingness of objects,
Prefer one thing to another ?
Janaka defends by saying
Surely one who knows Self,
Though he plays the game of life,
Differs greatly from the world’s
Bewildered burdened beasts.
Rare is he who knows himself
As One with no other—
The Lord of the Universe.
He acts as he knows
And is never afraid.
Ashtavakra does not disagree; but in a terse four verses points to the next step—dissolution
You are immaculate,
Touched by nothing.
What is there to renounce?
The mind is complex—let it go.
Know the peace of dissolution.
The universe arises from you
Like foam from the sea.
Know yourself as One.
Enter the peace of dissolution.
Like an imagined snake in a rope
The universe appears to exist
In the immaculate Self
But does not.
Seeing this you know: “There is nothing to dissolve.”
You are perfect, changeless,
Through misery and happiness,
Hope and despair,
Life and death.
This is the state of dissolution.
Ashtavakra makes a remarkable statement; the world however turbulent it may appear is within the infinite being and that it cannot alter the fundamental nature of the Self. He says, it is in the infinite ocean of myself that the mind-creation called the world takes place. I am supremely peaceful and formless and I remain as such.
In me, the shoreless ocean,
The universe is imagined.
I am still and formless.
In this alone I abide.
Janaka says “I know that already,” matching him in style and number of verses Janaka goes on to further describes his enlightened state.Still hearing too much “I” in Janaka’s language, Ashtavakra instructs him in the subtleties of attachment and bondage.
Bondage is when the mind longs for something, grieves about something, rejects something, holds on to something, is pleased about something or displeased about something. 8.1
Liberation is when the mind does not long for anything, grieve about anything, reject anything, or hold on to anything, and is not pleased about anything or displeased about anything. 8.2
Bondage is when the mind is tangled in one of the senses, and liberation is when the mind is not tangled in any of the senses. 8.3
When there is no “me,” that is liberation, and when there is “me” there is bondage. Consider this carefully, and neither holds on to anything nor rejects anything. 8.4
Ashtavakra goes on to annihilate the false sense of identification of the Self with the mind, saying that “it is bondage when the mind desires or grieves at anything, rejects or accepts anything, feels happy or angry at anything..” In a movingly simple verse, he sums up a free and fearless soul as one who has renounced desire, for “the renunciation of desire alone is renunciation of the world”.
Ashtavakra continues to describe the way of true detachment and stresses the folly of desire—no matter how elevated or subtle. Ashtavakra further describes the state of desireless-ness to which he points
“I am not the body, nor is the body my possession—
I am Awareness itself.”
One who realizes this for certain
Has no memory of things done or left undone.
There is only the Absolute.
Janaka says he understands what Ashtavakra is saying and summarizes his exalted state with calm indifference. Ashtavakra is impressed but tells the disciple he is not there yet.
Attachment and aversion
Are attributes of the mind.
You are not the mind.
You are Consciousness itself–
Changeless, undivided, free.
Go in happiness
Leave behind such distinctions
As “I am He, the Self,”
And “I am not this.”
Consider everything Self.
Ashtavakra then attacks the futility of effort and knowing.
Being pure consciousness, do not disturb your mind with thoughts of for and against. Be at peace and remain happily in yourself, the essence of joy. 15.19
Give up meditation completely but don’t let the mind hold on to anything. You are free by nature, so what will you achieve by forcing the mind? 15.20
You can recite and discuss scripture
All you want,
But until you drop everything
You will never know Truth.
Ashtavakra does not pay much heed to book learning or to the importance given to mind and its control. You are already free, what will you gain by deliberating or pondering. In other words, remain unattached at all times from all things (including the mind). He advocates direct approach. Teachings of Sri Ramona are remarkably similar to that of Ashtavakra.
Ashtavakra then goes on to describe the nature of a wise person or yogi (chapters 17 and 18) .The characteristics of the true knower as outlined by Ashtavakra are very similar to that of a sthitha_prajna described in Bhagavad-Gita Gita.
The sage sees no difference
Between happiness and misery,
Man and woman,
Adversity and success.
Everything is seen to be the same.
In the sage there is neither
Violence nor mercy,
Arrogance nor humility,
Anxiety nor wonder.
His worldly life is exhausted.
He has transcended his role as a person.
The sage is not conflicted
By states of stillness and thought.
His mind is empty.
His home is the Absolute.
Knowing for certain that all is Self,
The sage has no trace of thoughts
Such as “I am this” or “I am not that.”
The yogi who finds stillness
is neither distracted nor focused.
He knows neither pleasure nor pain.
He is free of knowing.
In a final flurry of questions pointing only at their own meaninglessness, Janaka bursts forth into inspired poetry and burns off the last vestiges of personhood and enters dissolution (chapters 19 and 20). He ends with: “No more can be said.” Ashtavakra smiles, nods approvingly, and says no more
Using the tweezers of the knowledge of the truth I have managed to extract the painful thorn of endless opinions from the recesses of my heart. 19.1
Where is illusion?
Where is existence?
Where is attachment or non-attachment?
Where is person?
Where is God?
I am Awareness.
Where are principles and scriptures?
Where is the disciple or teacher?
Where is the reason for life?
I am boundless, Absolute.
Where is existence or non-existence?
Where is Unity or duality?
Nothing emanates from me.
No more can be said.
The approach and treatment of Ashtaavakra are logical and precise like mathematical equations.Yet, the Ashtaavakra Gita may not be read at a streatch , in one straight reading. It is preferable the verses are read few at a time , on a daily basis, and reflected upon .
One rarely comes across a Guru-disciple association as that of Sri Ashtavakra and King Janaka, a mature disciple. To such Sri Guru, who is the parabrahman, I offer my salutations, on this Guru purnima !